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E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Edito 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus 






The several numbers of the NEWS for 1922 were mailed at the Post 
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No. 1 January January 5, 1922 

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on the last page of the issue for January, 1923. 

JANUARY, 1922 


Vol. XXXIII No. 1 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 





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Plate I. 








JANUARY, 1922 

No. 1 


Tillyard New Researches upon the 
Problem of the Wing- Venation of 
Odonata I 

Leathers Chironomus braseniae, new 
Species (Dip,, Chironomidae) 8 

Barnes and Lindsey New Synonyms 
in the Noctuidae ( Lep. ) . 9 

Alexander An Undescribed Species of 
Net- Winged Midge from Argentina 
( Blepharoceridae, Diptera) 10 

Gaige University of Michigan-Will- 
iamson Expedition to Brazil n 

Jones A new North American Psy- 
chid(Lep., Psychidae) 12 

Lice and a Horse Fly transmitting Dis- 
ease ( Dip., Tabanidae) 12 

Williamson Libellulas Collected in 
Florida by Jesse H. Williamson, 
with Description of a new Species 
(Odonata ) 13 

Brimley List of the Tachinidae (Dip- 
tera) of North Carolina 20 

Buthn Some Cases of Aberrant Ovipo- 
sition in Butterflies ( Lep ) 26 

Editorial The Boundless Field of En- 
tomology 29 

Entomological Literature 30 

New Researches upon the Problem of the Wing- 
Venation of Odonata. 

I. A Study of the Tracheation of the Larval Wings in the Genus 
Uropetala from New Zealand 

By R. J. TILLYARD, M.A., Sc.D. (Cantab.), D.Sc. (Sydney), 
F.L.S., F.E.S., Entomologist and Chief of the Biological 
Department, Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand. 

(With Plate I and three text figures) 

In the Suborder Anisoptera the most archaic family still 
existing is probably the Pctalnrldac, containing only five genera, 
having a discontinuous palaeogenic distribution. These are : 
Tachoptcry.\- in North America, Tan\ptcr\.\- in North America 
and Japan, Plictics in South America, Uropetala in New Zea- 
land, and Pctalura in Australia. They are all dragonflies ,of 
large size; the greatest number of species in any one genus i- 
three in Pctalura; Tan\ptcr\.\- and Uropetala have two spear- 
each, while Tachoptcr\.\- and Phcncs are monotypic. 

The family is characterized, amongst other things, by the 
presence of two oblique -reins lying distad from the nodus, 
between .1/2 and the next longitudinal vein bclmv it. This 


latter vein is called by Needham and others Rs. 1 While 
accepting, in the past, this terminology, as far as the Anisoptera 
are concerned, I have pointed out that, in the Suborder Zygop- 
tera, the trachea supplying this vein is a branch of M, and 
never has any connection with R at all. Hence I have claimed 
that the corresponding vein in the Zygoptera cannot rightly be 
called Rs, and I have suggested the name "Zygopterid Sector" 
for it, with the notation Ms. z 

The full account of Needham's Theory of the crossing of 
Rs over two branches of M, viz. Ml and M2, is by now so 
well known to all Odonatologists that I shall save space by not 
recapitulating it here, and shall only refer my readers to Need- 
ham's very clear account of it (1). The chief point of im- 
portance to be noted is the claim that the oblique vein, of which 
there is only one present in most Anisoptera, represents the 
original position of crossing of Rs below M2, while all that 
part of the main vein lying below it basad from the oblique 
vein is a new formation, not represented in the original Odonate 
type, and designed to strengthen the wing for flight. This part 
is called by Needham the bridge-vein. In the larval wing the 
bridge-vein is formed by a pigment-band only, without any 
precedent tracheation, and it is this fact, more than any other, 
which has influenced Needham in forming his conclusions. 

No satisfactory explanation has ever been offered of the 
condition of things in the Petaluridac. where two oblique veins 
are always present. For many years I have endeavored to find 
suitable stages of the larvae of Petalura. from which to solve 
this problem ; but the search has been unsuccessful, owing to 
the draining and cutting up of the swamps on the Blue Moun- 
tains in which I originally found this larva. 

In November, 1919, I visited New Zealand, where I stayed 
five months. While at Wellington at the beginning of De- 

1 Needham, J. G. "A genealogic study of Dragonfly Wing Venation." 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, No. 1331, 1903, xxvi, pp. 703-761, 
24 pi. (See especially Figs. 1-2, pp. 706-7, and 710-714.) 

2 Tillyard, R. J. "On the Development of the Wing- Venation in 
Zygopterous Dragonflies, with special reference to the Cahfterycfidae." 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1915, xl, pt. 2, pp. 212-230. (See p. 224 and 

xxxiii, '22} ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 3 

cember, Mr. H. Hamilton, Zoologist, Dominion Museum, 
showed me a live specimen of the larva of Uropctala carovei 
White, sent in by Mr. Wilson of Bull's. This larva was handed 
over to me for study, and I dissected it and studied its wing- 
tracheation while staying at Mr. Hamilton's home at Karori. 
For his kindness and assistance in this matter I desire to thank- 
Mr. Hamilton very much. 

In January, 1920, I was the guest of Professor and Mrs. 
Chilton at Christchurch, and spent three days visiting the Cass 
Biological Station, in company with Professor Chilton and Mr. 
Chas. Lindsay, of the Canterbury Museum. During the first 
day's collecting, we located a large number of larval burrows 
of Uropetala in a small mountain swamp about two miles from 
the Station. The species to which these larvae belonged 
proved, on careful study, to be new, and has been described by 
me as U. chiltoni. The larva is not so fierce as that of U. 
carovei, and more resembles the larva of Pctalura. It can be 
easily obtained by inserting one's fingers into the burrows, and 
working down to a depth of from ten to eighteen inches, when 
the larva will be felt as a hard object against the soft walls of 
the tunnel, and can easily be seized and drawn out. More than 
fifty of the larvae of U. cJtiltoni were thus obtained, and were 
brought back to the Station alive for study. 

T wish here to thank Professor Chilton for his great kind- 
ness in allowing me the use of the Cass Biological Station, and 
in placing himself at my disposal during my short but fruitful 
visit there, and Mr. Lindsay for his help in the field. 

The larvae, when examined, proved to belong to the last 
three instars. A number of dissections, of both fore and hind 
wings were made. It was found that there was very little 
difference in the arrangement of the tracheae in the variou- 
instars, and the results also agreed entirely with those obtained 
from the study of the larva of U. carovci, from Bull's, which 
was in the last instar. 

Tn Plate I, fig. 1, I have shown the general scheme of 
tracheation for the hind wing in the. penultimate instar. Points 
of interest to be noted are the following: 


(1) The presence of a strong basal branch of Sc, which I have 
labeled Sc'. This would seem to be the homologue of the similar 
branch found in Plectoptera, from which the strong humeral vein oi that 
Order is developed. Probably also a similar trachea originally under- 
lay the anterior branch of Sc in the fossil Orders Paratrichoptera and 
Protomecoptera, both of Triassic age. 

(2) The anal trachea, which is clearly the homologue of \A in 
those insects in which more than one such vein is present, arises well 
below Cu, converges towards it, and finally touches it. It then bends 
away at the anal crossing, reaching again the level of the anal vein 
of the imago (A'), of which the basal portion is formed, like the 
bridge-vein, by a pigment-band only, without precedent tracheation. 
The main stem of trachea A passes on distad to a point just below 
the downward bend of Cul, where it meets for a short distance with 
a very weakly formed trachea from Cid, and then bends sharply 
away from it again towards the base of the wing posteriorly. We 
have been in the habit of calling this weak trachea Cu2. The for- 
mation seen in Uropetala strongly suggests, to my mind, that this sup- 
posed trachea Cn2 is in reality not the original Cu2 at all, but a new 
tracheal formation, which has succeeded in cutting off the distal 
portion of \A, leaving only the turned back portions still attached to 
the anal trachea If this is the true interpretation of these parts, it 
would follow that Cu in the Odonata must have been originally a 
simple trachea and vein. I shall show, in a later part of these re- 
searches, that Cu was such a vein in the Protodonata, and that all 
stages in the capture of the distal portion of \A by a new branch 
descending from Cu are to be seen in the record of the Liassic Odonata. 

Plate I, fig. 2, shows the base of the hind wing enlarged, to illus- 
trate the characters described under (1) and (2) more forcibly. 

(3) Turning next to the very important problem of the Radial and 
Zygopterid Sectors, Plate I, fig. 3, shows, greatly enlarged, the con-' 
dition of the tracheation of Uropetala in the region of the two oblique 
veins for the antepenultimate instar, which was the earliest stage 
obtainable at Cass in January. The oblique vein O, it will be seen, 
is preceded by a very weak tracheal formation arising from R below 
the nodus, crossing Ml and J\12 just distad of their origin from 
Ml +2, and continuing beyond O, for only a moderate distance, alona' 
the line of the imaginal vein called by Needham Rs. It is clearly this 
formation which corresponds with the single oblique vein of other 
Anisoptera. Basad from O, the line of Rs is continued backwards by a 
pigment band only, without any tracheation. This band is connected 
more strongly with M3 than with Ml +2, its connection with the latter 
appearing to be more in the nature of a cross-vein at this stage. It is 
this band which forms the bridge-vein of the Anisoptera in the imag- 
inal stage. 

Well beyond O, there is a second oblique O'. From Plate I, fig. 3, it 
will be seen that this is preceded, in the larval tracheation, by a very 

joo n 

xxxin, 22] 


strong branch descending from .1/2, and then continuing the line of Rs 
distad. If we compare this formation with that found in the larvae of 
the Zygopterid family Lcstidae, we shall see plainly enough that O' is 
the homologue of the oblique trachea in that family, and that the lonti 
bridge of the Lcstidae is not the homologue of the bridge of Anisoptera, 
but comprises all that part lying basad from O', along the line of the 
so-called Rs. To the trachea which arises from M to form O' I have 
already given the notation Ms, as well as to the vein that forms along 
it in the imago, so that we may now continue to apply this notation in 
the case of Uropctala. 

Text fig. i.Uropelala chiltoni Till., antepenultimate instar, forewing, region of 
distal oblique vein, more highly magnified, (x 104.) 

In text-fig. 1 I have shown, very greatly enlarged, the condition of 
the tracheation at the antepenultimate instar in the region of the origin 
of Ms. The difference in calibre between Ms and Rs is exceedingly 
marked. In the penultimate instar the calibre of Rs increases, while in the 
last instar the calibres of Rs and Ms are approximately the same, 
though Ms is usually still slightly the larger. In no case does Rs pro- 
ceed beyond the position of the first descending cross-vein after O' ; 
all the rest of the so-called Rs of Needham, together with the descend- 
ing cross-veins and that portion of the radial supplement which carries 
tracheae is supplied entirely from trachea 

We thus see that in Uropctala larvae, the single longitudinal 
imaginal vein Rs of Xeedham is formed from three distinct 
parts as follows : 

(a) A basal portion, arising from M3 near its origin, having no 
precedent tracheation, and representing the bridge-rein of Needham in 
the Anisoptera. 

(b) A middle portion, lying between O and O', which is preceded 
by a trachea arising from R below the nodus, crossing Ml and M2, 
running along O, underlying Rs between O and O', then touching .U.v 
and finally turning off to supply the first cross-vein beyond O'. This 
portion plus (a) represents the Ion;/ bridyc in the Lcstidae. 


(c) A distal portion, from O' onward, supplied by a true branch 
of M, viz., Ms, whose basal piece underlies O'. This portion is about 
as long, in Uropetala, as the other two portions combined. 

Having completed this somewhat complicated analysis of the 
tracheation of this region, we may now proceed to solve the 
vexed question of the true homologies of the parts in question. 
Are we dealing with a single longitudinal vein of complex 
origin, whose evolution is to be traced out by reference to the 
courses of the larval tracheae underlying it ; or are we not 
rather dealing with a single primitive longitudinal vein, whose 
larval tracheal supply has become more and more specialized 
during the evolution of the Odonata? If the former, then we 
cannot hope to find any simple notation which would correctly 
express the true structure of this vein. If the latter, we can 
ignore the tracheal specializations, and name the vein accord- 
ing to its true position as a simple longitudinal vein. 

This problem is really quite easy of solution. For, if the 
\eia called by Needham R s is really complex, then we may ex- 
pect to find, in the fossil record, some types at least in which the 
formation of the bridge-vein is not completed. But a careful 
study of the fossils shows that, both in the Protodonata and in 
all the Liassic Odonata, this supposed Rs is a single complete 
vein, which arises from 'M3 near its origin, and runs parallel 
to and below M2, without any connection whatever with R. 
In Typus and some Liassic fossils, such as Hctcrophlcbia, an 
oblique vein is present in the position of 0' , thus showing a 
tracheational connection with M2. But, in all the rest of the 
Protodonata, and in most of the Liassic Odonata, even this is 
absent, and we find the same simple condition that is still to be 
seen in all the Zygoptera except the Lestidae, viz., that the 
supposed Rs of Needham is in reality a true branch of M, 
with no oblique veins above, and with absolutely no connec- 
tion with R. This is, then, surely the primitive condition of 
this vein in the Odonata; and the specializations which have 
set in during the evolution of the Order are surely trache- 
ational specializations only, which do not demonstrate to us 
the course of evolution of the vein, but rather serve to mask 
its simple origin, by the complexity of the changes that have 
taken place in the tracheal supply. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 7 

While admitting that, in most cases, the precedent larval 
tracheation may be profitably studied for the purpose of deter- 
mining the homologies of the imaginal veins, it should be evi- 
dent to everybody that larval wing-tracheation may be just as 
much subject to change, along its own evolutionary line, as is 
the imaginal wing-venation, or any other structure. In his 
work on the Odonata, Needham seems to have worked along 
the lines of assuming that, in all cases, the tracheation was to 
be relied upon to show absolutely the line of evolution of the 
venation. It is another instance of an attempt, of which there 
have been many, to apply Haeckel's Biogenetic Law in its 
entirety, without taking into account the possibility of larval 
structures, such as the wing-tracheation, undergoing lines of 
evolution of their own, so that they, in certain cases, may be- 
come far more highly specialized than the corresponding 
imaginal structures. It is certainly possible to prove, from the 
fossil record, that Needham's supposed bridge-vein was never 
formed backwards as a bridge-vein, but was always the 
basal portion of a strongly formed main longitudinal 
vein arising from M3 (or sometimes Ml +2, as in most 
recent forms) close to the point of separation of these 
veins. This proof I propose to give in another part 
of these researches, which will deal entirely with fossil 
forms. Meanwhile, for the further elucidation of the 
problem, I now propose to denote this entire vein by the nota- 
tion Ms, as I have previously done for the Zygoptera. Logi- 
cally, if we admit five branches of M, they should be called 
Ml, M2, M3, M4 and M5, respectively, instead of Ml, M2, 
Ms, M3 and M4, as at present ; this I have already pointed out 
in a previous paper. 3 But, as a matter of fact, we have 
not come down to the true solution of the whole problem yet, 
and so I propose to let the notation Ms stand, seeing that it 
is at any rate now proved that this vein was originally a true 

branch of M. (To be continued) 

Fig. 1. Uropctala chiltoni Till., penultimate larval instar, tracheation 

of hindwing. (x 13.) 
Fig. 2. Uropctala chiltoni Till., penultimate larval instar, basal third 

of hindwing more highly magnified, to show tracheation. (x 45.) 
Fig. 3. Uropctala chiltoni Till., antepenultimate instar, forewing, 

region of nodus and oblique veins, (x 38.) 

3 Tillyard, R. J. "The Panorpoid Complex. Part 3: The \Vin- 
Venation." Proc. I.inn. Soc. N. S. W., 1919, xliv, pt. 3. pp. 533-718. 
(See pp. 555-9 and text-fig. 41.) 


Chironomus braseniae, New Species (Dip., 

By ADELBERT L. LEATHERS, Agricultural College, 
North Dakota. 

Chironomus braseniae h. sp. 

$'. Head, proboscis, palpi and basal joint of antennae yellow, eyes 
black, antennal shaft and verticils brown. Antennae with 14 joints, 
the terminal joint two-thirds as long as the rest of the antenna. 

Pronotum projecting laterally but not reaching the level of the meso- 
notum dorsally. Mesonotum greenish yellow, translucent and some- 
what pruinose; vittae of a light buff color. Scutellum and halteres 
yellow ; metanotum and sternopleura buff color. Wings white, longi- 
tudinal veins and cross veins not infuscated. Cubitus forking distinctly 
beyond the cross vein ; the third and fourth longitudinal veins ending 
about equally distant from the apex of the wing. Legs whitish, fore 
tarsus not bearded, middle and hind tarsi densly bearded for their entire 
length. Tibial comb darkened on all legs ; basal segment of fore tarsi 
more than one-half longer than the tibia, proportions as 47 :30. Pulvilli 
well developed, empodium narrow. 

Abdomen light green densely clothed with long yellow hairs. Seg- 
ments without distinct fasciae. 

9 . Antennae yellow, apical joint slightly infuscated. Posterior 
margins of the abdominal segments with a narrow whitish fascia. 
Otherwise like the male. Length 3.5 to 4 mm. 

The type specimen is a male which was bred from a larva 
inhabiting the leaves of Brasenia pcltata. The specimen was 
obtained from Spencer Lake near the village of North Spencer, 
New York, in July, 1915, and may be found in the collection 
of the New T York State College of Agriculture, Ithaca, New- 
York. The publication of this species at this time is due to the 
recommendation of Prof. O. A. Johannsen, under whom I did 
my minor work while at Cornell, 1915-1916. 

The larva has the unique habit of cutting grooves in the 
foliage of a variety of aquatic plants, which have floating 
leaves. The specific name is the same as the generic name of 
the plant which the female seemed to favor. A more complete 
discussion of the ecology of this species will be found in a 
paper now in the hands of the Bureau of Fisheries, which 
should soon be available to the public, under the title of "An 
Ecological Study of the Chironomidae with Special Reference 
to Their Feeding Habit s." 

xxxiii, '22] K.vrnMni.ocic.u. .\ic\vs 9 

New Synonyms in the Noctuidae (Lep.). 

By W.M. BARNES, M.D., and A. W. LINDSEV, PH.D., 
Decatur, Illinois. 

The recent appearance in the Insccutor Inscitiac Mcnstruns 
of two articles by Dr. H. G. Dyar, describing new species of 
Lepidoptera, has led us to make a careful examination of our 
series standing as Calophasia strigata Smith and Ccrapoda 
oblita Grote. We find that strigata has the front tarsi armed 
with curved, claw-like spines, though they are relatively a little 
smaller than those found in oblita. The species should there- 
fore be removed to Ccrapoda. We believe that Calophasia 
will drop from the North American fauna. 

We regret to say that we must disagree with the synonymy 
proposed by Dr. Dyar for these species (Ins. Ins. Menst. ix, 
63). The type of oblita is in the British Museum, and was 
figured by Sir George F. Hampson (Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. 
vi, 181). Dr. McDunnough examined the type in person some 
years ago, and we have in our possession a specimen compared 
by him. This specimen was figured in the Contributions vol. ii, 
no. 1, pi. v, fig. 4. Our identification of strigata is also based 
on a specimen compared with the type, which is in the National 

While the marks of strigata and oblita are similar, the for- 
mer species is smaller, its primaries darker and more evenly 
gray, and the reniform entirely lacks the heavy white mark 
which characterizes oblita. The fact that Dr. Dyar has access 
to the type of strigata leads us to believe that it is this grav 
species which he treats as oblita-strigata. His description of 
arrosta bears this out, for this description, as well as fig. 17, 
pi. xx of Holland's Moth Book, comes well within the range 
of variation exhibited by our series of oblita. It seems that 
these species should stand as follows : 

Genus CERAPODA Smith. 

1. OBLITA Grote. 1877, Bull. Geog. Surv. Terr. Hi. 117. Oncoaianis. 

1906, Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. vi, I SI. Ccrapoda. 

1913, Barnes & McDunnough, Cont. Nat. Hist. I.q . X. A. ii (i), 12. 
pi. v, figs. 3, 4. Ccrapoda (Oncocncinis} . 

*stritjata Holland (not Smith). 1903, Moth Book 170, pi. xx, fig. 17. 


dcscrta Grinnell. 1912, Bull. S. Cal. Acad. Sci. xi, 79. Autographa. 

arrosta Dyar. 1921, Ins. Ins. Menst. ix, 63. Cerapoda. 

2. STRIGATA Smith. 1891, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xviii, 107. Calo- 

1906, Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. vi, 125. JCalufhasia. 

1917, Barnes & McDunnough, Check List No. 2012, p. 56. Calophasia. 

^oblita Dyar (not Grote). 1921, Ins. Ins. Menst. ix, 63. Ccrapoda. 

Another synonym appears in Dr. Dyar's Schinia mclliftua, 
This name applies to Schinia nivcicosta Smith. Niveicosta was 
described from a single female, rather duller than most exam- 
ples, which is in our possession. We have also a small series 
from Palm Springs, California, the type locality of melliftua. 
The species is very variable, but is unlike any other known to 
us and is very well characterized by Dyar's description of 

An Undescribed Species of Net-winged Midge from 
Argentina (Blepharoceridae, Diptera.) 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Urbana, Illinois. 
In 1920 (Arkiv for Zoologi, Band 13, No. 7, pp. 1-4), the 
writer described a new genus and species of net- winged midge, 
Edwardsina chilcnsis, from southern Chile. As indicated in 
the original description, the fly exhibits some very unusual 
venational features. The discovery of a second species of this 
primitive genus of Blepharoceridae is of more than visual inter- 
est. The two specimens upon which the following description 
is based were collected by Dr. Carette along the Rio Diamante 
in southern Mendoza, Argentina, and kindly sent to me for 
determination by my friend, Dr. Charles Bruch, to whom 1 
am indebted for many kind favors. The type is in the Museum 
of La Plata, the allotype in the writer's collection. Both of 
these types appear somewhat teneral and the wings are badly 

Edwardsina argentinensis, new species. 

$. Length about 8 mm.; wing 11 mm. $ . Length about 8.5 mm.; 
wing 14 mm. The bodies of both specimens are rather shrunken, so a 
better idea of the size is conveyed by the wing measurements. 

Mouth parts and palpi light yellowish brown. Antennae with the 
scapal segments and the base of the first flagellar segment obscure 
brownish orange ; remainder of the flagellum dark brown ; flagellar 
segments nearly globular. Front cream-colored ; vertex dark brown. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 11 

Mesonotal praescutum silvery gray with three conspicuous black 
stripes, the broad median stripe divided by a slight carina; scutal lobes 
black, the median area pminose ; scutellum black, more pruinose 
basally. Pleura light gray. Halteres dark brown, the base of the stem 
obscure orange. Legs with the coxae and trochanters obscure yellow ; 
remainder of the legs brownish testaceous, the terminal tarsal segments 

Wings grayish subhyaline; veins dark brown; wings very large and 
ample for the size of the insect ; anal angle very conspicuous. Vena- 
tion : Rl thick with numerous short macrotrichiae ; the section of Rs 
interpreted as being a spur in E. chilcnsis is here so long and of such 
a course that it appears to be the true base of the sector, although the 
extreme basal connection is atrophied ; the vein that was interpreted 
as the base of the sector in E. chilcnsis would thus appear to be a 
crossvein, presumably r; R2+3 short, about as long as r-tn ; 
R4+5 parallel with R3 basally but soon diverging, ending immedi- 
ately behind the wing-apex which is very obtuse ; r-r,i opposite the fork 
of M ; no decided curvature on Ml to indicate the position occupied by 
the atrophied M2. 

Abdomen dark brown, the pleural membrane more grayish. 

Habitat. Argentina. Holotype, $ , Rio Diamante, south- 
ern Mendoza, January, 1921 (Dr. Carette). Allotopotype, $. 

Edwardsina argcntincnsis differs from the genotype, E. 
chilcnsis, in its larger size, dark coloration of the body, the 
slightly different wing-venation and the more conspicuous anal 
angle of the wing. 

University of Michigan- Williamson Expedition to Brazil 

A zoological expedition to the interior of Brazil has been organized 
at the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, through the inter- 
est and support of Mr. E. B. Williamson, Honorary Curator of Odo- 
nata. It is to be known as the University of Michigan-Will amson 
Expedition. The members of the expedition are Mr. Jesse H. William- 
son and Capt. John Strohm, U. S. A. Both men have had .wide experi- 
ence in the tropics, and are outfitted in a most excellent manner for the 
prosecution of their work. They will leave New York on December 
15, 1921, and will be in the field for about eight months according to 
their present plans. If particularly favorable conditions are encoun- 
tered, a longer time may be spent in their explorations. 

The region to be investigated is that of the Sierra de Parecis and the 
country westward toward the Bolivian frontier. The party will pro- 
ceed directly to Manaos and then to Pt. Velho, which town will prob- 
ably be their general headquarters for their explorations to the south 
and west. 

The Odonata will receive the most detailed study, other groups to lie 
collected are the Formicidae, Orthoptcra, I.epidoptera, Diptera and 
Arachnida, and in addition to the Arthropoda mentioned much atten- 
tion will be given to the reptiles, amphibians and shells. FREDERICK 
M. GAIGE, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 


A New North American Psychid (Lep., Psychidae.) 

By FRANK MORTON JONES, Wilmington, Delaware. 

Oiketicus toumeyi n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax and abdomen including the legs, tawny yellowish 
brown, hairy, the eyes black. The antenna with about 36 joints, brown, 
basally broadly bipectinate, the branches narrowing abruptly about 
three-fifths the length of the shaft from the base. The anterior tibia 
bears a slender, flattened, strap-like appendage, one-half as long as the 
tibia. The abdomen is long and slender, exceeding the wings by the 
width of the secondaries. 

The wing veins are yellowish brown ; the wings are glassy, as in 
ephemerae formis, and are only very sparsely speckled with a few dark 
scales, which are more dense along the costa of the secondaries; the 
anal area of the secondaries is semi-opaque with brown hairs. The 
primaries are narrow and moderately acute, the costa almost straight, 
the outer margin oblique; the costa of secondaries is arched, the apical 
angle acute, the outer margin almost straight to the second cubital vein, 
below which the anal area is somewhat produced and the margin 
rounded. The primaries usually have 12 veins, the secondaries 8, with 
M2 and M3 (5 and 4) of both wings stalked to the cell; but M2 (5) 
is occasionally obsolete or partially so. The anal veins of primaries 
are as in abboti Grt. Wing expanse, 28 to 52 mm. 

Type locality, Tucson, Arizona. Described from numerous 
bred specimens ; the type is in the collection of the author, 
and paratype material will be distributed. 

This is almost certainly the insect mentioned by Dr. J. W. 
Tourney (Bull. 9, Ariz. Ag. Exp. Sta., 1893) as "Thyridop- 
tery.v sp.," abundant on locust trees in the vicinity of Tucson ; 
the general resemblance of its larval case to that of townsendi 
Ckll. has probably prevented its earlier recognition as distinct, 
though the moths of toumeyi and tozvnsendi are very unlike. 

Lice and a Horsefly Transmitting Disease (Dip., Tabanidae). 

The United States Public Health Service announces that the re- 
searches of Doctors Edward Francis, Bruce Mayne and G. C. Lake 
show that the rodent disease, tularaemia, due to Bacterium tularensc 
in the blood, which is very fatal to jack rabbits in Utah, is transmitted 
from rabbit to rabbit by their lice and from rabbits to man by the 
blood-sucking horsefly, Chrysops discalis. 

Tularaemia is seldom fatal to man, only one death due to it being 
known. It is a septic fever, occurring in Utah, lasting 3-6 weeks, 
with slow convalescence. Its economic consequences, therefore, may 
be serious when it attacks farmers and lays them up in midsummer 
and in harvest seasons. 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL XK\VS 13 

Libellulas Collected in Florida by Jesse H. William- 
son, with Description of a new 
Species (Odonata). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 
Mr. Jesse H. Williamson collected dragonflies in Florida 
from March 1 to April 26, 1921. Localities visited and dates 
are as follows : Sebring, March 1 ; Fort Myers, March 3-/ 
and 10-19; Taxambas, Marco Island, March 8; Labelle, March 
21-27; Moore Haven, March 29-30 and April 2; Palmdale, 
March 31 and April 3-8; enroute Moore Haven to West 
Palm Beach, across Lake Okeechobee, April 9; Miami, April 
12; Enterprise, April 15-26. From April 29 to May 9 he 
collected at Kathwood, Aikcn County, South Carolina, but on 
these dates most of the species observed were just emerging. 
Among the 4547 specimens collected, representing 65 species, 
are several new and many interesting things, the most remark- 
able and surprising of which is the fine Libellnla described 
below. This Florida collection has been studied and arranged 
by J. H. W. and duplicates are being distributed to students 
and institutions. 

Libellula jesseana new species. 

Abdomen: $, 38-40; $,35; hind wing, ^ , 41-43; 9 , 43 ; stigma, 
front wing, 6-6.8 mm. 

$ . Labium brown with a slight greenish cast ; genae and mandibles 
similar, the latter more yellowish; labrum black; anteclypeus greenish 
brown; postclypeus, frons, antennae and frontal vesicle black, the latter 
nearly squarely truncate, the externoapical points shining ; occiput 
black; rear of head brown with greenish or yellowish tinges and witli 
a more or less distinct paler spot against the eye at midheight and 
another larger one below this. 

Dorsum of prothorax and thorax black pruinose ; mesepimeron and 
metepisternum similar but paler, more or less shaded, especially about 
the humeral and second lateral sutures, with greenish or yellowish 
brown ; the metepimeron and thorax beneath this paler color. 

Abdomen slender; above the lateral carina black , below the lateral 
carina brown to black with a greenish or yellowish cast and a more or 
less distinct yellowish area on either side posterior to the posterior 
transverse carina on each of segments 2-8; sterna brown to black; 
appendages brown to black. 

Vc-ntro-external fact- of the genital liamulc roughly triangular in 


shape, the posterior edge nearly at right angles to the abdomen, the antero- 
dorsal edge relatively long, longer than in awipennis, so that the face 
of the hamule is relatively broader in icsseana. In inccsta the anterior 
angle is obliterated in a curve joining the antero-ventral and the antero- 
dorsal edges, and the face is relatively slender as in iiuripennis. 

In a younger male the labium, genae and mandibles are pale dull 
yellow, the postclypeus shades out to dark greenish adjacent to the 
eyes, and there is a green spot on the frons, against the eye, just above 
this. The dorsum of the thorax is brown with a purplish cast ; the 
sides of the thorax are largely pale yellow with the posterior two- 
thirds of the mesepimeron and the upper part of the metepisternum 
darker, thus defining two more or less distinct pale stripes, one just 
posterior to the humeral and the other just posterior to the second 
lateral suture. Dorsum of abdomen similarly paler, 3-6 slightly lighter 
in color and yellowish adjacent to the lateral carina : 7-9 with a longi- 
tudinal dorsal black stripe occupying about one-third the area on each 
side between the middorsal line and the lateral carina (probably in 
younger individuals this dorsal black stripe is defined on more basal seg- 
ments) ; 10 and appendages yellowish brown; abdomen beneath, between 
the lateral and ventral carinae, pale greenish or yellowish on 2 and 3, 
shading darker to greenish or yellowish brown on the segments poste- 
rior to 3, a more or less distinctly darker subapical area on either side 
of each segment; sterna at base of 3 and on 9 and 10 yellowish, other- 
wise dark to black. 

Coxae pale yellowish to pruinose brown ; legs brown to nearly black ; 
femora paler at base and with the dorso-posterior surface pale yellowish 
to brown, darker apically. 

Wings basally, posterior to A and proximal to the distal angle of the 
triangles, hyaline ; remainder of wing reddish yellow, sometimes slightly 
more intense in the area between nodus and stigma, the extreme apex 
very narrowly and inconspicuously dusky tipped , the basal spaces 
anterior to A are not as deeply tinged as the apical portion of the wing. 
Venation basal to about the level of the triangles dark to black; distal 
to this point all the veins are reddish yellow excepting the veins on the 
anterior and posterior sides of the stigma and the posterior wing margin, 
which are black; stigma dragon's blood red (Ridgway). For venational 
characters see following the description of the female wings. 

9 . Labium pale dull yellowish brown ; genae and mandibles green- 
ish ; labrum yellow with a large median basal rounded black spot which 
is joined basally on either side with a more or less extensive lateral 
spot which reaches and extends more or less along the anterior margin 
but does not attain the lateral margin above; anteclypeus greenish 
brown ; postclypeus and frons brown to nearly black, each on either 
side in front,- against the eye, with a greenish or bluish spot; occiput 
brown; rear of head brown, similar to that of the male. 

Thorax as in the younger males, the sides more uniformly yellowish, 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 15 

the darker posterior areas on the mesepimeron and on the metepimeron 
and on the upper part of the metepisternum only slightly or not at all 
evident, so the pale stripe posterior to the humeral and to the second 
lateral suture are not as well marked as in the male or are wanting 
altogether, disappearing in the prevailing pale color of the sides. 

Abdomen similar to younger males ; the dorsal longitudinal black 
stripe described on 7-9 is faintly discernible as a daiker stripe on 2-9 
in the female; 8 perfoliate. 

Wings hyaline, more or less yellowish tinged in the basal spaces 
anterior to A, and along the costal border, especially distal to the nodus 
and anterior to R; apex to level of stigma dusky, the inner edge dif- 
fuse; costa yellow except at base, clearest and brightest between nodus 
and proximal end of stigma, distal to which point it is black; nodus 
and subnodus more or less yellow ; the other veins dark to black ; 
stigma burnt sienna (Ridgway), apical fourth or third black; the dark 
color produced basally along the anterior and posterior borders, espe- 
cially the former; enclosing veins black. Venational characters below. 
Legs as in the male. 

Venational characters of both sexes. Antenodals. front wing 17 to 
19, usually 19; hind wing 13 to 15, usually 14; postnodals, front wing 
11 to 14, usually 12 or 13; hind wing 12 to 16, usually 13 or 14: triangle 
front wing with 2 or 3 crossveins, usually 2 ; hind wing 1 ; crossveins in 
supertriangle front wing to 2, usually 1 ; hind wing or 1, usually 0; 
cells in subtriangle front wing 5 or 6, usually 5 ; cells in loop posterior 
to subtriangle, front wing, 2 or 3, usually 2 ; cubito-anal crossveins front 
and hind wings, 1 ; bridge crossveins front and hind wings 3 to 5, usu- 
ally 4 or 5 ; triangle front wing followed by 4 or 5 cells, usually 4, then 
3 or 4 followed by 4 increasing; 2 rows of cells between M4 and Mspl 
in front and hind wings ; crossveins against the distal transverse side 
of the anal loop on its proximal side 4 or 5 ; crossveins against the 
proximal side of the anal loop on its distal side 9 to 11, usually 9. 

Enterprise, Florida, April 22 and 26, 1921, 44 males, 2 
females, collected by Jesse H. Williamson, for whom this 
handsome species is named. Type male and allotypc female, 
taken in copulation, April 26, 1921, in coll. E. B. \Y. 

Both sexes of jcsseana are separated at once from those of 
aunpcnnis by the darker face and frons, and dorsum of thorax 
and abdomen. In wing coloration the male differs from 
auripcnnis in the more intense reddish yellow of the wings 
posterior to R, the color in auripcnnis being more intense 
along the costal border. In the females of the two species 
there is little or no difference in the wings except that the 
costa basally is darker in both sexes of jcsseana than in the 


sexes of aiiripcnnis. From the related species with dark col- 
ored bodies jcsscana is separated at once by the reddish yellow 
unspotted wings of the male and the red stigma of fhe male 
and the burnt sienna stigma of the female. From flavida, 
jcsscana is separated, among other characters, by the absence 
of dark colored basal wing markings. 

About Enterprise are many small lakes, locally called ponds. 
Collections were made at eight of these, four north of the 
town and four east. All ponds are of the same general char- 
acter, though some are more marshy than others. They lie 
about twenty feet below the general land surface among tur- 
pentine pine hammocks. The soil is sand and there are no 
inlets or outlets to the ponds. The water is clear and cold and 
fit to drink. Seven of the ponds were without any Libcllula 
inhabitants. At the eighth pond Libcllula jesseana, and no 
other Libcllula, was taken. In J. H. W.'s notes this eighth 
pond, in the absence of any local name, is designated as Figure- 
8 Pond. It lies two and one-half miles (estimated) north of 
the town, going out the hard shell road past the cemetery. 
It is about a quarter of a mile east of the road and about half 
a mile due north of Buckeye Homestead Pond. The latter 
pond can be seen from the road. Gleason's Pond lies about 
three quarters of a mile east of Buckeye Homestead Pond. 
North of Gleason's Pond lies Wiley Pond. 

Figure-8 Pond is about one-quarter of a mile long and one- 
eighth wide, shaped roughly like the figure 8. It has a solid 
sand bottom, deepening more rapidly than other ponds visited, 
being waist deep four or five feet from shore. Grassy sedges, 
shoulder high, grow from the water's edge out into the water 
for a distance of five or six feet. Then, within this zone, is a 
clear water zone eight to twelve feet wide, within which is 
another belt of vegetation several feet wide and rising above 
the water one or two feet. There are no bushes in the water 
and no marsh. The banks from the water's edge are steep 
sand with sparse dead grass and scattered young pines two 
to ten feet high. All around the pond the higher ground had 
been recently burned over but fire had reached the pond only 
at a few points, leaving some green pines near the water's 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 17 

Jesseana was usually over the shore-bordering zone of 
sedges, alighting on stems and leaves, and, when back from 
the water, on the bare twigs of the burned pines. It is very- 
wary and difficult to approach, and is a good dodger either 
when at rest or on the wing. In general habits it mostly 
resembles L. auripennis. Other species associated with jess- 
eona were Tramca Carolina, Coryphaeschna ingens, Ana.r 
longipcs, a Progoinpluts, and Enallagma doubledayi. 

The question whether jesscana might not be a hybrid of 
auripennis and some other species naturally suggested itself. 
Libellulas generally are of wide distribution and their habits' 
as imagoes render them conspicuous. No new species has 
been added to the eastern North American fauna in over fifty 
years, and the discovery of an undescribed species in Florida 
was a great surprise. At first I was inclined to regard it as a 
hybrid, but on farther study I have abandoned this opinion. 
Its general appearance, due to wing coloration, at once sug- 
gests auripennis. Dr. Calvert and Dr. Ris, writing indepen- 
dently, see something of flavlda in it. but neither attributes this 
to hybridization and Dr. Ris especially is convinced it is not a 
hybrid. Dr. Kennedy also considers it specifically distinct 
and not a hybrid. In its restricted distribution and its sug- 
gestive synthesis of characters jesscana resembles another drag- 
onfly in another subfamily which I know well. Macrouiia 
ivabasJicnsis is known only along two or three miles of the 
Wabash River near Bluffton, Indiana, where it has been 
found continuously from 1902 to 1921. In characters it is 
just what one might expect from the crossing of M. tacniolata 
and M. pacifica, both of which species, as well as M. illinoicn- 
sis, occur on the same stretch of river. If wdbashensis is a 
hybrid it has certainly held its own for at least twenty years. 
It is possible that failure to record it elsewhere may be due 
to lack of collecting. This last factor can hardly be used to 
explain the limited known distribution of L. jesscana. It 
remains to be seen if jesscana maintains itself and is able to 
extend its range from the single small lake where it is now 
known to occur. 


Other species of Libellula collected by J. H. W. are listed 
below. Species of Ladona are not included in this paper. A 
few specimens collected in 1904, 1906 and 1908, by Mrs. Stella 
Beam, and in 1911 and 1913 by L. A. Williamson are also 
recorded. All notes on habits and captures are from J. H. 
W.'s field notes. 

Libellula auripennis Burmeister, West Palm Beach, February 
24, 1904, teneral female (Deam) ; Salt Lake, near St. Petersburg, April 
21, 1908, female (Deam) ; March 26, 1913, three teneral males (L. A. 
W.) ; Sarasota, April 4, 1911, two males, two females (L. A. W.) ; 
Taxambas, Ft. Myers, Labelle, Moore Haven, Palmdale, Miami and 
Enterprise, forty males and thirty-nine females, tenerals and adults at 
each location. Kathwood, South Carolina, a single teneral male. 

Auripennis is found scattered over fields and pastures, often 
far from water. Adult males with red abdomens flew swiftly 
over or near open streams in fields. Adults difficult to catch. 
Some, but not all, of the males from Enterprise have the wings 
more extensively reddish yellow than any other specimens in 
the collection. In this character they approach but do not 
reach the intensity of L. jesseana. Otherwise they are typical 

Libellula incesta Hagen. Labelle, fifteen males, one female; 
Palmdale, thirty-six males, fifteen females; Enterprise, one male, one 
female. Found on wooded part of Pollywog Creek at Labelle and of 
Fisheating Creek at Palmdale, and seen nowhere else about these two 

Of the seventeen females in the collection all but two have a distinct 
dark postnodal streak between C and R. Tt is also present in about 
one-half of the males. In both sexes it varies from entirely absent, 
through faintly present to clearly present and. finally, in the most 
extreme cases, it becomes a continuous brown streak from nodus to 
stigma. The streak is darkest in tenerals of both sexes, but all tenerals 
do not have it ; the darkest specimens seen are teneral females. This 
wing marking is not therefore entirely sexual or ontogenetic, though it 
tends to be both, being darker in females ami in tenerals. 

Libellula axilena Westwood. Daytona Beach, March 20, 1906, 
one female (Deam) ; St. Petersburg, March 13 and 22, 1913, one male 
and three females, all very teneral (L. A. W.) ; Fort Alyers, Labelle, 
Palmdale and Enterprise, fourteen males and nine females. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 19 

All the specimens of axilena are young with the teneral body color 
pattern distinct, and the postnodal wing streak between C and R and 
nodal spots are present in every specimen. In every specimen but one 
the brown area about the metastigma is continuous with the brown area 
anterior to it. In every case the brown stripe on the second lateral 
suture is wider than in znbrans, and between this stripe and the dorsal 
thoracic dark area, on the side of the thorax above, is a triangular 
brown area which is entirely wanting in ribraus. In ribrans the post- 
nodal wing streak is present in one female, faintly present in two 
males and two females, and absent in nineteen males and fourteen 
females. In every case the brown area surrounding the metastigma is 
separated from the dark area anterior to it, and the sides of the thorax 
above, between the humeral and second lateral sutures, are entirely pale. 

The color pattern of the thorax as well as the pale face and 
frons thus separate vibrans certainly from axilena. 

At Fort Myers, flying about and alighting on dried vege- 
tation in the sun along a fence separating a cemetery and 
orange grove. This species and vibrans were not recognized 
as distinct when captured and it is impossible now to state 
definitely any difference in habitats. In L. A. W.'s material 
collected at St. Petersburg, March 22, a male of vibrans and 
a female of incesta are papered in the same envelope. His 
other specimens of axilena were taken on March 13, three and 
one-half miles southwest of St. Petersburg, while his twelve 
specimens of vibrans were taken on March 22, four miles 
southwest of town. J. H. W. collected axilena on thirteen 
days and vibrans on ten days in Florida. On four different 
days he took both species, on nine days he caught axilena and 
not vibrans. and on six days vibrans but not axilena. Both 
species certainly occurred in the same creek-enclosing wood- 
lands at Palmdale and Enterprise, but were not found on the 
creeks themselves. Apparently axilena frequented more open 
spots and the edges of forests, while vibrans preferred denser 

Libellula vibrans Fabricius. St. Petersburg, March 22. 1913, five 
males and seven females, all teneral (L. A. W.) ; Port Orange, March 
16, 1906, one male, one female (Deam) ; New Smyrna, April 24. 1'MK,. 
one male (Deam) ; Fort Myers, Labellc, Palmdale and Knterpri^e. 
fourteen males and eight females; Kathwood, South Carolina, two 
males. For notes see above under axilena. 


List of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of North Carolina. 

By C. S. BRIMLEY, Div. of Entomology, N. C. Dept. of 


The following list includes all those species of Tachinidae 
which are known to us to have been recorded from North 

Most of them have been collected by members of the Ento- 
mological Division of the State Department of Agriculture, 
and the collector's initials follow the records attributed to 
each. The names of those contributing to the list are Frank- 
lin Sherman, Chief in Entomology for the last twenty years ; 
G. M. Bentley, C. S. Brimley, J. E. Eckert, C. O. Houghton, 
R. W. Leiby, C. L. Metcalf, Z. P. Metcalf, T. B. Mitchell, and 
R. S. Woglum, his assistants at various periods. Other rec- 
ords have been contributed by Mr. C. W. Johnson, of the Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History, and some by Mr. Max Kisliuk, 
Jr., now with the Federal Horticultural Board. 

The flies of this family have been identified for us in the 
past by the late Mr. D. W. Coquillett, and by Professor O. A. 
Johannsen, and more recently by Prof. J. M. Aldrich, to all 
of whom our thanks are due. These gentlemen are respon- 
sible for over three-fourths of the names on the list, while I 
am accountable for the remainder, mostly conspicuous, well 
defined forms. 

Several names in the list are given with the generic name 
only or as near such a species. These were all given by Prof. 
Aldrich as being probably new species. 

Undoubtedly the list is far from complete, and it is quite 
likely that it is not wholly free from error, still we believe it 
to be a creditable beginning. 

ACEMYIA DENTATA Coq. Raleigh, late March, 1913, CLM ; Linvillo 
Falls, early June, 1920, FS ; Onslow Co., late March, 1920, MRS. 

ADMONTIA DEGEERIOIDES Coq. Raleigh, mid September; Swannanoa 
Oct. 5, 1915; mid July, 1919, RWL. 

ALOPHORA FENESTRATA Bigot. Raleigh, early April, one, CSB. 

ALOPHORA FUMOSA Coq. Hot Springs, Mrs. A. T. Slosson. 

ALOPHORA GRANDIS Coq. Raleigh, late March, mid and late October, 
four males; early May, 1920, one female, CSB; Laurinburg, Sept. 11, 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 21 

1920, male, TBM ; EHzabethtown, early November, 1920, three males, 

ALOPHORA SPLENDIDA Coq. Blowing Rock, September 4, 1915, RWL. 
ARCHYTAS ANALIS Fab. Whole state, May to early November ; has 
been bred from army worm in Haywood and Beaufort Counties in 
August and September by Mr. Sherman and Mr. Leihy. 

ARCHYTAS ATERRIMA Desv. Whole state, mid April to early No- 
vember. Has been bred from fall webworm at Raleigh, July 25, 1907, 

ARCHYTAS HYSTRIX Fab. Raleigh, Lumberton, Southern Pines, 
Thomasville, late June to early September. Has been bred from 
Datana perspicua at Raleigh, June 24, July 5, 1918, CSB. 

ARCHYTAS LATERALIS Macq. North Carolina, Coquillett, Rev. Tachi- 
nidae, p. 143. 

ATACTA BRASILIENSIS Schiner. Raleigh, July 25, 1906, CSB. 
ARGYROPHYLAX (sp.). Raleigh, Sept., one, CSB. 

BELVOSIA BIFASCIATA Fabr. Lumberton, Southern Pines, Raleigh, 
Hendersonville, and Lake Toxoway, mid May to late October. Has 
been bred from Cithcronia rci/alis. Basilona inipcrialis, Anisota scna- 
tnria, and Ceratomia undnlosa. 

BELVOSIA UNIFASCIATA Desv. Lake Ellis, Terra Ceia, Raleigh, Crab- 
tree, and Spruce, mid May to late October. Bred from army worm in 
Haywood (mid August, 1914, FS), and Beaufort (late August and early 
September, 1919, RWL) Counties. 

BESKIA AELOPS Walker. Raleigh, June 15, 1906, CSB; Sept. 26, 1917, 
RWL; Stem, early October, 1908, ZPM. 

BLEPHARIPEZA ADUSTA Loew. Raleigh, late Marcli and mid April, 

BLEPHARIPEZA LEUCOPHRYS Wied. Blowing Rock, Sept. 15, 1915, FS. 
BOMBYLIOMYIA ABRUPTA Wied. Blowing Rock, Grandfather Moun- 
tain and Highlands, all in September, and Grandfather Mt., also in 
late July. Ranges to over 5,000 ft. elevation. 

CHAETOGAEDIA ANALIS V. d. W. Grandfather Mt., August, 1906, 

CHAETOGAEDIA CREBRA V. d. W. Raleigh, mid November, 1911, CSB. 
CHAETOPHLEPS SETOSA Coq. Raleigh, late June, 1912, CLM. 
CHAETOPLAGIA ATRIPENNIS Coq. Raleigh, late July, one, CSB. 
CISTOGASTER iMMACULATA Macq. Raleigh, late April to early August, 
common, CSB; Charlotte, early June, 1902, FS ; Fayetteville, late May, 
1920, CSB; Jefferson, mid September, 1912, FS. 
CLAUSICELLA USITATA Coq. Wilmington, mid May, 1905, FS. 
CUPHOCERA FUCATA V. d. W. Raleigh, late Juno, 1920, CSB. 
CRYPTOMEIGENIA THEUTIS Walker. Raleigh, April 5, 1901, FS ; April 
13, 1906, CSB; Black Mts., late May, 1911, FS. 

DIXKKA FUTILIS Smith. Highlands, Sept., 1906, FS. 


DISTICHONA AURICEPS Coq. Raleigh, mid Sept., CSB ; Blowing Rock, 
Sept. 9, 1909, ZPM. 

DISTICHONA VARIA V. d. W. Raleigh, late June to mid Sept., CSB; 
Charlotte, late June, 1902, FS. 

DORYPHOROPHAGA ABERRANs Twnd. Swannanoa, mid July, 1919, 

DORYPHOROPHAGA DORYPHORAE Riley. Terra Ceia, Aug. 24, 1919, 

ECHINOMYIA DAKOTENSIS Twnd. Raleigh, late Sept., 1915, early 
Oct., 1919, CSB; Highlands, early and mid Sept., 1906, RSW; Yonah- 
losse Road, Sept. 10, 1908, ZPM. 

ECHINOMYIA FLORUM Walker. Raleigh, late April, early Alay, Sept., 
CSB; Southern Pines, April, 1901, FS ; Gibson, Oct. 12, 1920, and 
Elizabethtown, Nov. 5, 1920, TBM. 

EPALPUS SIGNIFERUS Walker. Raleigh, early Aug , CSB ; Norlina, 
late April, 1905, FS ; Craggy Mt., June 8, 1916, RWL ; Linville Falls, 
early June, 1920, FS. 

EPIGRYMIA FLORIDENSIS Twnd. Raleigh, mid July. 1912, CLM. 

ERVIA TRIQUETRA Oliv. Raleigh, early Sept., 1916, FS ; Southern 
Pines, June 6, 1906, RSW. 

EULASIONA (sp.). Linville Falls, late May, 1920, FS. 

EUPHOROCERA FLORIDENSIS Twnd. Terra Ceia, bred from pupae green 
clover worm, August and September, 1919, RWL. 

EUTHERA TENTATRIX Loew. Swannanoa, Oct. 5, 1915, RWL. 

EXORISTA BOARMIAE Coq. Plymouth, bred from Acrobasis nubilclla, 
RWL; bred from green clover worm pupae at Terra Ceia (Aug.-Sept., 
1919, RWL), and at Elizabeth City (Aug.-Sept., 1919, FS). 

EXORISTA EUDRYAE Twnd. Raleigh, bred from larvae Euthisanotia 
i/nita, June 14, 1907; from cocoon Estigmcne acrea, May 8, 1918, and 
from larvae Euthisanotia unio, May 8, 1918, CSB: taken late June, 
1915, CSB. 

EXORISTA FLAVIROSTRIS V. d. W. Raleigh, bred from cocoon Lagoa 
crispata, June 6, 1906, CSB. 

EXORISTA FUTILIS O. S. Raleigh, late April, mid June, CSB. 

EXORISTA GRISEOMICANS V. d. W. Raleigh, early June, 1904, bred 
from cocoon Lagoa crispata, FS ; early Sept., 1912, bred from fall 
army worm, CLM. 

EXORISTA LOBELIAE Coq. Raleigh, early July, 1907. 

EXORISTA PYSTE Walker. Raleigh, late Oct., CSB; Milbrook, bred 
from Acrobasis caryac, June, 1917, RWL; Roper, June 5, 1917, bred 
from A. caryac and A. ncbnlclla, RWL; Burgaw, June, 1917, and Plym- 
outh, June, 1916, bred from A. ncbnlclla at both places, R\VL. 

EXORISTA SETINERVIS Coq. Raleigh, late July, FS. 

EXORISTA SLOSSONAE Coq. Raleigh, mid July, 1914, CLM. 

EXORISTOIDES JOHNSONI Coq. Raleigh, May, Sept. 23, 1920, CSB; 
Hertford County, Coquillett, Rev. Tachinidac, p. 91. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 23 

FRONTINA ALETIAK Riley. Raleigh, July, Sept., bred from fall web- 
worm, CSB: Terra Ceia, Aug.-Sept., 1919, bred from pupae green 
clover worm, RWL; Elizabeth City, mid Aug., 1919, FS. 

FRONTINA near ALETIAE, but palpi black. Raleigh, June, CSB. 
FRONTINA FRENCHII Will. Raleigh, common parasite of the over- 
wintering cocoons of the Polyphemus moth, adults emerging from 
late April to early August, the maggots overwintering within the 
cocoon and boring their way out at various times during spring and 
summer to pupate; occasionally they pupate within the cocoons of 
their host and perish, CSB ; bred from tent caterpillar at Milbrook, 
May, 1915, RWL; Blowing Rock, Sept., 1915, FS. 

FRONTINA VIOLENTA Walker. Raleigh, bred from larvae of Pholus 
achcmon, in late Sept., 1914, and early Oct., 1915, CSB. 

GAEDIOPSIS OCELLARIS Coq. Early May and late Oct., 1920, CSB. 
GONIA CAPITATA DeG.' Raleigh, late March to early May, not un- 
common, CSB; Southern Pines, March 20, 1905, FS; Southport, April 
6, 1914, CLM; Lake Waccamaw, April 1, 1914, CLM. 

GONIA SENILIS Will. Raleigh, June, Oct., FS and CSB ; Kingsboro, 
early Oct., 1919, MRS. 

GVMNOCHAETA ALCEoo Loew. Black Mt., late May, 1910, FS ; Hen- 
dersonville, June, 1907, FS. 

GYMNOSOMA FULIGINOSA Desv. Raleigh, Hillsboro, Blowing Rock, 
Swannanoa and Linville Falls, early May to mid November, not un- 

HEMYDA AURATA Desv. Raleigh, late Sept., late Oct., CSB ; Linville 
Falls, early June, 1920, FS. 

HILARELLA FULVicORNis Coq. Murf reesboro, June 9, 1895, CWJ. 
HYALOMYODES TRIANGULIFER Loew. Raleigh, Nov. 9, 1920, CSB ; 
Highlands, Sept. 9, 1920, TBM. 

HYPOCHAETA LONGICORNIS Schiner. Raleigh, Sept. 17, 1906, bred 
from Melittia satyrimformis, CSB; Sept. 29, 1920, CSB. 
HYPOSTENA DUNNINGI Coq. Revision Tachinidae, p. 60. 
HYPOSTENA FLAVEOLA Coq. L. c., p. 61. 

JURINIA ADUSTA V. d. W. Blowing Rock, Aug. 24, 1902, FS ; Waynes- 
Aille, Sept. 9, 1919, JEE. 

LESKIOMIMA TENERA Wied. Raleigh, June 14, 1906; late July, CSB. 
LEUCOSTOMA SENILIS Twnd. Murf reesboro, early June, 1895, CWJ. 
LEUCOSTOMA ATRA Twnd. Lake Waccamaw, Sept. 20, 1915, RWL; 
Highlands, Sept. 5, 1920, TBM. 

LINNAEMVIA COMTA Fallen. Raleigh, early June to late Nov., not 
uncommon; also taken at Murfreesboro, Hendersonville, Blowing Rock, 
Swannanoa and Wilmington. 

M \CQUARTIA PRISTIS Walker. Spruce, Jun<>, 1911, several, FS. 
M. \SICKRA ALBIFACIES Twnd. Raleigh, Aug. 15, 1901, bred from 
l,t>.\'(>stc<ic mancalis, CSB. 


MASICERA EUFITCHIAE Twnd. Linville Falls, late May and early June, 
1920, several, FS. 

MASICERA EXILIS Coq. Elizabeth City, bred from tortoise beetle 
larva (Coptocycla clarata), Aug. 22, 1919, FS. 

MASIPHYA BRASILIANA B. & B. Raleigh, June li, 1906, late June, 
1920, CSB. 

METAPLAGIA OCCIDENTALIS Coq. Raleigh, July 26, Aug. 4, 1906, bred 
from boll worm (Heliothis obscurus), CSB. 

METOPIA LEUCOCEPHALA Rossi. Raleigh, mid Oct., 1904, GMB; 
Southern Pines, late April, 1905, GMB; Pendleton, early June, 1895, 

MICROPHTHALMA DisjUNCTA Wied. Murfreesboro, June 9, 1895, 
CWJ ; Greensboro, Aug. 25, 1902, FS ; Blowing Rock, Aug., 1906, FS ; 
Black Mts., July 18, 1919, RWL; Grandfather Mt., early Sept., 1915, 
FS ; ranges up to 5,000 ft. 

MYIOPHASIA AENEA Wied. Raleigh, Gibson, Elrod, Boardman, Aug- 
ust, September and October ; Charlotte, early June, 1902, FS ; not 

NEOPHYTO SETOSA Coq. Raleigh, mid April, CSB ; Spruce, late 
May, FS. 

OCYPTERA ARGENTATA Twnd. Beaufort, mid June, 1903, FS. 

OCYPTERA CAROLINAE Desv. Raleigh, Spruce, Swannanoa, Murfrees- 
boro and Elizabeth City, early June to early September ; not uncommon. 

OESTROPHASIA CALVA Coq. Raleigh, May 25, 1905. FS ; June, CSB. 

PACHYOPHTHALMUS SIGNATUS Meigen. Raleigh, mid July, 1912, 
CLM ; March 29, 1920, bred from mud cell of Eumenid wasp, MRS ; 
Jefferson, mid Sept., 1913, CLM. 

PANZERIA AMPELUS Walker. Raleigh, early and mid April, CSB; 
Southport, April 6, 1914, CLM; Spruce, late May, 1912, and June, 
1911, FS; Blowing Rock, Sept. 4, 1915, RWL; Highlands, Sept., 1906, 
RSW; Blantyre, Sept., 1906, RSW. 

PARACHAETA EICOLOR Macq. Spruce, June, 1911, FS. 

PARADEXODES (sp.). Swannanoa, mid July, 1919, RWL. 

PARADIDYMA SINGULARIS Twnd. Raleigh, Oct. 9, 1920, CSB; Wil- 
mington, April 15, 1919, MK. 

PELETERIA ROBUSTA Wied. Raleigh, June 13, 1907, CSB; Blowing 
Rock, late July, 1904, FS ; Sept. 4, 1915, RWL; Sept., 1918, FS; Eliza- 
hethtown, Nov. 5, 1920, three, TBM. 

PELETERIA TESSELLATA Fabr. Blowing Rock, late August, 1902, COH. 

PHORANTHA PURPURASCENS Twnd. Elizabethtown, Nov. 5, 1920, 

PHOROCERA CLARIPENNIS Macq. Has been bred at Raleigh from 

.pupae of Ceratomia undulosa (Aug. 14, 15, 1911, CSB); Datana intc- 

iicn-ima (Aug. 2, 1916, RWL; Aug. 16, 1920, CSB) ; Mclalopha inclnsa 

(Aug. 11. 1915, CSB) ; sawfly, Lophyrus (April, 1912, CSB) ; cutworm, 

Fcllia subgothica (June 11, 1920, CSB) ; at Milbrook, from apple tree 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 25 

tent caterpillar, late May, 1915, RWL ; at Crabtree from army \vorm 
(Aug. 15, 1914, FS) ; at Wilmington, from fall army worm (July 
26-28, 1920, CSB) ; at Terra Ceia from army worm and green clover 
worm (Ang.-Sept., 1919, R\YL). and from army worm at Xeuse (mid 
Aug., 1914, FS). Also taken at Beaufort and Swannanoa in July and 

PHOROCERA COMSTOCKI Will. Raleigh, bred from Cossula nui</nifn'(i, 
June 19, 1916, RWL. 

PHOROCERA EINARIS Smith. Elizabeth City, late August, 1919, FS ; 
Spruce, late May, 1912, CSB. 

PHOROCERA LEUCANIAE Coq. Raleigh, mid Aug., 1903, FS ; mid 
June, 1914, CLM. 

PHOROCERA TORTRICIS Coq. Raleigh, mid June, 1914. 
PLAGIA AMERICANA V. d. W. Raleigh, Nov. 6, 1920, CSB. 
PSEUDOCHAETA ARGENTiFRONS Coq. Raleigh, bred from Lo.rostcgc 
mancalis. Aug. 14, 1906, CSB. 

PSEUDOTACHINOMYIA WEBKERi Smith. Linville Falls, late July, 1920, 
several, FS. 

SCHIZOCEROPHAGA LEJBYi Twnd. Aydlett, Currituck Co., bred from 
sawfly larvae (Schisocerus priratus), July 31, 1915, RWI.. 

SENOTAINIA RUBRIVENTRIS Macq. Pendleton, June 7, 1895, CWJ; 
Charlotte, early June, 1902, FS. 

SENOTAINIA TRILINEATA V. d. W. Raleigh, May, 1910, CSB; early 
and mid July, 1914, CLM; Elizabeth City, mid Aug., 1919, FS ; Fayette- 
ville, late May, 1920, CSB. 

SIPHONA GENICULATA DeG. Hendersonville, July. 1907, FS. 
SIPHOPI.AGIA ANOMALA Twnd. Raleigh, early Oct., 1912; mid Oct., 
mid Sept., 1920, CSB; Elrod, Sept. 24, 1915, RWL. 

SIPHOSTURMIA ROSTRATA Coq. Raleigh, Oct. 14, 1902, GMB. 
SPALLANZANIA IIEBES Fallen. Raleigh, late Sept., CSB ; early Oct., 
FS; Swannanoa, July 10, 1913, CLM. 

SPALLANZANIA HESPERIDARUM Will. Highlands. July 5, 1906, FS ; 
Jefferson, mid Aug., 1907, mid Sept., 1912, FS. 

STURMIA ALBIFRONS Walker. Raleigh, late June, 1907, ZPM. 
STURMIA DISTINCTA Wied. Raleigh, July 11, 1913, bred from full 
grown larva Phlcycthontius quinquemaculatus, mid July; bred from 
larva Phlegethontius sexta, Oct. 26, 1920, two males, CSB. 

SfritMiA iRAunuLENTA V. d. W. Raleigh, June 4, 1907, CSB. 
STURMIA INQUIXATA V. d. W. Raleigh, bred from larvae of Phlege- 
thontius citnjulatus, July 20, 1906, mid Aug., 1910 (42 from one larva), 
late July, 1910 (about 30 from one larva), and from pupa of Ccrutomia 
(sp.), probably inuiulosa. May 8, 1918, CSB. 
STURMIA PHYCIODIS Coq. Raleigh, mid July, 1912, CLM. 
STURMIA PILATEI Coq. Lake Waccamaw, Sept. 20, 1915, RWI.. 
STURMIA s TRIG AT A V. d. W. Raleigh. July. August, bred from I.oxo- 
mancalis, CSB. 


TACHINA MEI.LA Walker. Raleigh, April 8, 1908, CSB; Milbrook, 
late May, 1915, bred from apple tree tent caterpillar, RWL; Murfrees- 
boro, June 9, 1895, CWJ. 

TACHINA ROBCSTA Twnd. Hendersonville, June, 1907, FS; Spruce, 
late May, 1912, FS ; Linville Falls, early June, 1920, FS. 

TACHINA RUSTICA Fallen. Blowing Rock, Sept. , 1909, ZPM. 

TACHINAPHYTO VARIABILIS Twnd. Swannanoa, July 10, 1913, CLM. 

TACHINAPHYTO (sp.). Raleigh, Sept. 29, 1920, five, CSB. 

TRICHOPHORA RUFICAUDA V. d. W. Raleigh, Hendersonville, Hot 
Springs, Lake Waccamaw, Elizabeth City, late April to late October, 
rather common. 

TRICHOPODA FORMOSA Wied. Hendersonville, June, 1907; Aquone, 
mid May, 1901, FS. 

TRICHOPODA LANIPES Fab. Raleigh, mid June to early August, CSB. 

TRICHOPODA PENNIPES Fab. Raleigh, Cranberry, Linville, Southern 
Pines, Lake Waccamaw, late May to September, common. 

TRICHOPODA PLUMIPES Fabr. Raleigh, late June, early Aug., CSB ; 
late July, 1912, CLM; Kittrell, July 15, 1919, TBM. 

TRICHOPODA RADIATA Loew. Raleigh, mid July and early August, 
CLAI and CSB. 

WINTHEMIA QUADRIPUSTULATA Fab. Has been bred from army worm 
at Durham, Crabtree, Neuse, Terra Ceia, from fall army worm at Eden- 
ton, and from larva of Perigaea sutor at Raleigh. Other localities : 
Elizabeth City, Blowing Rock, Swannanoa, Black Mt., with a seasonal 
range of May to October. 

WINTHEMIA (sp.). Linville Falls, late May. 1920, FS. 

XANTHOMELAENA ARCUATA Say. Hot Springs, Mrs. Slosson. 

XANTHOMELAENA ATRIPENNIS Say. Raleigh, early August, FS; late 
June, 1920, CSB; Blowing Rock, Sept., 1915, FS ; Aug. 29, 1902, FS ; 
Elizabethtown, Nov. 5, 1920, TBM. 

YPOPHAEMYIA MALACOSOMAE Twnd. Millbrook, bred from tent cater- 
pillar, May, 1915-6, RWL. 

Some Cases of Aberrant Oviposition in 

Butterflies (Lep.)- 
By W. BUTIIN, St. Clair Experiment Station, Port of Spain, 

Trinidad, B. W. I. 

When in Ecuador in 1920, I was the puzzled observer of 
strangely perverted ovipositing habits on the part of three 
widely differing species of Butterflies ; the abnormality of which 
I speak I had never noticed previously nor have I ever heard 
it remarked upon. In collecting wood-boring larvae I was 
examining some newly felled forest trees, locally called 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 27 

"karuni" ; although recently felled, the hark of these trees 
came off easily in large slabs, exposing the inner surface, 
which was covered with stagnated sap which had attained a 
condition of slimy fermentation, emitting a strong, acrid odor ; 
attracted by this a Perodromia, the pattern of whose wings 
resembled tesselae of malachite and turquoise irregularly 
veined with black, settled on the trunk and began to imbibe 
of the liquid sap ; a few moments later there also arrived to 
the feast a stately Prepona, also of a species which I have 
been quite unable to find described ; this butterfly, in contra- 
distinction to the former, sat with its wings folded, displaying 
the undersides of rich and deep, yet delicate shadings of dres- 
den brown, cinnamon, russet and olive-gray, pencilled with 
blue-black and smoky maroon ; very soon these two first com- 
ers were joined by a butterfly which quickly flew away again 
and which I took to be a CaUithca, one or two Hesperidae, 
a large Callidryas resplendent in orange red and orange yellow, 
and strangely enough a Heliconiits cyrbia which, after taking 
a few sips, sailed around the spot a few moments displaying 
its lovely wings of azurite blue, shading to black with crimson 
bands and white edged hind margins and then, to my great 
surprise, again alighted on the wet trunk and deposited eight 
eggs on the viscous timber. Unfortunately a heavy shower 
of rain now came on and the butterflies were driven away by 
the downpour. 

The next day, being still in the same locality, I stripped 
off some more pieces of the bark and again a rather diversified 
congregation of insects resulted a Zconia, with tails as long 
as its own iridescent, transparent, scarlet blotched wings ; a 
few Gynaecia dirce, one or two Catagrammas in golden brown, 
garnet and carmine, a large Adelpha, which, like the Callithca. 
however, did not remain long; an Evcnus (rcgalis?) displayed 
its glorious scintillating, golden-green, peacock-blue and pur- 
ple banded under surfaces; one of the locally numerous and 
varied Morphos for a short while settled, slowly opening 
and closing its great wings of profound, yet radiant blue 
changing with position to purples, and silvery-green ; and 
again two unlikely butterflies that strangely enough, oviposited 


on the tree trunk itself in spite of its utter unsuitability for 
larval existence ; these were Papilio epenetus and what I took 
to be an Agrias, like the Prepona, the only one of its species 
I ever saw. In all instances the ova were deposited in a close 
group. I have seen the Hcliconiits and the Papilio ovipositing 
under natural conditions on Passiliora sp. and Citrus decum-ani 
respectively; the former deposits a single egg on the tip of a 
separate leaf ; I never found more than one egg to a leaf. 
The Papilio, on the other hand, places its score or so of eggs 
in a close group ; an Agrias of differing species, that I had 
been fortunate enough to observe, placed its eggs quite sepa- 
rately on the under sides of the leaves. In addition to the 
above perhaps interesting subject, I may be allowed to men- 
tion superficially one or two other insects attracted by the 
odor of the fermenting sap two were very prominent a fine 
Elater of silvery gray with a longitudinal red line at each side 
of the thorax and elytra, and black lines in centre and a lively 
Wasp with a sparkling green-blue body and shining bronze 
wings ; early one morning a great "Harlequin" Beetle (Macro- 
pus longinianus} hanging on by its six- inch long forelegs 
after, presumably, a night's debauch, its grotesquely designed 
body markings of stripes and curved blotches in red, black and 
sage-green, making it a very conspicuous object. Another 
solitary and very large visitor was a giant locust of the genus 
Tropidacris ; its crimson and black \vings gave a spread of 
nine inches, with body and legs in proportion. In fair number, 
but making only a very short visit, came a colossal wasp, a 
Sceliphron (apparently near nigripes}, but seeming to appre- 
ciate more the flowers of a Cacsalpina coriaria nearby. In 
much larger numbers came the black stingless Bees and cer- 
tain Sarcophagidae and Muscidae. Ants, strangely enough, 
were uninfluenced by the attraction. 

On several occasions thereafter I tried the stripping of bark 
in places where Insect life was intensely abundant in num- 
bers and very varied in species, but either the sap was not at 
the right stage of ripeness or the trees were not of the proper 
species, as all that resulted were Hesperidae, of course, and 
the equally expected Callidryas and Satyrinae. 

I expect to return to the same localities again shortly and 
this time, having more fixed headquarters, I shall install a 
complete outfit of breeding cages for rearing the imagines and 
for making colored drawings of the metamorphoses of all pro- 
curable species of the splendid and little known Lepidoptera 
of this difficult, very unhealthy and therefore practically 
unmapped and entomologically unexplored country. 



The Boundless Field of Entomology 

With the present number the NEWS begins its thirty-third 
annual volume and closely approaches its third of a century 
of existence. Many changes in entomological work and out- 
look have taken place in the years since the first issue of this 
journal. Like politics and trade, entomology has become more 
international and the insects of Asia and Africa intrude upon 
the American as do the wares of the Orient and measures for 
the relief of the Near East. We cannot shut out the rest of 
the world entomologically, even if we would. 

Far from having catalogued the insects of the United States, 
we see an endless vista of new forms to be distinguished, even 
in parts of our country supposedly well known. "Species," 
which the entomologists of that day regarded as well estab- 
lished, have been split up into two or many forms. The limits 
of supposed infra-specific variation have been contracted and 
every difference between individuals assumes an importance 
which our predecessors disregarded or esteemed of little 

In every sub-division of our science the data are insuffi- 
cient and the conclusions drawn from them of doubtful or 
temporary value. There is a superabundance of opportunity 
for him and for her who will study insects intensively and 


The NEWS takes this opportunity of thanking all those who 
came to its aid by subscribing to the volume for 1921 at the 
increased price. While this price still holds for 1922, we think 
that signs are appearing looking toward a lessening of publica- 
tion costs. When realized, this decrease will be placed to the 
advantage of our subscribers. 



Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The? numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, 'see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
D. C. 12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, N. H. 19 
Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 33 Annales de la 
Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Brussels. 36 Transactions of 
the Entomological Society of London. 38 Redia, Firenze, Italy. 
41 Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse, Bern. 49 Ento- 
mologische Mitteilungen, Berlin-Dahlem. 57 Biologisches Zentral- 
oiatt, Leipzig. 59 Journal of Agricultural Research, Washington, 
D. C. 61 Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San 
Francisco. 76 Nature, London. 78 Bulletin Biologique de la 
^ ranee et de la Belgique, Paris. 85 The Journal of Experimental 
Zoology, Philadelphia. 96 Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argen- 
tina dc Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires. Ill Archiv fur Natur- 
geschichte, Berlin. 118 Die Naturwissenschaften, Berlin. 123 
Zeitschrift fur Induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre, Leip- 
zig. 129 The Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley, Surrey, Eng- 

GENERAL. Bell, E. L. Collecting notes. 19, xvi, 96-7. Gif- 
ford, J. W. Bee-sting and eyesight. 76, cviii, 370. Hanna, G. D.- 
Insects of the Priblof islands, Alaska. Introduction. 61, xi, 153-5. 
Sasscer, E. R. Important insects collected on imported nursery 
stock in 1920. 12, xiv, 353-55. Talbot, G. The Hill museum, Sur- 
rey, England. 129, i, 1-15. Van Duzee, E. P. Orthoptera, Neu- 
roptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera from the Pribilof islands, 
Alaska. 61, xi, 193-5. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Butschli, O. Yorlesungen 
iH'ber vcrgleichende anatomic. III. Sinnesorganc und leuchtorgane. 
r, i:;-931. Berlin. Carpentier, F. Pterothorax et prothorax. Etude 
des segments thoraciques d'un orthoptere. 33, Ixi, 337-43. Car- 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 31 

penter, G. D. H. Experiments on the relative edibility of insects, 
with special reference to their coloration. 36, 1921, 1-105. Lenz, F. 
Alternative modifikationen bei schmetterlingen. 128, xviii, 93-103. 
Malloch, A. Metallic coloration of chrysalids. 76, cviii, 302-3. Mid- 
dleton, W. Some suggested homologies between larvae and adults 
in sawflies. 10, xxiii, 373-92. Onslow, H. Metallic coloration of 
chrysalids. 76, cviii, 366. Rabaud, E. L'adaptation et 1'instinct des 
Cassides. 78, Iv, 153-83. Ruschkamp, P. F. Wheelers trophallaxis 
und ursprung der insektenstaaten. 57, xli, 481-94. Seller, J. Ge- 
schlechtschromosomenuntersuchungen an Psychiden. 128, xviii, 
81-92. Tanzer, E. Morphogenetische untersuchungen und beobach- 
tungen an Culiciden-larven. Ill, 1921, A, 7, 136-82. Terao, A. A 
preliminary note on the structure of Hancock's gland of Oecanthus. 
(Annot. Zool. Japon, x, 41-4.) Zeleny, C. The direction and fre- 
quency of mutation in the bar-eye series of multiple allelomorphs of 
Drosophila. 85, xxxiv, 203-33. Die ruckbildung der augen durch 
mutation bei Drosophila. 118, xx, 648-50. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Berlese, A. Centuria quinta di Acari 
nuovi. 38, xiv, 143-95. 

NEUROPTERA. Ulmer, G. Ueber einige Ephemeropteren- 
typen alterer autoren. Ill, 1921, A, 6, 228-67. 

Watson, J. R. New Thysanoptera from New York. 19, xvi, 78-86. 

HEMIPTERA. Doane, R. W. The Stanford collection of Cocci- 
dae. 12, xiv, 306. Parshley, H. M. On the genus Microvelia. 19, 
xvi, 87-93. Pennington, M. S. Notas sobre Coreidos argentinos. 
96, v, 28-39. 

Knight, H. H. A new species of Bolteria (Miridae). 19, xvi, 

LEPIDOPTERA. Engelhardt, G. P. Foodplant of Luperina 
passer. 19, xvi, 86-7. Giacomelli, E. Sobre un caso de albinismo 
(?) en "Dione vanillae." (Nymphalidae.) 96, v, 64-6. Hering, M. 
Die geographische verbreitung der Libytheiden. Ill, 1921, A, 4, 

DIPTERA. Headlee, T. J. The mosquitoes of New Jersey and 
their control. (New Jersey Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 348, 229 pp.) 
Hoffman, W. A. An early record regarding bot flies. 12, xiv, 374. 
Peryassu, A. G. Os Anophelineos do Brasil. (Arch. Mus. Nac., 
Rio de Janeiro, xxiii, 9-104.) Shannon, R. C. A reclassification of 
the subfamilies and genera of the North American Syrphidae. 19, 
xvi, 65-72. 

Alexander, C. P. Dipterous insects of the family Tipulidae from 
the Pribilof islands, Alaska. 61, xi. 183-4. Cole, F. R. Diptera from 


the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. 61, xi, 169-77. Felt, E. P. The number 
of antennal segments in gall midges and a new species. 19, xvi, 93-6. 
Johnson, C. W. New species of Diptera. (Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Mist., v, 11-17.) Malloch, J. R. Dipterous insects of the family 
Anthomyiidae from the Pribilof islands, Alaska. 61, xi, 178-82. Van 
Duzee, M. C. A new species of the dipterous family Dolichopodidae 
from the Pribilof islands, Alaska. 61, xi, 167-8. 

COLEOPTERA. Banninger, M. Vierter beitrag zur kenntnis 
der Carabinae. 49, x, 112-20 (cont.). Craighead, F. C. Hopkins 
host-selection principle as related to certain cerambycid beetles. 59, 
xxii, 180-220. Kessel, F. Ueber die stellung der Passandridae im 
system. Ill, 1921, A, 6, 33-35. Kleine, R. Ueber die stellung der 
Ulocerinae innerhalb der familie der Brenthidae. Bestimmungs- 
tabelle der gattung Estenorrhinus. Ill, 1921, A, 6, 268-74; 275-81. 
Knisch, A. Hydrophiliden aus Matto Grosso. Ill, 1921, A, 6, 1-24. 
Notman, H. Concerning species, with notes on Phytodecta affinis, 
and pallidus. 19, xvi, 75-8. d'Orchymont, A. Le genre Tropi- 
sternus. (Hydrophilidae.) 33, Ixi, 349-74. Pic, M. Nouveautes 
diverses. (Melan. Exot.-Ent., xxxiv, 63 pp.) Wehrli, E. Mono- 
graphische bearbeitung der gattung Psoclos, nach mikroskopischen 
untersuchungen. 41, xiii, 143-75. Weise, J. Amerikanische His- 
pinen. Ill, 1921, A, 5, 263-74. 

Van Dyke, E. C. Coleoptera from the Pribilof islands, Alaska. 
61, xi, 156-66. 

HYMENOPTERA. Frers, A. G. Notas himenopterologicas. 96, 
v. 66-71. Frison, T. H. Hymenopterous insects of the family Bre-- 
midae from the Priblof islands, Alaska. 61, xi, 185-7. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. Some parasitic megachilid bees of the west- 
ern U. S. The epeoline bees of the American museum Rocky Moun- 
tain expeditions. (Amer. Mus. Novitates, Nos. 21-23.) MacGillivray, 
A. D. New saw-flies from the Pribilof islands, Alaska. 61, xi, 188-92. 

The December, 1921, ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS was mailed at the 
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No. 2 

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Plate II. 










SEC 2 



















No. 2 


Kennedy The Morphology of the 
Penis in the Genus Libellula (Odo- 
nata ) 33 

Parshley Hemipterological Notices 
II 41 

Braun A New Genus in the Gelechii- 
dae (Microlepidoptera) 43 

Tillyard New Researches upon the 
Problem of the Wing- Venation of 
( donata 45 

Entomological Losses by Fire 51 

Fisher A New Cerambycid Beetle 

from Santo Domingo ( Col. ) 52 

Editorial Entomology at the Convo- 


cation Week Meetings December, 


Hutchison Mulford Biological Explo- 
ration of i he Amazon Basin News 

Bulletin No. 5 55 

The Crop Protection Institute 56 

Entomological Literature 56 

Notice of Ferris' Contributions To- 
ward a Monograph of the Sucking 

Lice 61 

Obituary Victor Szepligeti 61 

Caroline Burling Thompson 62 
Doings of Societies The Entomologi- 
cal Society of America 64 

The Morphology of the Penis in the Genus Libellula 

(Odonata). 1 



(With Plates II and III.) 

The writer has just recently undertaken to trace out the 
phylogeny of the genus Libellula through a study of the penes. 
In this study it was found that this organ was more complex 
and varied than was generally supposed. It was found that 
the internal anatomy of the penis was different from the previ- 
ously published ideas on the subject. This article will confine 
itself to the morphology of the penis and the honiologies of its 
parts, while the phylogeny of the genus will be dealt with in 
the second article. 

The leading articles on this subject are by Rathke, Goddard, 
Thompson, Schmidt and Bartenef. 2 Except the last author, 

1 Contribution from Department of Zoology and Knt<>mology of Ohio 
State UniuT.sity, No. 65. 

-Sec the bibliography at the end of this article. 



these have attempted to cover too much ground, as the penis is 
very different from genus to genus. 

Studies of the developing naiad 3 indicate that the penis in 
the Anisoptera is an outgrowth of the anterior end of the 
sternum of abdominal segment 3. It is flask-shaped. The 
inflated base attached to the sternum, represents the body of 
the flask, while the shaft and many lobed tip represent the 
neck of the flask. See Plate II, fig. 4, which is the penis of 
Libcllnla composita. The Libcllnla penis is divided into three 
segments by two flexible joints. Segment 1 is the inflated base, 
segment 2 the short shaft, which bears a short spur on its dor- 
sal apical end, while segment 3 is the distal portion, which con- 
tains the seminal vesicles and meati and which bears at its 
apex an assortment of lobes. In the Libellulinae the apex of 
the penis may bear as many as nine lobes, which are so modified 
from genus to genus that it is difficult in some instances to fig- 
ure out their homologies. The first half of this article will 
concern itself largely with these lobes. 

THE EXTERNAL ANATOMY of the penis has been discussed 
by Miss Goddard, by Schmidt and by Bartenef. Schmidt did 
not name the parts. Miss Goddard named them but Bartenef 's 
terms, 4 though later, are so much more apt that they have been 
followed in this paper. The latter author used the penis in his 
monographic revision of the genus Sympetrum, so the present 
writer has begun this study by showing how Bartenef 's terms 
apply to the penis of our own Sympctrmn scniicinctum. See 
Plate II, figs. 1 and 2. In this species all the lobes are about 
equally developed, which may be a primitive character. The 
only species of Libcllnla in which a similar condition exists is 
semifasciata on account of which condition the writer has con- 
sidered scmifasciata to be our most ancient Libcllnla. The 
individual lobes' will be discussed as follows: 

Lateral lobes (marked L in all the figures). These are the outer and 
most conspicuous pair of lobes and are usually heavily chitinized. In 
Sympetrum scmicinctum, Plate II, figs. 1 and 2, they are flattened 
cylinders as also in Libcllula angclina, Plate II, fig. 7. In semifasciata 

3 Thompson, Backhoff. 

4 Bartenef. Fig. 9, p. 24, Libellulidae, Ins. Neur. Faune Russe. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 35 

they are linear, Plate II, fig. 5, in depressa forked, Plate II, fig. 12, 
while in Orthemis they are hroad flat lobes, Plate II, fig. 13. These 
lobes are usually easily identified and are the starting point for the 
identification of the others. 

Medial lobes (marked M in all the figures). These lie entad and 
ccphalad of the lateral lobes, or dorsad from them if the penis is 
straightened out. These are usually unchitinized and are not always 
easily identified until the distal meatus of the seminal vesicles is 
located. These lobes are the two lips guarding the distal (or apical) 
meatus. In lydia, Plate III, fig. 16, there is a secondary or inner pair 
of medial lobes within the outer, larger pair. The medial lobes are 
usually unchitinized and are somewhat erectile. In jesseana, Plate III, 
fig. 26, they are covered with papillae when erect. In depressa, if cor- 
rectly identified, they are chitinized with free ends, Plate II, fig. 12. 

Connta (marked C in all the figures). These are very conspicuous 
in many species of Sympctrum but are frequently highly modified in 
Libcllitla. In Sympetrum they are a pair, but in Libellula a third cornu 
may exist which then lies between the other two. These are unchitinized, 
except in A-iihieiilata, and arise at the extreme apex of the penis. The 
cornua are well developed in the primitive scinifasciata, Plate II, fig. 5, 
where the median one is rudimentary, in saturata, Plate IT, fig. 3, where 
the right one is asymmetrical, and in Oft lie in is, Plate II, fig. 13. In 
Orlhetniin, Plate II, fig. 14, if correctly identified, there seems to be but 
(me. In coinposita. Plate II, fig. 4, nodisticta, Plate II, fig. 6 and -inccstii, 
Plate II, fig. 10, they are probably represented by the apical tooth, as 
in coiiiposita : just under the apical tooth are two smaller teeth which 
may be homologous to the lateral cornua. In jesseana, Plate III, figs. 
26 and 27, this median cornu is drawn out into a long tail. In anaelinti, 
Plate II. fig. 7, the cornua are flattened, which specialization is carried 
much farther in Platliemis, Plate II, fig. 11, and Plate III, fig. 16. 

Internal lobes (marked / in all the figures). These occur in 
.>\inpelntin but are usually not conspicuous in Libellula, unless they are 
homologous with the part marked / in the figures of jesseana, Plate 111, 
figs. 26 and 27. These parts are very erectile and are usually .with- 
drawn quite completely in the dried penis. 

Posterior lobe (marked P in all the figures). This is an unpaired, 
very erectile lobe arising on the posterior or ventral surface. It shows 
in cros> M-rtion in Plate III, fig. 21. It is retracted and not visible in 
Plate III, fig. 16. It is fully erect in Plate III, fig. 26, of jesseana. 

The least spcriali/ed penis in the' u;eiius Libellula is that of semifas- 
eiatit. .\ comparison of Plate II. tigs. 1 and 5, will show that it is 
remarkably like the penis of Syiiipetntin. However, in the various 
branches of the genus Libellula some very high speciali/ations have 
come about. The cornna of the satnntta group are fringed, while those 
of the two Pltitlieinis are short and broad. The apex (cornua?) of the 


fuk'a penis is inflated, Plate II, fig. 9. The lateral lobes in Plathcmis 
are paddle-shaped and the medial lobes of incesta and jesscana are cov- 
ered by a prominent chitinous hood, Plate II, fig. 10, and Plate III, fig. 
26. In the composita series, including incesta, jesscana, etc., the various 
soft lobes are very erectile and are covered with a plush of erectile 
hairs. See Plate III, fig. 26. 

The homologies of these various lobes will be more apparent in the 
figures of the second article where a larger series of species is figured. 

THE INTERNAL ANATOMY of the Libellula penis is illustrated 
in Plate III. The most of this part of the study is based on 
the penis of Plathcmis lydia because the writer happened to 
have material of that species that could be sectioned. Fig. 16 
shows the adult lydia penis in ventral and lateral views. Fig. 
17 is a diagram, in shadows, of the penis of a last instar naiad, 
as this organ lies in its temporary, larval sulcus at the anterior 
end of the sternum of abdominal segment 3. In this stage the 
apex (penis segment 3) of the penis is fully developed but the 
shaft (segment 2) and the inflated base (segment 1) are still 
only partially developed and are wholly unexpanded. By com- 
paring fig. 17 with fig. 16, the difference between the two stages 
can be seen. The vertical lines indicated by letters in fig. 17 
locate the levels of the sections shown in figs. 18-25, each of 
which bears a letter to correspond with its level on fig. 17. 
The internal anatomy of the Libcllnla penis is simple. In its 
adult condition it is merely a bag of cuticula lined with a layer 
of hypodermis and containing, besides two tracheae, the re- 
mains of the embryonic tissue which filled its cavity during its 
development. Apparently this tissue breaks down at the emerg- 
ence of the naiad, so that in the imago the penis interior is a 
cavity continuous with the haemocoele of the body. Probably 
erection of this organ is due to a sudden surge of blood from 
the abdomen into this cavity. Fig. 25 is a cross-section through 
the embryonic penis shown in fig. 17 at the level H, and show: 
the connection of the embryonic tissue of the penis cavity and 
the haemocoele of the abdomen. This is before the embryonic 
tissue has disappeared. 

The penis has two external openings, one at the apex, be- 
tween the medial lobes, which I have termed the distal meat us. 
and one at the outer end of the penis, which I have termed the 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 37 

proximal meatns. See fig. 16, dm and pm. Williamson was 
the first to point out that the penis had two openings. He has 
figured these for DesmogompJms. 5 In the naiad both meat 
face ventrad, as shown in fig. 17. At the emergence of the naiad 
into imaginal life the penis bends at the level of the proximal 
meatus, so that this meatus faces cephalad in the adult. The 
distal meatus is guarded by the two medial lobes, but the 
proximal meatus lies fully exposed on the outer bend of the 

In Desmogomphus, \Yilliamson uses the old terminology 
and calls the inflated base the "vesicle." Distad to this are three 
other joints, which he terms first, second and, third, the apical 
segment being the "third." As the "vesicle" of the old termin- 
ology is merely the inflated base of the penis, this becomes seg- 
ment 1, as I have named the parts in this article, so that the 
Desmogomphus penis has four joints where the Libcllula penis 
has but three. The segments still homologize in the two penes. 
Segment 4 of the Dcsnwgouiphiis penis is merely the region of 
the distal meatus drawn out into a small apical segment not; 
found in Libcllula. Segment 3 of the penis of Libcllnla equals 
segments 3 and 4 of the Desmogomphus. 

The two meati are connected by a tube, which is marked T 
in fig. 17. At either end this tube is dilated into a vesicle. The 
distal vesicle, dv in fig. 17, lies just within the tip of segment 3. 
The proximal vesicle, pv in fig. 17, lies exactly in the flexible 
outer bend of the (adult) penis. In the Libcllula penis these 
openings and vesicles do not connect with the cavity or inflated 
base of the penis. The true seminal vesicle is this pair of 
connected pockets in the apex of the penis and not the inflated 
base of it, as has hitherto been supposed. Just how these apical 
vesicles and meati function can be only surmised in our present 
ignorance of their action. No muscles or other structures 
insi'de the penis were found that might operate them. As the 
proximal vesicle, p-r, lies exactly in the flexible bend of the 
penis, its action in filling and emptying is probably directly cor- 
related with the motions of this joint. The distal vesicle, dr. 

' A nc\v Gomphine j^mis from I'.ritish Ciuiana. Occ. Papers No. 80, 
Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 1920. 


might be emptied by a crushing in of the erectile lobes on the 
end of the penis when this organ is inserted into the" female. 
Because of the hard, heavily chitinized wall of the penis on the 
side opposite the lobes, any pressure on these would tend to 
flatten and empty the apical vesicle. The tube connecting the 
two vesicles suggests that one is efferent and the other afferent. 
Because the penis of the adult dragonfly contains such flinty 
chitin, the sections of this organ were made from an individual 
in the last naiadal instar. By taking the naiad just before 
emergence, the outer cuticula peels off easily, leaving a soft 
insect that the razor can slice. While the embryology of the 
penis was not studied, it is probably true that the vesicles in 
the tip are imaginations of the body-wall of the penis tip. 
They are lined with chitin and in this final stage they each con- 
tain two cuticular exuviae, so that one may legitimately infer 
that the vesicles exist in the penis during the last three instars 
of the naiad. The sections figured on Plate III are all of lydia 
except figs. 28 and 29, which are of incesta. The figures are 
drawn to show only outlines and cavities. Each, to be under- 
stood, should be referred by the reader back to its proper level 
in fig. 17, where, as mentioned above the level of each section 
is indicated by a letter corresponding to that of the figure of 
the section. 

Fig. 18 is section A through the bases of the cornua and the lateral 
lobes. The ridges on the outer sides of the cornua are the distal ends 
of the medial lobes. 

Fig. 19 is section B through the bases of the cornua and the lateral 

Fig. 20 is section C and shows the distal meatus and a small slice, 
,f:', through the apical end of the distal seminal vesicle. 

Fig. 21 is section D through the distal vesicle, dz', and the distal 
meatus, dm. 

Fig. 22 is section H through the seminal tube, T, which connects the 
two vesicles. It shows also a thin slice across the proximal end of the 
distal vesicle, dv. 

Fig. 23 is section F showing the seminal tube, T, and the tracheae, /;. 
This figure also shows a cross section of the inflated base, bsc, and a 
portion of the sulcus of the sternum. It shows also the ventral dia- 
phragm which is muscular where it attaches to the body wall. This dia- 
phragm is well developed in the region of abdominal segments 2 and 3 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 39 

and may have to do with forcing the hlood into the penis when the 
latter is erected. 

Fig. 24 is section G through the proximal vesicle, pi', and the proximal 
meatus, />;. It shows also the wrinkled and unexpanded condition of 
the penis shaft. 

Fig. 25 is section H through the proximal meatus and below the proxi- 
mal vesicle. It also passes through the attachment of the penis to the 
sternum and shows the tissue of the body-cavity continuous with the 
penis cavity. The author has found no actual opening from the ab- 
domen into the base of the penis hut he has had only dried and poor 
material to work with. It is of course remotely possible that the 
Libellula penis is never truly erected, that the erections produced by 
boiling the specimens, as in fig. 26, may be wholly unnatural. 

In the series of species beginning with the primitive com- 
posita and terminating in such specialized forms as librans 
and iucesta, the softer parts of the penis are covered with a 
dense plush of hairs, which become erect when the penis is 
distended. These can usually be demonstrated by boiling the 
penis, if the material is not too old. Fig. 27 shows the penis of 
jcsscana relaxed and fig. 26 the same organ after boiling, when 
it is supposedly erect. Fig. 28 is a cross-section through the 
penis of incest a at the line shown in fig. 10 and marked sec. 
Fig. 29 is the upper part of fig. 28 enlarged. The erectile hairs 
shown in these figures are hollow outgrowths of the soft cuti- 
cula and fill and become erect when the main organ is distended. 
At that time they are distended and their membraneous base 
is evaginated, so that the boiled incest a penis appears somewhat 
as does the erect jcsscana penis. When the penis is relaxed 
these hairs are so completely withdrawn that their presence may 
be entirely unsuspected. 

This paper has shown how little is known definitely concern- 
ing the genitalia in the Odonata. The next paper will show 
how useful the genitalia are in indicating the relationships 
within the genus Libellula. 


RATHKE, 1832. De libellarum partibus genitalibus. 

Gom>AKi>. IS'id. On the second abdominal segment in a few /.//'. ////</</:. 

Proc. Amer. 1'hil. Soc. XXXV, i>i>. -'05-212. 
THOMPSON, 1 ( >OS. Appendages of the second abdominal segment of male 

dragonflics. Hull. X. Y. State Mus. No. 124, pp. 249-263. 
BACKIIOFF, 1910. 1 >ie Kntwicklung des Copulationsapparates \<>n Agritm. 

Xiitschr. wiss. Zool, XCV, pp. 647-/Ut.. 


SCHMIDT, 1915. Vergleichende Morphologic des 2 und 3. Abdominal 

segment bei mannlichen Libellen. Zool. Jahrb., Abteil. Anat. Ontog., 

XXXIX, pp. 87-200. 
BARTENEF, 1915. Libellulidae. Insectes Neuropteres in Fauna de la 

Russe., pp. 1-352. 
WILLIAMSON, 1920. A new Gomphine genus from British Guiana with 

a note on the classification of the subfamily. Occ. Papers, No. 80. 

Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 



Figs. 1-2. Sympctrum scmicinctum (Say). Sunnyside, Washington. Lat- 
eral and ventral views of the apical segment of the penis. 

Fig. 3. Libcllula saturata Uhler. Phoenix, Arizona. Penis, ventral 
The following, except fig. 11, are lateral views of the penis. 

Fig. 4. Libcllula composita (Hagen). Laws, California. 

Fig. 5. Libellula scmifasciata Burm. Pungo Lake, North Carolina. 

Fig. 6. Libcllula nodisticta Hagen. Laws, Owens Valley, California. 

Fig. 7. Libellula angclina Selys. Kioto, Japan. Coll. of Ris. 

Fig. 8. Libcllula 4-maculata Linn. Grodno Government, Poland. From 

Fig. 9. Libcllula fulva Muell. Aries? From Morton. 

Fig. 10. Libcllula inccsta Hagen. (No locality). From O. S. U. coll. 

Fig. 11. Libcllula subornata (Hagen). Golconda, Nevada. Apex of 
penis viewed from the inner dorsal side with the lateral lobes spread. 
Enlarged. See Plate III, fig. 16 of lydia. 

Fig. 12. Libcllula dcprcssa Linn. Lublin Government, Poland. From 

Fig. 13. Orthcinis ferruginea (Fabr.). Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
Coll. O. S. U. 

Fig. 14. Orthctrum cacnilesccns (Fabr.). North Wales. From Mor- 

Fig. 15. Thcnnorthcmis madagascarensis (Ramb.). Madagascar. Coll. 
O. S. U. 


Figs. 16-25. Libcllula lydia (Drury). Columbus, Ohio. 

Fig. 16. Ventral and lateral view of adult penis. 

Fig. 17. Lateral view of penis of the last naiadal instar drawn in 

Figs. 18-25. Cross-sections at the levels indicated in fig. 17 by the let- 
tered lines. 

Figs. 26-27. Libcllula jcsscana Willsm. Enterprise, Florida. From coll. 
Williamson. Fig. 26 is erected by boiling. 

Figs. 28-29. Libcllula incesta Hagen. Kingsboro, North Carolina. Cross- 
section of penis showing the erectile hairs. 


Plate III. 

18 A 

19 B 

20 C 



t, r sternum 

primary loniji 
Stern, muse 

23 F ganglion \ ventra | diaphragm 



24 G ^ 

abdom cavity 25 H 






Hemipterological Notices. II. 1 


For many years C. A. Hart devoted a great deal of attention 
to the Pentatomoid Hemiptera and had nearly completed his 
manuscript when death overtook him in the midst of his labors. 
His work has not been lost, however, for Professor J. R. 
Malloch, the dipterist, saw to its final preparation and publi- 
cation, thus putting greatly in his debt all who take an interest 
in the group, and as editor he added a considerable amount of 
supplementary matter (always carefully indicated as such), 
which in the main possesses distinct value. The paper as a 
whole contains a great deal of new and important material, 
especially some excellent pioneer work in the neglected study 
of the nymphal stages, an introductory discussion of phylogeny, 
and generic keys which are not confined to the Illinois fauna, 
but embrace most of the North American groups. In going 
over the work I have noted a few matters which call for com- 

Page 180. The editor remarks on the curious results achieved 
by Hart in his effort to arrange his keys so as to indicate 
natural sequence. Such a plan usually results in defeating the 
prime purpose of a key, i. c., ready identification, since obscure 
characters often have to be used. I think that the arrange- 
ment both of genera and higher groups should be ignored, in 
favor of that given in Van Duzee's ''Catalogue." 

Page 192. I am unable to accept Malloch's splitting of 
Huschistus tristif/unis into two (or three?) species. Like some 
other Pentatomids, this species is variable in the form of the 
lateral pronotal angles and no line can be drawn distinctly sep- 
arating the acutely angled forms (var. pyrrhoccrus H.-S.>, 
which become more frequent in the southern states. Possibly a 
tendency toward racial development may be found here when 
sufficient distributional data are made known. Similarly, fig. 79 

1 Contributions from the Department of Zoology, Smith Colic 
Xo. 83. 
-111. Xat. Hist. Survey, Bull, xiii, 157-2J3, pis. 16-21, 1919. 


of pi. 21 probably represents the southern form of Thy ant a 
ciistator, another variable species, and not T. pcrditor, which is 
a species of the tropical zone. Barber (in Jiff.) calls my atten- 
tion to this point. 

Pages 199-200. In Hart's treatment of Apateticus the spe- 
cies crocatus and bracteatus are confused. The facts will be 
correctly expressed if the names are transposed, except that 
Van Duzee is misquoted. 

Pages 218-219. The editor contributes a supplement in 
which Stal's subgenera of Apateticus are elevated to generic 
rank. I am firmly convinced that a great deal of the modern 
multiplication of genera (by subdivision rather than by the 
discovery of new groups) is a detriment rather than an advan- 
tage to science, but aside from this general question it should 
be noted that in this particular case nothing can be settled 
properly without a study of the neotropical species. For in- 
stance, the type species of Apateticus Ball, is A. halys Ball. 
( lincolatns H.-S.), a species which, as I have identified it, 
lacks the one character ascribed by Malloch to his Apateticus. 
This character, the presence of small pronotal spines near the 
basal angles of the scutellum, is not mentioned by Ballas 3 nor 
by Stal, 4 but it is found in A. marginiventris, to which refer- 
ence is made below. In other words it seems unlikely that 
Apateticus Mall, is precisely equivalent to Apateticus Ball. 

I think moreover that it is even very doubtful whether the 
generic separation of Apateticus and Podisus advocated by 
Van Buzee r> is well founded, since the chief distinction between 
the groups lies in a secondary sexual character, the abdominal 
stridulatory areas which are more or less clearly developed in 
the males of Apateticus, s. str. I believe that the arrange- 
ment of Stal and of Schouteden" will be ultimately adopted, 
with possibly one modification, namely the foundation of a 
new subgenus for A. marginiventris Stal, a species which, is 
unique in this group by virtue of its posterior pronotal spines 
and its very peculiar facies. 

3 List Hem. Brit. Mus. 1 : 105, 1851. 

*Bidr. Hem. Syst., Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., XXIV, No. 7:498, 1867. 

5 Can. Ent, XLI : 370, 1909. 

G Wyts. Gen. Ins., Fasc. 52:68, 1907. 



In my "Essay" 7 on Aradus I have noted a few clerical errors, only 
one of which, fortunately, is of importance. On page 41 the Rhode 
Island and Connecticut records of .lr<i<tits n>!<iistus are omitted and the 
following should be inserted after line 9 : 

RHODE ISLAND: Kingston, May (J. Barlow). CONNECTICUT: Meri- 
den, V, 10, 1910 (A. B. Champlain) ; Xew Haven, il, _'6, 1911 (A. B. 
Champlain) ; Rainbow, V, 7, 1914 (M. P. Zappe) ; Stonington, V, 1914 
(M. P. Zappe). 

On page 29, line 16, for p. 17 read p. 50; and on pages 32, 66, etc., 
Ottawa is placed in Quebec instead of in Ontario. 


Namacus annulicornis Stal. Arcadia, Florida, November 23, 191'.* 

(H. L. Johnson). 


Proxius gypsatus Bergroth. Manning, South Carolina, March 28-:?'.), 

1919 (E. R. Kalmbach). 
Neurqctenus pseudonymus Bergroth. Clarksville, Tennessee, March 

26, 1909 (S. E. Crumb). 
Aneurus simplex Uhler. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XIV:106 


Lcctotypc : $ , Mass., U. S. N. M. No. 25213. This specimen 
bears Uhler's original label and should be formally designated 
as the type of the species, especially in view of the very inade- 
quate original description, which refers only to the antennal 
structure and to the granulation of the surface. A female 
specimen with the same data is designated allotype. 

A New Genus in the Gelechiidae (Microlepidoptera). 

By ANNETTE F. BRAUN, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
STEREOMITA new genus. 

Head smooth, antennae nearly equaling the fore wings, ba-al 
segment long, slender, stalk somewhat serrate toward tip. Labial 
palpi long, recurved, second segment thickened with scales be- 
neath and slightly tufted, third segment equaling the second, 
thickened with scales in the middle and acute at extreme apex. 
Maxillary palpi short, apprcssrd to tongue. Posterior tibiae 
with rough hairs above and in the middle beneath, middle spurs 
from before basal fourth of the segment. 

l'"ore wings narrow, lanceolate-acuminate; 11 veins, Ib fur- 

' Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XLVII: 1-106, 1921. 


cate at base, 2 and 3 coincident from the angle, arising nearly 
opposite 9, 4 and 5 connate, nearer 6, 7 and 8 out of 6, 9 dis- 
tant, 11 from beyond middle. Hind wings l /2, a little narrower 
in the male, with anal angle less distinct, termen emarginate, 
apex produced ; all veins present, 2, 3, 4 and 5 remote, 5 near- 
est 6, 6 and 7 very short stalked. 

Genotype : Stereomita andropogonis n. sp. 

Allied to Metzncria and Megacraspcdus, but distinguished by 
the absence of a vein in the fore wing, and by the thickened 
third segment of the labial palpi. 

Stereomita andropogonis n. sp. 

Head whitish straw-colored, palpi straw-colored, with a dark brown 
patch near apex of second segment outwardly, and a dark brown an- 
nulns around middle of third segment. Antennae pale ocherous, with a 
narrow brown annulus at the base of each segment, and four broader 
blackish rings on the outer half of the stalk, separated from one another 
by two or three pale segments. Fore wings pale ochreous, deepest 
toward apex, and dusted with dark brown scales, most densely on the 
costal and dorsal margins with a tendency to longitudinal streaking ; at 
two-thirds of costa, the dusting usually forms two diffuse oblique 
streaks. Along termen, there is a series of indistinct brownish dots, and 
opposite extreme apex, in the cilia, a transverse brownish spot. Cilia 
brownish, except on costa before apex, where they are ocherous. Hind 
wings pale brown, cilia ocherous, with a faint reddish tinge. Legs 
ocherous, dusted with brown. Wing expanse : 8.5-9.5 mm. 

Type ( $ ) and 32 paratypes, Miamiville, Clermont County, 
Ohio, August 19 and 25. Type and paratypes in the writer's 
collection ; paratypes in the collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia and in the U. S. National 

The larvae feed in the inflorescence of Andropogon scoparins 
(bear-grass.) Their presence is indicated by yellowish 
patches in the flower spikes. 

The moths are active in early morning and in the evening, 
flying at the top of the stems around the flower buds, and 
alighting head downward. During the middle of the clay they 
rest amongst the basal leaves and are only disturbed with diffi- 
culty. In markings of wings, palpi and antennae, and in gen- 
eral appearance when at rest, this insect remarkably resembles 
some species of Batrachcdra. 

xxxiii, '22 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NKVVS 45 

New Researches upon the Problem of the Wing- 
Venation of Odonata. 

I. A Study of the Tracheation of the Larval Wings in the Genus 
Uropetala from New Zealand 

By R. J. TILL YARD, M.A., Sc.D. (Cantab.), D.Sc. (Sydney), 
F.L.S., F.E.S., Entomologist and Chief of the Biological 
Department, Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand. 

(Continued from page 7) 

We may now ask, what position does the family Pctalnridac 
hold in the evolutionary line of the Odonata, and what are the 
successive stages in the evolution of the vein Ms ? These ques- 
tions can be very clearly answered, as follows : 

(A) The first true Odonata had entirely lost their original 
Rs as a distinct branch of R. I shall show later, from a study 
of the Palaeodictyoptera and Protodonata, that this original 
Rs arose from R close to the base of the wing, as in other 
archaic types of insects, and that it was captured and cut off 
from R by an upwardly arching branch of M , of the type 
found in many Palaeodictyoptera and in all Orthopteroidea. 
The vein so formed, after its severance from R, had the 
appearance of a six-branched media ; but one of the original 
branches, Mia. has become degraded in the highest forms of 
Odonata. leaving us with only fire recognizable main branches. 
The best designation for this composite vein would be 
the radio-median, with the notation RM ; but I do not propose 
to adopt this new notation until I have fully established, from 
the fossil record, the proof of its complete nature. 

(B) This original condition, which became established with 
the rise of the Protodonata, is continued to the present day, 
without change, into the whole of the Order Zygoptera, with 
the single exception of the Lestidac. In all living forms which 
have this primitive condition, the Jarral tracheation of this 
portion of the "viny agrees eractlv "^'itli the subsequent iina</- 
inal I'cnation; and this, I take it, is additional proof, if such is 
needed, that neither the tracheation nor the venation of this 
portion of the wing, in these insects, has ever become special- 


(C) Arising from somewhere low clown in the Megapoda- 
grionine stem, we find the first tracheational specialization still 
in process of becoming established, in the subfamily Synlestinac 
of the Lestidac. In these archaic insects, whose close affinity with 
the still more ancient Mcgapodagrioninac admits of no doubt 
whatever, we find that, in most larvae (the genus examined 
was Synlestcs], there is a complete formation of long bridge 
and distal oblique vein 0'. This has been brought about by 
one of the small tracheae descending from A/2, far distad from 
the nodus, capturing the line of the vein Ms, so that the orig- 
inal trachea which supplied this vein from its base on M3 
outwards becomes withered, leaving the apparent long bridge- 
vein as the basal half of Ms. Also, Synlestes still shows the 
archaic position of the origin of Ms, viz., from M3, though 
most recent Zygoptera have Ms arising from Ml +2. But, in 
a certain number of these larvae of Synlestes, one or more of 
the wings may retain the original Megapodagrionine condi- 
tion, i. c., there is no trachea forming the oblique vein, which, 
consequently, is absent in the imago. 

In the subfamily Lcstinae, the oblique vein and long bridge 
have become completely established. An exactly similar forma- 
tion is to be seen in the Epiophlebiidae, and also in the fossil 
genus Heterophlcbia, which is closely allied to this family. 
Both Epiophlebia and Heterophlcbia are to be considered as 
belonging undoubtedly to Handlirsch's Suborder Anisozygop- 
tera, the discovery of the larva of the former genus making 
the recognition of this Suborder a necessity, as I have shown 
in a previous paper. 4 

(D) For the next step, we must postulate an origin for the 
Suborder Anisoptera from forms among the Anisozygoptera in 
which the distal oblique vein and long bridge were fully estab- 
lished. Pletcrophlebia may not have been the true ancestor 
of the Anisoptera, but there can be little doubt that it repre- 
sents very closely what that ancestor was like, at the stage of 
the first formation of the triangle in the hind wing. Starting 

4 Tillyard, R. J. "On an Anisozy gopterous Larva from the Himala- 
yas (Order Odonata). Records Indian Museum, 1921, xxii, pt. ii, no. 
12, pp. 93-107, pi. xiii. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 47 

with an ancestral form of this type, the true Anisoptera began 
with forms in which the point of origin of M2 became fixed 
close under the nodus. The small trachea beneath the nodus, 
arising from R, and supplying the subnodal vein, must next 
have grown out as a very slender branch beneath .1/1 and M2, 
just beyond their point of union, and must have at last found 
its wav down to the level of Ms at about the middle of the 


long bridge. There being no trachea supplying the long bridge, 
it is not difficult to see how this new trachea came to supply 
its distal half. With a very slight increase in the development 
of this trachea, we get the stage represented in the ante- 
penultimate instar of the larva of Uropetala, in which the 
calibre of the new tracheal outgrowth is still much smaller 
than that of Ms. Further increase in calibre would give us 
the present condition in the last instar of Pctaluridae, in which 
the trachea from the subnodus underlies the basal oblique vein 
0, and supplies also that portion of Ms between O and O'. I 
would suggest that the notation Rs for this trachea should be 
definitely abandoned. As it is a tracheal outgrowth from R 
below the nodus, it should be called the subnodal trachea, 
while the notation Ms should be kept for the whole vein. If it 
is desired to distinguish the three portions of the vein Ms in 
Pctaluridae, we might speak of the bridge or basal portion, the 
subnodal or middle portion, and the distal portion, respectively. 

Thus we see that the Pctaluridae stand as the oldest type 
extant within the Anisoptera, possessing tzuo tracheal special- 
izations in the region of Ms; one, indicated by 0' , being derived 
from Anisozygopterous ancestors, and being homologous with 
that seen in the Lestidae and Epiophlebiidae; while the other, 
indicated by 0, is peculiar to the Anisoptera, and is to be con- 
sidered as of later origin. 

(E) If we examine the Cordulegasteridae, which show 
affinity with the Pefaluridac on the one hand and with the 
Aeschnidae and Gotnphidae on the other, we find occasional 
specimens in which the two oblique veins of the Pctaluridae 
are present. But, in most cases, only the basal oblique vein 
is present, with a short bridge-vein. Thus, in this family, we 
see the dying out of the original tracheal specialization indi- 



[Feb. ,'22 

cated by 0' and the long bridge ; the trachea which first cap- 
tured the line of Ms via O' becomes ousted by the subnodal 
trachea, and the result is that we get the formation seen in the 
larvae of almost all Anisoptera at the present day, viz., a single 
oblique vein O, placed not far distad from the level of the 
nodus, a short bridge vein, and an apparent trachea Rs supply- 
ing the course of the vein Ms. 


Text-fig. 2. Diagrams to show the evolutionary stages in the region of the nodus and 
oblique veins in Odonata. A-B, the primitive condition, in which the imaginal venation 
corresponds with the larval tracheation, and no oblique veins are present. C, formation 
of the long bridge and distal oblique vein, as in Lestidae. D, condition seen in Petalu- 
ridae, with short bridge and two oblique veins. E, condition present in the majority of 
Anisoptera, with short bridge vein and only the more basal oblique vein present. 

Text-fig, 2 shows the tracheation of the larval wing for each 
of these evolutionary stages. 

If this outline of the evolution of this portion of the larval 
and imaginal wings be accepted, we must recognize the Zygop 
tera and the Anisozygoptera as the first two Suborders to 
appear by differentiation of the original Odonite stock, and we 
must allow that the Anisoptera only arose later, from some of 
the more specialized types among the Anisozygoptera. That 
this was actually so, I believe can be fully proved by a careful 
study of the known fossil record, as- I shall endeavor to set 
out in a later part of these researches. 

We have now to deal briefly with one line of criticism that 
will most certainly be levelled against the position taken in this 
paper. In his original paper (1), Needham gave drawings of 
the positions of his supposed trachea Rs in the developing 
stages of the larva of a species of Gomplms. No photographs 
were given of any but the last instar. In these drawings, it 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 49 

was shown that, in the very earliest stages, Rs lay in its normal 
position below R, without crossing M at all. At a somewhat 
later stage, Rs was shown crossing Ml only. Later still, Rs 
was shown crossing both Ml and M2. 

If these drawings represent the correct postion of Rs, they 
do most certainly constitute a strong argument for Needham's 
view. Quite apart from the difficult question as to the actual 
possibility of both a vein and its precedent trachea shifting its 
position in this manner, it must be admitted that, if the larval 
wing shows the ontogenetic stages in correct order, it would 
be very difficult to avoid the conclusion that we were really 
dealing with the original trachea Rs in this case. 

Now, I have repeatedly attempted to parallel these figures of 
Needham's, by dissecting off the earliest stages of the larval 
wings in various Anisopterous genera ; but I have never suc- 
ceeded in finding any other condition than that in which the 
supposed Rs crosses both .1/1 and M2, as it does in the last 
larval in star. The genera examined by me were Aeschna, 
Hcmicordulia and Diplacodes. Dr. Ris has also examined the 
earliest stages of the larval wing in Libellula, and his results 
agree exactly with my own. One of his photographs shows 
such an early stage of the growth of the larval wing that the 
extreme length of it is barely half the breadth at the base; yet. 
in this case, as in the corresponding stages of those genera 
which I have examined, the supposed Rs descends almost trans- 
versely across the wing, crossing both Ml and M2, as in the 
last larval instar. 

There were, therefore, only two possible conclusions to come 
to. Either the genus GouiMnis presents a more complete onto- 
genetic series of the development of Rs than do the other 
genera studied, or Needham's drawings were incorrect. 

Recently, during my tour round the world, I visited Ithaca 
and met Professor Needham. Together we collected larvae 
of Complins and Ha/jcnius in the creek there, and I decided 
to dissect the wings of the earliest stages obtainable, and com- 
pare them with Needham's own drawings. I must admit that 
the result came as a great surprise. Text-fig. 3 shows the con- 
dition in the two earliest obtainable instars. The instar shown 



[Feb., '22 

in Text-fig. 3, a, appears to correspond to that which Ris suc- 
ceeded in obtaining for Libellnla, and is certainly quite as early 
a stage as that figured by Needham in which Rs is shown not 
crossing- M at all. The next instar to this is shown in Text-fig. 
3, b, and this is certainly either earlier than, or as early as. 
that in which Needham figures Rs as crossing Ml only. Sev- 
eral larvae of Gomphus in these early stages were dissected, 
together with one larva of Hagcnins. All agreed in having the 

R _R 

Text-fig. 3. a, Gomphus villosipes Selys, early larvarl instar, tracheation of portion 
of forewing, greatly magnified, b, the same, next succeeding larval instar, complete tra- 
cheation of forewing less highly magnified. 

supposed Rs in the position shown in Text-fig. 3. It is only 
possible to conclude that Needham's figures of these stages 
were incorrectly drawn, probably through displacement of the 
very delicate tracheae. 

Thus we may now be sure that no ontogenetic stages of the 
supposed development of Rs really exist in the early larval 
instars of Anisoptera. The position of this trachea being the 
same in all instars from the earliest upwards is easily under- 
standable on the theory that it is not the original Rs, but an 
extension of the subnodal trachea, as I have indicated in the 
argument presented in this paper. 

A further objection which has to be met is this : If this 
trachea does not represent the original Rs, where is the original 
Rs? I have already indicated that the solution of this problem 
depends upon a study of the known fossils of the Orders 
Palaeodictyoptera and Protodonata. The solution would take 
us far beyond the confines of this paper, and is left for a future 
part of these researches. 

I have referred only briefly, in this paper, to the interesting 
problem of the cubital and anal veins in the Odonata. It is 
quite clear, from a study of the fossil record, that the present 


interpretation of the limits of these veins cannot stand. It has 
always been a serious difficulty, in studying the homologies of 
the wing-veins in different Orders, that the vein named Cul 
in Odonata was concave, whereas, in all other insects, this 
vein is a strongly convex vein ; and it is equally difficult to ex- 
plain how the vein called O/2 in the Odonata should happen 
to be convex, when this vein is, in all other insects, the most 
concave in the wing, forming, in the Orthopteroid and Panor- 
poid Orders, the vena dividcns separating the clavus from the 
rest of the wing. I hope to show that, in the Odonata, the 
true Cul, which, in most insects, originates from a compound 
vein MS -r- Cul, is the vein which we now call M4 ; also that 
the vein which we call Cul in Odonata is in reality the homo- 
logue of Cu2 in other Orders; and finally that the single anal 
vein existing in the Odonata is IA, and that it extended orig- 
inally far along the posterior part of the wing, embracing all 
except the extreme base of the vein which we now call Cu2 
in Odonata. Further, the presence of only one anal vein can 
be explained only by supposing that the original ancestors of 
the Odonata had a very narrowed base to the wing ; and this 
also I shall be able to demonstrate from the fossil record. 

Sufficient has now been said to make it evident that we re- 
quire a complete re-study of Odonate wing-venation, in order 
to bring our notation into line with that used in other Orders. 
Tf it is found impossible to arrive at any general agreement in 
this matter, then it would be far better to go back to the non- 
committal names given by de Selys. rather than to continue 
to use a notation which gives an entirely false idea of the 
limnologies existing between the veins called radial sector, 
media, cubitus and first analis in the Order Odonata and those 
carrying these same names in other Orders. 

Entomological Losses by Fire 

The home of Dr. Charles P. Alexander, l T rhana, Illinois, was 
destroyed by fire on Xe\v Year's morning. The greater part of his 
collection of crane-flies was saved, this including- all hut a few typ'.-s. 
Duplicate material, both of specimens and reprints, was larm 1\ 
destroyed by fire or water. Reprints that bad been sent before by 
entomologists :tnd can still be duplicated will be very L-rate fully received 
Such may be addressed to him at the Natural History Building, 
Urbana, Illinois. 


A New Cerambycid Beetle from Santo Domingo (Col.). 

By W. S. FISHER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

Among a small collection of West Indian Cerambycidae re- 
ceived from Mr. J. J. Davis for identification, the following 
apparently new species was found. 

Callichroma domingoensis new species. 

$ . Elongate, subcylindrical and attenuate posteriorly; head, pro- 
notum, elytra and underside except abdomen dull metallic green with a 
slight violaceous tinge ; antennae, tibiae, tarsi and abdomen black ; femora 
entirely of a bright reddish-brown color, and somewhat opaque. 

Head deeply longitudinally grooved on vertex. Antennae about one 
and one-half times as long as the entire body; joints three to eleven 
strongly, longitudinally carinated. 

Pronotum with the medio-lateral tubercle well developed and acute at 
tip; antero-lateral callosity not strongly marked; strongly constricted 
anteriorly and along the base, the basal constriction being more shallow 
than one along anterior margin ; disc on each side of median line with a 
feebly rounded gibbosity just behind the anterior constriction; surface 
strongly, transversely rugose, with a few distant punctures between the 
rugae, and sparsely clothed with short black hairs. Scutellum large, tri- 
angular, and longitudinally concave; surface smooth at middle and 
rather densely, finely punctate towards the sides. 

Elytra two and one-half times as long as wide; sides very much nar- 
rowed from base to tips, which are rather broadly separately rounded ; 
humerus well developed; surface rather deeply, densely and confluently 
punctate, becoming feebly rugose towards apex, and sparsely clothed 
with very short, inconspicuous, recumbent black hairs. 

Abdomen rather densely, obsoletely punctate and densely clothed with 
a short, somewhat silvery pubescence ; last ventral segment broadly 
rounded at apex without any trace of a notch. 

Front and middle femora short and abruptly petiolate near apex ; hind 
femora slender, compressed, gradually becoming wider to apex and 
reaching to the tip of the elytra. Front and middle tibiae about equal in 
length to the femora, slightly compressed and gradually enlarged anter- 
iorly; surface longitudinally carinate, finely, irregularly punctate and 
clothed with long stiff black hairs. Hind tibiae not quite as long as the 
femora, moderately broad and strongly compressed ; lower surface 
broadly concave with the inner margin densely clothed with a series of 
stiff black hairs. 

Length 28 mm. ; width 8 mm. 

Type Locality. "San Sidro, Santo Domingo." Type. Cat. 
No." 24676, U. S. National Museum. 

Described from a single male specimen received from Mr. 
J. J. Davis, and collected by Dr. Browne during April or May, 
1919, at "San Sidro, Santo Domingo." [San Isidro?]. 

This species resembles Callicliroina plicaturn LeConte, to a 
certain extent, but is, however, easily separated from that 
species by the abdomen being entirelv Mack, pronotum less 
densely punctured, and the femora being uniformly light red- 
dish-brown in color, and not tipped with black as in plica f it m. 



Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, December, 1921 
The meetings of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science and of the Associated Scientific Societies, held 
at Toronto, Canada, December 27 to 31, 1921. were highly 
successful and interesting, well attended and took place under 
favorable weather conditions, the extreme cold which many 
feared not having been present. The arrangements for the 
meetings in the various buildings of the University of Toronto 
were, in nearly all respects, very convenient and satisfactory. 
Lunches and many dinners were held in Hart House, that mag- 
nificent home of the social activities of students and faculty. 
To the members of the Local Committees, especially those in 
charge of the entomological visitors, we extend our heartiest 

Papers relating, in whole or in part, to the tracheate 
Arthropods were listed on the programs of 

A. A. A. S., General Sessions 1 

American Society of Zoologists (alone) 20 

The same with the Ecological Society of America 2 

Entomological Society of America (alone) 16 

The same with the Entomological Society of Ontario 15 

The same with the Ecological Society of America 18 

Kcological Society of America (alone) 1 

American Association of Economic Entomologists (alone, but in- 
cluding its Sections on Apiculture and Horticultural Inspection). 55 

The same with the Entomological Society of Ontario 19 

Tlie same with the American Phytopathological Society, symposium 1 

American Society of Naturalists 2 

American Nature Study Society 1 

American Society for Horticultural Science.... 1 

Total 152 

These 152 papers were concerned with the following sub- 
jects : 



General Entomology 8 Relations to Plants (noneconom- 

Methods 5 ic) 2 

Cytology 4 Parasites (of animal hosts) 9 

Anatomy 8 Relations to Man 5 

Physiology 15 General Economic Entomology 19 

Ontogeny 4 Insects Injurious to Plants 24 

Genetics 8 Insecticides and Fumigants 18 

Taxonomy 6 Apiculture 8 

Ecology 9 Other Special Insects 10 

Araneina 1 Hemiptera 16 

Acarina 6 Coleoptera 15 

Myriopoda 1 Hymenoptera (exclusive of Apis) 

Orthoptera 3 8 

Isoptera 1 Apis 8 

Ephemerida 3 Lepidoptera 25 

Odonata 2 Diptera (exclusive of Drosophila) 

Xeuroptera 1 19 

Mallophaga 1 Drosophila 6 

Anoplura 1 Siphonaptera 1 

Many of the figures in this second list are duplicated ; thus 
a paper on the Genetics of Drosophila appears under both of 
these headings. 

The paper credited to the general sessions of the A. A. A. S. 
was the address of the retiring President, Dr. L. O. Howard, 
entitled, "On Some Presidential Addresses : The War on the 
Insects," which has been published in Science for December 
30, 1921. 

The symposium of the Economic Entomologists and the 
American Phytopathological Society was on "Insects as Dis- 
seminators of Plant Diseases," in which Dr. E. D. Ball, of 
Washington, D. C, and Prof. L. Caesar, of Canada, represented 
the Entomologists. 

Included in the above lists are also the Annual Address of 
the Entomological Society by Dr. Seymour Hadwen, of the 
United States Biological Survey, on "Northern Oestridae" ; the 
Presidential Address before the Economic Entomologists by 
Prof. George A. Dean, of Manhattan, Kansas, on "How We 
May Increase the Effectiveness of Economic Entomology," and 
a paper read by Dr. L. O. Howard on "The Organization Meet- 
ing of the Association of Economic Entomologists, at Toronto. 
August, 1899." This was "saved" for the very enjoyable 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 55 

Entomologists' dinner, at the Prince George Hotel, on Friday 
evening, December 30. At this occasion, Professors J. H. 
Comstock and Herbert Osborn, guests, with Dr. Howard, of 
the Association of Economic Entomologists, gave some very 
interesting reminiscences of early events in their respective 

Not included in the lists we have given, but of great interest 
to entomologists and biologists generally, were three symposia, 
one by the botanists, "The Species Concept" ; one by the Nat- 
uralists, "Origin of Variations," and one by the Zoologists, 
''Orthogenesis." Here too we must mention the addresses by 
Prof. William Hateson, guest of the A. A. A. S. and of the 
Zoologists, on "The Evolutionary Faith and Modern Doubt" 
before a general session of the Association, and on "The Out- 
look in Genetics" at the Zoologists' dinner. 

The total of 152 papers, all hough, as usual, not all of them 
were given, is, we believe, the highest ever listed for one of 
these meetings. 

Notes and Nevsrs. 



Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin 
News Bulletin No. 5. 

The arrival in Philadelphia of a second shipment of scient.fic speci- 
mens from the Mulford Exploration is announced. The H. K. Mulford 
Company has arranged for their clearance through Customs and, in ac- 
cord with Dr. Rusby's instructions, has distributed them to specialists of 
the Universities and Museums who are co-operating in the work of this 

The latest letters received from Dr. Rusby and his party, were writ- 
ten Oct. 21st, 1921, and mailed from Rurrenabaque, Bolivia. Dr. Rusby 
and his party had at that time started out on the trip to Lake Rocagua 
and surrounding territory, with the expectation of finding much that was 
new, including geographical facts as well as biological and botanical 
imens. Although all the maps of South America show the Kin 
.\egro as the outlet of Lake Rocagua, their information was that no 
connection exists between the lake and the river but that the river origi- 
nated in a low range of hills situated near the lake. 

Cable messages since received indicate the successful termination of 
their trip to Lake Rocagua and progress as far as Kiberalta in Bolivia 
near the Brazil. an border. All the members of the party were reported 
in excellent health and spirits except the director himself. Dr. Rushy 
has been suffering I'nun infectious rheumatism brought on and height- 
ened by the exposure and hardships of the life in the wilderness. It is 
probable that on account of the state of his health it may be necessary 
lo abandon the second part of their trip up into Columbia, as contemplat- 
ed in the original plans. R. 11. Hi n HISON, Secy., Philadelphia, Fa. 


The Crop Protection Institute. 

The first annual meeting of the Crop Protection Institute will have 
been held at Rochester, New York, in connection with the New York 
Horticultural Society's meeting, with a dinner on January 12th, at the 
Rochester Chamber of Congress. 

It was announced that among those taking part on the program v/ould 
be Professor W. C. O'Kane, of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, and Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Crop 
Protection Institute, who was to talk on the ideals of the Institute; Dr. 
L. R. Jones, Chairman of the Division of Biology and Agriculture of 
the National Research Council, whose theme was to be the "Relation of 
Environment to Disease and Disease Resistance of Plants ;" Dr. R. \Y. 
Thatcher, Director of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, 
who was to speak informally on the "Need for Investigations in the 
Chemistry of Insecticides and Fungicides." From the standpoint of 
industry Mr. G. R. Cushman, of the General Chemical Company, was 
to give a brief talk. Professor P. J. Parrott, of the New York Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, would also probably talk on Paradichloro- 

The Crop Protection Institute, which has a membership of about three 
hundred and fifty (350) prominent entomologists, plant pathologists, 
agricultural chemists and manufacturers of insecticides and fungicides 
and others interested in the protection of all kinds of crops, was organ- 
ized only a year ago, under the auspices of the National Research Coun- 
cil of Washington, D. C. The purpose of the Institute is not to dupli- 
cate the work of individuals or other organizations, but to bring about 
closer co-operation of effort, to strengthen the weak places and develop 
needed investigations that are not being pursued by other agencies. 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Ara.chnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 

tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology. Series B 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

2 Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Philadel- 
phia. 4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 5 Psyche. 
Cambridge, Mass. 9 The Entomologist, London. 12 Journal of 
Economic Entomology, Concord, N. H. 15 Insecutor Inscitiae 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 57 

Menstruus, Washington, D. C. 20 Bulletin de la Societe Ento- 
mologique dc France, Paris. 22 Bulletin of Entomological Re- 
search, London. 39 The Florida Entomologist, Gainesville, Florida. 
42 Entomologiske Meddelelser udgivne af Entomologisk Forening, 
Kjobenliavn. 48 Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 49 Entomol- 
ogischc Mitteilungen Berlin-Dahlem. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, 
Leipsic. 54 Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 
D. C. 61 Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco. 64 Parasitology, London. 68 Science, Lancaster. 1'... 
76 Nature, London. 77 Comptes Rendus des Seances de la 
Societe de Biologic, Paris. 85 The Journal of Experimental 
Zoology, Philadelphia. 87 Arkiv for Zoologi, K. Svenska Veten- 
skapsakademien, Stockholm. 90 The American Naturalist, Lan- 
caster, Pa. 91 The Scientific Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 99 Bulletin 
du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 102 Broteria, 
Revista Lusco Brazileira, Serie Zoologica, Braga. 104- ZeitschrifL 
fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Leipzig. 106 Anales de la Sociedad 
Cientifica, Argentina, Buenos Aires. Ill Archiv fur Naturges- 
chichte, Berlin. 119 Proceedings of the National Academy of 
Sciences of the U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 130 Revista Chilena 
de Historia Natural. 131 Annales de Zoologia Aplicacla, Santiago 
de Chile. 132 Revista do Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo. Brazil. 

GENERAL. Bird, H. Soil acidity in relation to insects and 
plants. (Ecology, ii, 193 7.) Cockerell, T. D. A. Dru Drury, an 
eighteenth century entomologist. 91, xiv, 67-82. Glendenning, R. 
Notes on the fauna and flora of Mt. McLean, B. C. 43, Xo. is. :;<>-44. 
Hempel, A. As pragas e molestias do arroz no estado de Sao Paulo. 
132, xii, 147-50. Howard, L. O. On some presidental addresses: 
the war against the insects. 68, liv, 641-51. Johansen, F. Insect 
life on the western arctic coast of America. (Rep. Canada. Arct. 
Exped., iii, K, 61 pp.) Lucas and Strand. Jahresberichtc uhcr die 
wissenschaftlichen leistungen im gebiete der Trichoptera, Mecoptera. 
rodentia, Odonata, Agnatha.. . Orthoptera. Ill, I'.nti, I'.. 1-19, 171. 
Neuroptera, Mallophags, Anoplura, Thysanoptera, Plecoptera, Cor- 
Porter, C. E. Sobre algunos arthropodos colectados en div .-r>a- 
localidades del pais por los senores... Thomas, Campo., etc. 130, 
xxiv, l.":i-6(>. Serre, P. A. Inscctes piquants et parasites an Costa- 
Rica. 99, 1<)21, 170-2. Weiss and West. Additional notes on 
fungous insects. 54, xxxiv, 167-71. Whiting, P. W. Rearing meal 
moths and parasitic wasps for experimental purposes. Heredity in 
wasps. (Genetics, xii, 255-61; 202-66). Wildeman, E. de. A pmi 111 - 
de myrmecophilie. 77, Ixxxv, 874-6. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, etc. Bertin, L. La bouche des 
insectes et leur alimentation. (La Nature, Pari-. L921, :::.':: 
Brocher, F. Etude experimentale sur le fonctionnement du vaisseau 


dorsal et sur la circulation du sang chez les insectes. 87, Ix, 1-45. 
Courrier, R. Sur 1'existence d'une secretion intranucleaire dans 
1'epithelium du spermatheque de la reine d'abeille sa signification. 
77, Ixxxv, 941-3. Crampton, G. C. Note on the surginopods of 
certain Mecoptera and Neuroptera. 5, xxviii, 151. Cunliffe, N. 
Some observations on the biology and structure of Ornithodorus 
moubata. 64, xiii, 327-47. Fraenkel, H. Die symbionten der blat- 
tiden im fettgewebe und ei insbesondere von Periplaneta orientalis. 
104, cxix, 53-66. Fuhrmann, H. Beitrage zur kenntniss der haut- 
sinnesorgane der tracheaten. Die antennalen sinnesorgane der 
myriapoden. 104, cxix, 1-52. Gerould, J. H. Blue-green cater- 
pillars: The origin and ecology of a mutuation in hemolymph color 
in Colias philodice. 85, xxxiv, 385-416. Hollande, A. C. Reactions 
des tissus du Dytiscus marginalis. 87, xlix, 543-63. Lancefield & 
Metz. Non-disjunction and the chromosomes relationships of Dro- 
sophila willistoni. 119, vii, 225-9. Mallock, A. Metallic colouring 
of beetles. 76, cviii, 432-3. Monnot, E. Le mechanisme du saut 
chez les Elaterides. (Bui. Soc. Sc. et Med. Quest, xxviii, 17-37; 
xxix, 19-28.) Sturtevant, A. H. A case of rearrangement of genes 
in Drosophila. 119, vii, 235-7. Szymanski, J. S. Die sogenannte 
tierische hypnose bei einer insektenart. (Pfluger's Archiv..., clxvi, 
528-30.) Tanzer, E. Die zellkerne einiger dipterenlarven und ihre 
entwicklung. 104, cxix, 114-53. Wade, J. S. Notes on defensive 
scent glands of certain Coleoptera. 5, xxviii, 145-9. Zeleny, C. De- 
crease in sexual dimorphism of bar-eye Drosophila during the course 
of selection for low and high facet number. 90, Iv, 404-11. 

ARACHNIDA, &c. Brolemann, H. W. Clef dichotomique des 
divisions et des especes de la famille des Blaniulidae. 87, Ix, 1-10. 
Emerton, J. H. Notes on Canadian and Arctic spiders. 5, xxviii, 

NEUROPTERA. Esben-Petersen, P. Collections zoologiques 
du...Selys Longchamps. Catalog. Syst. et Descript., Fasc. v, 
Mecoptera, 172 pp. Hankin, E. H. The soaring flight of dragon- 
flies. (Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc., xx, 461-65.) Navas, R. P. L.- 
Insectos Americanos nuevos o criticos. 102, xix, 113-24. Algunos 
insectos del Brasil. 132, xii, 413-17. Porter, C. E. Los Tisanopteros. 
131, vii, 21-32. 

Calvert, P. P. Gomphus dilatatus, vastus and a new species, 
lineatifrons. 2, xlvii, 221-32. 

ORTHOPTERA. Buckell, E. R. Notes on the ecological dis- 
tribution of some orthoptera from the Chilcotin district of British 
Columbia. 43, No. 18, 32-8. Hebard, M. Mexican records of 
Blattidae. 2, xlvii, 199-220. Reed, C. S. Dos mantidos Argentines 
aclimatados en Chile. 131, vii, 20. 


Caudell, A. N. On the orthopterous group Phaneropterae (Scud- 
deriae), with descriptions of a new genus and species. (Jour. Wash. 
Acad. Sci., xi, 487-93.) Rehn, J. A. G. Descriptions of new and 
critical notes upon previously known forms of N. Am. Oedipodinae. 
2, xlvii, 171-97. 

HEMIPTERA. Brethes, J. Description d'un nouveau homoptere 
Chilien. 130, xxiv, 10-11. Hempel, A. Descripcoes de ciccidas 
novas e pouco conhecidas. 132, xii, 329-77. Mason, A. C. A host 
plant list of Aphids in the vicinity of the University of Florida. 39, 
v, 21-5. Porter, C. E. Descripcion de un nuevo coccido Chileno. 
132, vii, 33-4. Schumacher, F. Aphidologische notizen. 52, liii, 
181-91; 281-86. 

Parshley, H. M. A report on some Hemiptera from British 
Columbia. 43, No. 18, 13-24. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Blackmore, E. H. The Sphingidae of British 
Columbia. 43, No. 18, 25-32. Bowman, K. Annotated check list 
of the macrolepidoptera of Alberta additions, 1920. 4, Hi, 211-12. 
Dyar, H. G. New American moths. The larva of Basilodes pepita. 
15, ix, 192-4; 196. Englehardt, G. P. A note on the occurrence of 
two Pyralids. 15, ix, 160. Giacomelli, E. Notas sobre el Papilio 
thoas. Danos de su oruga en los citrus. 131, vii, 6-11. Hall, A. 
Descriptions of three new butterflies from Colombia. 9, liv, 278-9. 
Meyrick, E. The North American species of Orneodes. 9, liv. 
274-76. Meyrick, E. Exotic microlepidoptera, ii, 449-80. Schaus, 
W. New species of heterocera from South America. 15, ix, 161-71). 

Barnes & Lindsey. A new species of Heterocampa (Noctuidae). 
Notes on Noctuidae with descriptions of some n. sps. 5, xxviii. 
150-1; 156-9. Benjamin, F. H. A study of the noctuid moths of 
the genera Lampra and Cryptocala. (Bui. So. Cal. Acad. Sen., xx, 

DIPTERA. Brethes, J. Description d'un nouveau diptere Chil- 
ien, parasite de Laora variabilis. 131, vii, 12-13. Dyar, H. G. The 
species of Finlaya allied to terrcns. New Mosquitoes from Costa 
Rica. Note on Melanoconion indecorabilis. Note on Culex dec- 
larator. 15, ix, 151-3; 154-5; 155-7; 194-5. Franca, C. Observations 
sur le genre Phlebotomus. (Bui. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat., viii, 
214-36.) Freeborn, S. B. The seasonal history of Anopheles occi- 
dentalis in California. 12, xiv, 415-21. Hearle, E. The importance 
of mosquitoes, with notes on some Br. Col. species. 43, No. 13. 
132-35. Herms, W. B. Distributional and ecological notes on 
anopheline mosquitoes in California. 12, xiv, 410-1 1. Lamb, C. G. 
An unusual type of male secondary characters in the diptera. 
(Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc., xx, 475-77.) Morris, H. M. The 
larval and pupal stages of the Bibionidae. 22, xii, 221 -32. Muller, 


M. Rhyphus und Mycetobia, mit besonderer berucksichtigung des 
larvalen Darmes. 52, liii, 297-304. Seguy, E. Les Dipteres qui 
vivent aux depens des escargots. 20, 1921, 238-9. Etude sur 
I'Omphrale fenestralis. 99, 1921, 60-6. Surcouf, J. M. R. Notes 
biologiques sur certains dipteres. Revision du genre Pelegorhynchus. 
(Dipteres piqueurs de la famillc des Tabanidae). 99, 1921, 67-74; 
221-24. Thompson, W. R. Contributions a la connaissance des 
formes larvaires des Scarcophagides. 20, 1921, 219-22. 

Cole & Lovett. An annotated list of the Diptera of Oregon. 61, 
xi, 197-344. Dietz, W. G. A list of the crane-flies taken in the 
vicinity of Hazleton, Pennsylvania. 2, xlvii, 233-68. Malloch, J. R. 
-The North American species of the anthomyiid genus Hebecnema. 
4, lii, 214-15. Sherman, R. S. New sps. of Mycetophilidae. .43, No. 
16, 16-21. Tothill, J. D. A revision of the Nearctic species of the 
Tachinid genus Ernestia. 4, lii, 199-205 (cont.) 

COLEOPTERA. Bernhauer, M. Neue Staphyliniden aus Sud- 
amerika, besonders aus Argentinen. 48, xxxviii, 169-79. Borchmann, 
F. Othniidae versuch einer ubersicht uber die famillie. Die amer- 
ikanischen gattungcn und arten der Statirnae. Ill, 1921, A, 1, 
191-215, 216-355. Heller, K. M. Nuevos Curculionidos de la Ar- 
gentina. 106, xci, 19-35. Horn, W. Haben Ur-Phaeoxantha- 
formen den "Ameghino-Strom" bewohnt? 49, x, 149-50. Lesne, P. 
Les especes typiques de Trogoxylon. Position systematique de 
ce genre. 20, 1921, 228-31. Melzer, J. Longicorneos novos ou 
pouco conhecidos do Brasil. 132, xii, 421-37. Satterthwait, A. F. 
Notes on the food plants and distribution of certain billbugs. 
(Ecology, ii, 198-210.) Weiss & Lott. Notes on Orchestes rufipes 
in New Jersey. 5, xxviii, 152-5. 

HYMENOPTERA. Brethes, J. Description d'un Encyrtidae 
nouveau du Chili. 130, xxiv, 137-9. Herbst, P. Neue Chilenische 
blumenwespen. (Apidae). 130, xxiv, 8-9. Kieffer, J. J. Proc- 
totrypides notes des fourmis en Argentine. 106, xci, 36-41. Lueder- 
waldt, H. Chave para determinar os Dorylineos brasileiros. 132, 
xii, 231-57. Marchand, W. The egg-laying habits of Megarhyssa 
(Thalessa). 68, liv, 607-8. Porter, C. E. Sobre algunos Braconidos 
Chilenos y descripcion de una nueva especie. 130, xxiv, 5-7. 
Schrcttky, C. Les abeilles du genre "Ancyloscelis." Himenopteros 
nuevos o poco conocidos sudamericanos. 132, xii, 153-176; 179-227. 
Trouvelot, B. Observations biologiques sur 1'Habrobracon johan- 
senni. 77, Ixxxv, 1022-24. Wheeler & Taylor. Vespa arctica, a 
parasite of Vespa diabolica. 5, xxviii, 135-44. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. Western bees obtained by the American 
museum expeditions. (American Mus. Novitates No. 24.) Wells & 
Metcalf. A new species of oak gall and its maker. 4, lii, 212-13. 


On January 14, 1920 (although dated 1919), there appeared the first 
GORDON FLOYD FERRIS, then Instructor, now Assistant Professor of En- 
tomology at the Leland Stanford Junior University and published by 
that institution. It was announced to be the first of a series which, when 
complete, will constitute a monograph of the Anoplura, and that the 
sequence in which the various genera would be dealt with would be gov- 
erned entirely by convenience and relative completeness of material. The 
collection forming the basis of the work, presumably that at Stanford, 
is stated to be without a doubt the largest and most comprehensive now 
in existence, containing approximately three-fourths of the described 
Series. The most significant portion of it has been obtained by the 
initiation of the mammal skins in certain museums. This first part 
consisted of 51 octavo pages and 32 text figures and treated of the 
genera Endcrleincllns and Microfhthirns. The second part appeared in 
1921. as Vol. II, No. 2 of the Stanford University Publications, Uni- 
versity Series, Biological Sciences. It occupies 76 pages, contains 57 text 
figures and is concerned only with the genus Hoploplcitra. Part I states 
that all discussion of the group as a whole and all keys to the families 
and genera must of necessity be delayed until the final papers of the 
series, which will also contain a complete host list, a bibliography, ac- 
knowledgments of the sources of material and other matter of general 



Thanks to Dr. K. Kertesz, I am now able to contribute the 
following obituary of Victor Szepligeti. Born in Zircz (Hun- 
gary) August 21, 1855, he died in his 60th year on March 24, 
1915. He studied at the University and Technical University 
at Budapest. He became professor of Natural History and 
Chemistry in 1877. He taught until 1912 when he retired. 

First he was a botanist and had a very large and precious 

herbarium (now in the Botanical Department of the Hungarian 

National Museum. ) Then he was interested in Aphids and 

galls. Later he began to collect and study the Braconidae and 


Up to the time of his death he had published sixty papers 
which, with but three or four exceptions, dealt with Ichneu- 
nit moidea. 

lie published one paper on Cecidomyidae (Diptera) in 18 ()() . 


From 1883 to 1895 he published three papers that relate to 
Diptera or other insects either wholly or in part. 

In Roi'artani Lapok, Vol. 22, 1915, pp. 141-147, is a portrait. 
obituary and bibliography. The latter lists his publications 
except the posthumous ones. The obituary notice of nearly 
two pages is in Hungarian. 



Miss Caroline Burling Thompson, professor of zoology at 
Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts, died at that place 
December 5, 1921. She was born in Germantown, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, June 27, 1869, daughter of Lucius P. and Caro- 
line Burling Thompson. She attended the University of Penn- 
sylvania, receiving the degrees of B.S. in Biology in 1898 and 
of Ph.D. in 1901. Under the influence of the late T. H. Mont- 
gomery, Jr. (then Assistant Professor), she, as a graduate, 
took up the study of the Nemertean worms and published at 
least three papers on this group. One of them, her thesis for 
the doctorate, on the anatomy of Zygeupolia Htoralis, appeared 
in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia for 1901. 

Tn 1901 she was appointed Instructor in Zoology at Welles- 
ley College and was subsequently promoted to be Associate 
Professor (1909) and Professor (1916) in that subject. It 
was while there that Dr. Thompson's entomological work began 
with her comparative study of ants' brains, a subject "sug- 
gested to me by Prof. W. M. Wheeler of Harvard University 
as one that needed investigation." Her detailed description of 
the structure of this organ afforded, she believed, additional 
evidence that the mushroom bodies are the chief motor and 
psychic centers and that the queen's brain seems to represent 
the generalized type from which the worker caste has departed. 
(1913.} Extending her studies to termites, to compare their 
brains with those of ants, she found that "The termite brain 
as a whole is very similar in structure to the brain of ants. 


with the notable exception of the mushroom bodies which an- 
of a much more simple and primitive type" and suggested that 
the frontal gland, found in all castes of termites, "may have 


arisen phylogenetically from the ancestral median ocellus 
which is now lacking in the termites" (1916). 

Her most important paper is that dealing with the origin of 
the castes of the common termite (1917). In it, after review- 
ing the views held as to the influence of food on differentiation 
of the various forms as well as the doubts expressed by others, 
she produced evidence that there are visible internal differences 
between the newly hatched young which are to develop into 
the reproductive and non-reproductive members of the com- 
munity respectively, although externally they are. all alike. 
'Therefore the fertile and sterile types are predetermined at 
the time of hatching," * * * * "My final conclusion is that 
all termite castes are predetermined in the egg." She was care- 
ful to point out the bearing of this discovery and the similar 
observations of Bugnion (1912, 1913) on ''the greater ques- 
tion whether the heritable bodily structure is determined by 
extrinsic factors, such as food and environment, or by in- 
trinsic factors within the germplasm." In two other papers 
(1919. 1920) additional confirmatory evidence in support of 
the germinal predetermination theory was furnished. In con- 
junction with Mr. T. E. Snyder, of the United States Bureau 
of Entomology, she discussed the question whether the phvlo- 
genetic origin of termite castes (1919) could be referred to 
continuous or discontinuous variations, without, however, 
reaching a definite conclusion. 

Mr. Snyder has published a sympathetic notice of her abili- 
ties as a teacher and an investigator in Science for January 13, 
1922, which the present writer heartily endorses. His acquaint- 
ance with her dates from her first appearance as a student at 
the University of Pennsylvania and he has followed her work, 
on the termites especially with the greatest interest and pride 
in her achievements. Oh that she had lived longer and carried 
out her plans for similar work on the honey bee ! 


A list of Dr. Thompson's entomological papers follows: 
1913. A Comparative Study of the Brains of three Genera of Ants, 
with special reference to the Mushroom Bodies. Journ. Comp. 
Neur., I'hila.. 23, 515-572. 


1914. The Posterior Roots of the Mushroom Bodies in the Worker of 
Bombits sp. Op. cit. 24:283-289. 

1916. The Brain and the Frontal Gland of the Castes of the "White 

Ant," Leucotermes flaznpes Kollar. Journ. Comp. Neurol., 
26 -.553-602. 

1917. Origin of the Castes of the Common Termite, Lencotenncs 

flavipcs. Journ. Morphol., Phila, 30:83-106. 

1918. Dual Queens in a Colony of Honey Bees. Science, N. York, 

48 :294-5. 

*1919. The Question of the Phylogenetic Origin of Termite Castes. 
Biol. Bull., Woods Hole, 36:115-132. 

1919. The Development of the Castes of Nine Genera and Thirteen 

Species of Termites. Op. cit. 36:379-398. 

*1920. The "Third Form," the Wingless Reproductive Type of Term- 
ites: Reticiilitcnncs and Prorhinotcnnes. Journ. Morph. 34: 
Papers marked with a (*) were written conjointly with Mr. T. E. 


Doings of Societies. 

The Entomological Society of America. 

At its recent meeting in Toronto in December, the Society elected the 
following officers and committees for 1922 : 

President, Arthur Gibson, Dominion Entomologist, Ottawa, Canada. 
First Vice-President, Dr. W. A. Rile}', University of Minnesota, St. 
Paul. Second rice-President, Professor R. A. Cooley, University of 
Montana, Bozeman, Mont. Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. C. L. Metcalf, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Additional Members of the Executive Committee Dr. J. M. Aldrich, 
United States National Museum, Washington. Mr. Wm. T. Davis, 
New Brighton, N. Y. Dr. E. M. Walker, University of Toronto, Tor- 
onto, Ontario. Dr. O. A. Johannsen, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Managing Editor of the Annals, Dr. Herbert Osborn, Ohio State 
University, Columbus, Ohio. Assistant Managing Editor, Dr. C. H. 
Kennedy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Editorial Hoard Dr. W. S. Marshall, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. Dr. Vernon L. Kellogg, National Research Council, 
Washington, D. C. Dr. F. E. Lutz, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City. Dr. \Vm. M. Wheeler, Bussey Institution, 
Boston 30, Mass. Dr. E. M. Walker, University of Toronto, Toronto, 
Ontario. Dr. S. A. Forbes, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. Dr. A. 
D. Hopkins, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. Prof. A. L. 
Lovett, Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Ore. Dr. Frederick 
C. Muir, H. S. P. A. Experiment Station, Hawaii. 

C. L. METCALF, Secretary-Treasurer. 

T3 j-f pr .f!1 : Collectors who wish to 

ULl LLv^l 1 llv.^* obtain Specimens from 
India, Burma and Ceylon, should write to W. R. McMul- 
len, Port Blair, Andaman Isles. 


Large Stock of Specimens from Ecuador, Cameroon, Celebes and Europe. 
To be sold singly and in lots at very reasonable prices. 

Lists on Application. 



Tropical African (Uganda) Butterflies and Moths, Etc. 

Excellent Material. Great Variety. 

Apply for particulars and prices. 

R. A. DUMMER, Care S. A Museum, Cape Town, South Africa. 



One of the ranking collections of Europe, containing over 1200 species 
and varieties, represented by more than 8000 specimens, collected in all parts 
of the world. . 

Owner: L.,Gylek, Wahringerstrasse 132, Vienna XVIII, Austria. 
'A detailed list of species may be obtained from 


YV7 A MTJT ]"} I arn a shut-in invalid and very thankful to hear from any- 
** *~*1^' * LLiLS one t y, a (. w ju p] ease give, exchange, or sell one or more 
perfect specimens or live pupae of large moths, such as Luna, Selene, Ori- 
zaba, Jorulla, Splendida, Promethea, Calletta, Hyperchiria lo, Budleya, 
Incarnata, Luecane, Polyphemus, Imperialis, ,Cecropia, Cynthia, Papilio, 
etc. Luna pupae and midget mounts for sale. 

WILLIAM ENGELHART, Cooley Farm, Warrensville, Ohio 


From Colombia, South America: 

Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 



From Venezuela: 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) : 
Armandia liddcrdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph,D. 56-58 West 23d Street 

MARCH, 1922 



No. 3 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER. M.D., Sc.D.. Editor Emeritus. 




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Plate IV. 

/ 1/3 

Vfj AXILLENA ' '/ 

\ 20 







MARCH, 1922 

No. 3 


Kennedy The Phylogeny and the Geo- 
graphical Distribution of the Genus 
Libellula ( Odonata) 65 

Parshley A change of name in the Sal- 
didae(Hemip.) 71 

Reinhard Host Records of Some 
Texas Tachinidae ( Oiptera) 72 

Photographs received for the album of 
the American Entomological Soc.. 73 

Skinner The Identity of Neominois 
ridingsi and N. dionysus (Lepid., 
Satyridae ) 74 

Ewing Notes on the Occurrence and 
Distribution of Antarctic Land Ar- 
thropods (Springtails and Mites: 
Collembola and Acarina) 76 

McAtee Prosimulium fulvum Cpquil- 
lett a Biting Species (Dip., Simuli- 
idae ) 79 

Weiss and Lott The Juniper Web- 
worm, Ypsolophus marginellus 
Fabr. (Lepid., Gelechiidae) 80 

Fall A Correction and a Protest ( Col. ) 83 



Chamberlin A New Diplopod from 
British Guiana taken at Quarantine 
at Philadelphia 85 

Rile> Food during Captivity of the 
Water-Striders, Gerris remigis Say 
.and Gerris marginatus Say ( Hem.) 

McAtee A Shower of Corixidae ( Het. ) 

Editorial Those Incomplete Titles 

Again 89 

McAtee Bird Lice (Mallophaga) At- 
taching Themselves to Bird Flies 
( H ippoboscfdae ) 90 

Save the Zoological Record 91 

Hutchison The Mulford Biological 
Exploration of the Amazon Basin. 
Bulletin No. 6 91 

Entomological Literature 92 

Review of Fletcher's Catalogue of In- 
dian Insects 95 

Review of The Bulletin of the Hill 
Museum 95 

Doings of Societies Entomological 
Workers in Ohio Institutions 96 

The Phylogeny and the Geographical Distribution of 
the Genus Libellula (Odonata). 1 



(Plate IV.) 

In the first paper 2 was discussed the morphology of the penes 
in the genus Libellula. The various structures found in the 
penes were homologized and their usefulness in classification 
was pointed out. In this paper the writer wishes to show the 
value of these structures in a study of the phylogeny and dis- 
tribution of the genus, for the penis characters divide the genus 
into distinct groups that are consistent with other characters 
and which appear to be consistent geographically. 

Thanks to the generosity of Mr. Williamson, Dr. Calvert 
and Dr. Ris twenty-seven of the known species of Libellula 

1 Contribution from Department of Zoology and Entomology of Ohio 
State University, No. 68. 

2 Ent. News, vol. xxxiii, pp. 33-40, 1922. 



have been examined. This article is an explanation of the 
accompanying plate. 

If the reader will refer to the accompanying plate (IV), he 
will note that the genus falls into three levels of differentia- 
tion as indicated by the heavy horizontal lines. These are : 

Level I. Scinifasciata, angclina and foliata. By comparison 
with any of the other penes figured it is obvious that these are 
alike in that none of their parts are as much exaggerated or 
specialized as are one or more of the parts of any of the spe- 
cies figured in the two higher levels. By this same compara- 
tive standard, scniifasciata is more generalized, hence older, 
than foliata, which has the cornua slightly specialized and 
than angclina, which has the lateral lobes lengthened and broad- 
ened. As will be shown later, 3 all three are probably pre-Mio- 
cene species. 

Level II. This includes all the species lying between the 
two horizontal lines on Plate IV. These are all American and 
are species that probably date from the Miocene or later. Some 
of these groups are apparently at the height of their develop- 

Level III. This level includes the Eurasian species, less the 
primitive angclitia. These are the most specialized of the 
genus and are the postglacial remnants of a Eurasian fauna 
that probably reached its climax in preglacial times. 

The individual species and minor groups of the genus will 
be discussed as follows : 

Group 1. Semifasciata Burm. PI. IV, fig. 1. Maine to Florida, 
west to Michigan and Texas. A spring and early summer species 
found in woods swamps in the deciduous and southern pine forests. 1 

The primitiveness of this species seems to be confirmed by 
its isolated position morphologically, by its non-Libellula wing 
pattern, which has basal markings and color that recall CcJi- 
thcinis and Pcrlthcmis, by its less rugged build, which is very 
different from the husky proportions of many of the more spe- 
cialized Libellulas, by its spring and early summer season which 

3 In the April number of the NEWS. 

* As far as possible the writer has tried to correlate the distribution 
of the species of Libcllnla with the plant formations of the eastern 
United States as worked out by Transeau. See "Forest Centers of 
Eastern America," Amer. Nat., xxxix, pp. 875-889, 1905. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 67 

is the season of many other primitive Odonata, and, perhaps, 
by its retiring habit of life in woods-swamps where are not 
found many of the more specialized Odonata which enjoy the 
fierce strife of open ponds. Its general distribution through 
the wooded Appalachian region agrees with the distribution 
of other very primitive Odonata (Tachoptcry.v, Cordulcgastcr, 

Group 2. Foliata Kirby. PI. IV, fig. 2. Mexico to Panama, in 
zone 4 of Calvcrt (B. C. A. Neur., p. xxiv). March to July in small 
swampy places. 5 

A casual inspection of the plate shows at once that this is the 
most primitive member of the line of species terminating in 
licrcula;. However, it is so little differentiated as compared 
to the other three members of this series that it has been placed 
in Level I. Foliata is primitive in its smaller size, its ante- 
humeral stripes, its lack of a distinct red coloration and in its 1 
distribution, for in zone 4 as outlined by Calvert 6 are found 
such primitive Odonata as Xanthostigm-a, Cora, Paraphlcbia, 
Cordulegaster, etc. These are temperate species that appar- 
ently cannot stand the winter temperatures of the same faunal 
zone farther north. Hill 7 and Bray, 8 as mentioned by Calvert, 
suggest that the islands of zones 3 and 4 were connected and 
supported a continuous fauna in the Tertiary. At that time 
Mexico was a peninsula that had not been connected with 
South America since the Cretaceous and with its stable climate 
it has harbored these early Tertiary species to the present time. 

Group 3. Angelina Selys. PI. IV, fig. 3. Japan. Habits un- 

Angelina is primitive in its full quota of three spots in the 
wings and in its penis whose only specializations are the length- 
ened lateral lobes and widened cornua. Its distribution con- 
firms this diagnosis as Japan contains several very old Odonates. 
Being an island in a great ocean stream, its climate has prob- 
ably been very stable and mild. The nearest modern relative 
of aiif/i'lina is 4-macnlata. 

5 From notes supplied by Dr. Calvert. 

6 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Oct., 1908, pp. 475-478. 

7 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xxxiv, pp. 205-207, 1899. 

8 Science, Nov. 9, pp. 709-716, 1900. 


Group 4. Saturata Uhler. PI. IV, fig. 4. Montana and Texas 
west to California and Baja California, occurring from sea-level up 
to 5000 ft. 9 This is a vigorous form of open muddy ponds, cattail 
swamps and sluggish streams. 

Croceipennis Selys. PI. IV, fig. 5. From sea-level in Texas and 
Baja California, to 4000 ft. elevation in Costa Rica, occurring in 
zones 3-4 of Calvert, but mainly in zone 4. Open swampy places 
and sluggish streams. 10 

Herculea Karsch. PI. IV, fig. 6. Mexico to Ecuador and Para- 
guay. The "Biologia" records are from Calvert's zones 3 and 4. 
Usually found about brush piles in open muddy streams. 11 

Of this group, saturate! appears to be the only species that 
can stand even light frosts. The other species occupy the Mex- 
ican and Central American highlands, though Dr. Calvert states 
in a letter that he found licrculca at Guacimo, Costa Rica, at 
an elevation of less than 800 ft. The fact that this species has 
reached South America across the low Isthmus, shows that it 
can live also below the highlands. The climate of the Mexican 
and Central American plateau corresponds to that of the south- 
eastern United States, except that the occasional winter frosts 
of the States are lacking. Because of the large number of 
species of Libclhtla occupying the southern states and this 
semitropical plateau, the climate of this region is probably the 
optimum climate for the genus. 

This group has developed directly from the foliata stock of 
the Central American highlands (zone 4 of Calvert). Prob- 
ably the present distribution of foliata is less than in former 
times as safurata, the most generalized species of group 4. has 
a distribution north of and not in touch with the present habi- 
tat of foliata. Dr. Calvert 12 describes individuals intermediate 
between satnrafa and croccipcnnis. It would be interesting to 
study the penes of these. 

Group 5. Julia Uhler. PI. IV, fig. 7. Maine to British Columbia. 
A species of northern coniferous forest swamps. 

Exusta Say. PI. IV, fig. 8. Maine to Wisconsin, south to Indiana 
and Ohio. A species of the deciduous forest. 

n The higher records from Wyoming, etc., are probably from warm 
spring streams. 

10 In notes loaned by Dr. Calvert. 

11 Statements to the writer by E. B. and Jesse Williamson. 

12 B. C. A. Neur. 5 p. 211. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 69 

Deplanata Ramb. PI. IV, fig. 9. North Carolina, Georgia and 
Florida. Found by the writer about muddy ponds at Raleigh, N. C 

The broad lateral lobes associate this \vith the angcllna-4- 
inaculata line. Julia appears to be the primitive species of this 
group in that specialization increases, from Julia in the north 
to dcplanata in the south, in the increasing length of the medial 
lobes and in the decrease in size, so that dcplanata is the small- 
est species in the genus. This distribution and relationship to 
Eurasian species suggests an origin of this group in northern 
Eurasia and a migration to America later than the migration 
of the stocks of the semifasciata, foliata, nodisticta and com- 
posita groups which all show a preference for warmer climates 
than does julla. Geologists tell us that the opportunities for 
the migration of warm climate species existed largely before 
the Miocene, but that a migration of northern species came in 
the late Miocene and in the Pliocene. Julia and c.rusta at least 
are distinct species, probably also dcplanata. Ris 13 states that 
"the habitus difference is greater between jidia and c.vusta than 
between c.vusta and dcplanata." This might be expected if 
julia is the most primitive of the three. 

Group 6. Subornata Hagen. PI. IV, fig. 10. Kansas and Texas 
to Nevada and southern California. Found about semidesert, alkali 

Lydia Drury. PI. IV, fig. 11. Newfoundland to British Columbia 
south to Florida and California. Any permanent pond. 

These are a branch of the angelina-4-maculata line because 
of their widened lateral lobes. Subornata is the more primi- 
tive in the unfused wing-bands of the male, in the less broad- 
ened lateral lobes of the penis and in the less deeply divided 
fork on segment one of the male. 14 

In this series an adventitious wing-band has appeared. It 
is narrow and appears at the inner end of the stigma. In the 
lemale of sithnniata it is free; in the male of the same species 
it is fused with the nodal band by a paler area. In l\dia it is 
more differentiated sexually. In the male it has become com- 
pletely fused with the nodal band, thus giving the broad band 

13 Libellulinen, Coll. Selys, p. 259, 1919. 

14 Williamson. Plathcmis subormita. Ent. News, Nov., 1906, p. 351. 


of the male lydia, while in the female it appears only in rare 
examples. 15 Subornata should probably be associated with the 
group of southwestern primitives, foliata, nodisticta and com- 
pos it a. 

Group 7. Nodisticta Hagen. PI. IV, fig. 12. Montana and Wash- 
ington 10 to the highlands of southern Mexico. A semidesert species 
taken by the writer on slow fresh streams at Oroville and Auburn, 

Forensis Hagen. PI. IV, fig. 13. Montana and British Columbia 
to Arizona and California. An alkali pond species, but may occur in 
fresh water also. 

Pulchella Drury. PI. IV, fig. 14. Maine to Washington south to 
Florida and California. A strictly fresh pond species. 

The writer does not know the locality of the Washington 
record for nodisticta, but it must be near sea-level. The Mon- 
tana record is probably from a warm, spring-fed stream, while 
all other United States records are from elevations of 500-3000 
ft. Southward it is found at constantly increasing elevations 
until its southernmost authentic record is at 8000 ft. in More- 
los, Mex. This would indicate that the Venezuelan and Co- 
lombian records in the earlier literature are questionable, for it 
is not probable that the Isthmus of Panama has been elevated 
enough to enable this species to pass into South America. 

In this group specialization is towards a wing heavily spotted 
with black, alternating with areas of white pruinescence. It 
starts with the lightly marked wing of nodisticta, throws a spe- 
cies, forcnsis, more heavily marked, to the desert and reaches 
its apex in pulcJiclla with three full bands in each wing. These 
species may not form a series as they have had to be arranged 
on the plate, but may be a group of mutations from some more 
primitive stock. The large size and the great development of 
wing color in pulchclla indicate that it is the most specialized 
of the three. The distribution of nodisticta indicates that its 
naiad cannot endure heavy freezes, while the distribution of 
pulcJiclla shows it to be almost as hardy as 4-niactilata and 

15 Kennedy. Odonata of Kansas, Bull. Kans. Univ., vol. 18, pi. VII, 

16 Muttkowski. Cat. Odonata N. Amer., p. 138. 1910. 

(To be continued ) 


A phylogenetic tree of the dragonflies of the genus Libelhila, based on 


All figures are by camera lucida to the same scale. Because of the 
limits of the plate, species have had to be shown in series that should be 
on short lateral branches. 

1. Libelhila scinifasciata Burin. Pungo Lake, Wenona, North Caro- 


2. LibcUnla foliata (Kirby), Cartago, Costa Rica t coll. Calvert. 

3. Libelhila angcliua Selys. Kioto, Japan, coll. Ris. 

4. Libelhila salnrata Uhler. Phoenix, Arizona. 

5. LibcUnla croceipcnnis Selys. Cuernavaca, Mexico, coll. Williamson. 

6. Libelhila hcrculca Karsch. Santa Lucia, Guatemala, coll. Ohio 

State University. 

7. LibcUnla julia Uhler. Kent, Ohio, coll. O. S. U. 

8. Libelhila e.vusia Say. Orono, Maine, coll. O. S. U. 

9. Libelhila dcplatiata Ramb. Raleigh, North Carolina. 

10. Libelhila snbornata (Hagen). Golconda, Nevada. 

11. Libelhila lydia Drury. Sacramento, California. 

12. Libelluht nodistlcta Hagen. Laws, Owens Valley, California. 

13. LibcUnla forcnsis Hagen. Palo Alto, California. 

14. Libelhila pnlchella Drury. (No label.) Coll. O. S. U. 

15. LibcUnla composita (Hagen). Laws, Owens Valley, California. 

16. Libelhila jesseana Wllmsn. Enterprise, Elorida, coll. Williamson. 

17. Libelhila llarida Ramb. Raleigh, North Carolina, coll. Williamson. 

18. LibeUula auripcnnis Burin. Kingsboro, North Carolina. 

19. Libelhila hictnosa Burm. Raleigh, North Carolina. 

20. Libelhila a.villena Westw. Dunbrooke, Virgina, coll. Osburn. 

21. Libellnla cyanea Fabr. Kingsboro, North Carolina. 

22. Libellnla coimnicJic Calv. Oroville, California. 

23. Libellnla iueesla Hagen. (No locality.) Coll. O. S. U. 

24. Libelhila ribraus Fabr. Kingsboro, North Carolina. 

25. Libclhtia dcprcssa Linn. Lublin Government, Poland, from Bar- 


26. Libellnla quadrimaculata Linn. Grodno Government, Poland, from 


27. LibeUnla fitlra Miill. Aries (?), from. H. K. Morton. 

A Change of Name in the Saldidae (Hemiptera) 

1 have recently described a species of Saldidae as Sahhila emnata 
(Proc. Ent. Soc. British Columbia, No. 18, Syst. Sen, p. 21, 1^21), but, 
as I am reminded by Dr. E. !'.< r.urnth, this name is preoccupied by 
Salda cantata Champion (Biol. Centr.-Amer., Ins., Khyiu-b. II., p. ,!41. 
1900). The two are undoubtedly congeneric and hence I would propose 
Saldnla eontalnla. nom. nov., for my species. H. M. I ' \KSHI.KV, Smith 
College, Northampton, Massachusetts. 


Host Records of Some Texas Tachinidae (Diptera). 

By H. J. REIN HARD, Entomologist, Texas Experiment Station, 

College Station, Texas. 

Twenty-one breeding records of sixteen species of Tachinidae 
are given in this paper. Twelve of these, so far as the 
writer is aware, have not been previously recorded. Where 
there is a published record the reference is given in each in- 
stance. Six records included in this list were obtained from 
F. C. Bishopp, M. M. High, and S. W. Bilsing, and due credit 
for each record is given below. All other breeding records 
given were made by the writer at College Station. 

ARCHYTAS ANALIS Fabr. Host: Cirphis unipuncta Haw. Bred at 
College Station, from larva collected at Denton, Texas, by A. P. Swal- 
low. 1 specimen issued June, 1919. Previously noted according to 
W. R. Walton. 

EXORISTA CERATOMIAE Coq. Host : Lo.vostcgc swiUalis Guen. Bred 
from pupae collected at Laredo, and College Station. 4 specimens 
issued June 17, 1920. 

EXORISTA CONFINIS Fall. Host: Uranotcs melinus Hubn. Bred at 
College Station, from larvae collected at the following localities in 
Texas : Oletha, Mart, Trinity, Cause,, Grand Saline, and Brazoria 
County. 14 specimens emerging from June 20, to July 10, 1920. 

EXORISTA FLAVIROSTRIS v. d. W. Host: Megalopyge opercularis A. & 
S. Bred at Dallas, Texas, by F. C. Bishopp, from pupae of host. Many 
specimens issued during August and September, 1920. Also bred at 
College Station, from a caterpillar collected locally. 1 specimen emerg- 
ed August, 1920. Cf. Coquillett, Revision of Tachinidae, p. 14. 

EXORISTA LOBELIAE Coq. Host: Alabama argillacca Hubn. Bred by 
S. W. Bilsing at College Station. 1 specimen issued October, 1920. 

EXORISTA PYSTE Walk. Host: Loxostegc siniilalis Guen. Bred from 
pupae collected at College Station. 2 specimens issued June 16 and 17, 
1920. Previously recorded by T. H. Parks at Wellington, Kansas, 
according to W. R. Walton. 

ID. Host: Acrobasis caryh'-orcUa Rag. Bred by S. W. Bilsing at 
College Station, from pupae collected locally. Many specimens issued 
June, July, 1918, 1919, and 1920. 

EXORISTA LOXOSTEGEAE Host : Lo.vostcgc siniilalis Guen. Bred at Col- 
lege Station from pupae collected locally. 23 specimens issued June 
13-23, 1920. Cf. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., Vol. 14, No. 4, p. 332. 

METAPLAGIA OCCIDENTALIS Coq. Host: Hersc coni'olrnli L. Bred by 
M. M. High at Kingsville, Texas. Flies issued November, 1919. 

ORMIA OCHRACEA Bigot. Host: Gryllus assiinilis Fabr. Three mag- 
gots issued September 22, 1920, from an adult host specimen, collected 
by A. R. Cahn at College Station. The maggots pupated September 22, 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL XF.WS 73 

but the adult flies failed to emerge. The puparia were identified by 
C. T. Greene. The habits of this genus are unknown and this appears 
to be the first record of a host relationship for this species. 

PELETEIUA ROBUSTA Wied. Host: Cirphis unipuncta Haw. Bred at 
College Station, from a larva collected in Wilbarger County, Texas. 1 
specimen issued May 23, 1919. 

PHOROCEKA CLARIPENNIS Macq. Host : Megalopygc opcrcularis A. & 
S. Bred at Dallas, Texas, by F. C. Bishopp. 41 specimens issued dur- 
ing August and September, 1920. 

ID. Host: Laphygma frugipcrda A. & S. Bred at College Station, 
from larva collected in Hamilton County, Texas. 1 specimen issued 
June 4, 1919. This record previously noted according to W. R. Walton. 

ID. Host : Synchloc lacinia Drury. Bred from chrysalides collected 
locally. 8 specimens issued August 1920. 

PLAGIPROSPHERYSA PARVIPALPIS v. d. W. Host: Loxostcgc similalis 
Gucn. Bred at College Station, from pupae collected at Laredo, Texas. 
3 specimens issued June 14 and 15, 1920. 

STURMIA ALBIFRONS Walk. Host : Esiigmcnc acraca Drury. Bred at 
College Station, from larvae collected at Hempstead, and Bay City, 
Texas. 7 specimens issued June, 1918, and May, 1919. Cf. Coquillett, 
Revision of Tachinidae, p. 20. 

STURMIA DISTINCTA Wied. Host: Jlcrsc convolvuli L. Bred at Kings- 
ville, Texas, by M. M. High. Flies issued November, 1919. 

TACHINA MELLA Walk. Host: Apantcsis rcctilinca French. Bred at 
College Station. 1 specimen issued June 7, 1918. 

ID. Host: Estigmcnc acraca Drury. Bred from larvae collected at 
College Station. 2 specimens issued July 15 and 16, 1919. Cf. Coquil- 
lett, Revision of Tachinidae, p. 21. 

TRICHIOPODA PENNIPES Fabr. Host: Lcptoglossus phyllopus L. Bred 
at College Station, from adults collected locally. Flies issued June, 1919. 
Cf. Quarterly Bulletin, Fla. State Plant Board. Vol. 4, No. 3, p. 67. 

ID. Host: Nezara riridula L. Bred from adults collected at College 
Station. Many specimens issued June, July, and August, 1919 and 1920. 
Cf. Loc. cit. and Bull. No. 689, U. S. 1). A., p. 22. 

Photographs Received for the Album of The American Entomo- 
logical Society. 

Since the last record (Ent. News, xxviii, p. 128), photographs for the 
album have been received, and acknowledged from the following, and 
the Society again wishes to thank the donors for their gifts which are 
much appreciated. 

J. M. Aldrich, Charles P. Alexander, Karl W. T. Beling (from Dr. 
C. P. Alexander), Emil Bergroth, John J. Davis, William T. Davis. 
J. Henri Fabre (from Mr. Philip Laurent), G. F. Ferris, Morgan 
Hebard, Otto Heideman (from Mr. J. 11. Paine), Herman Hornig, 
Herbert K. Morrison (from Mrs. Morrison). Emily L. Morton (from 
Mr. H. H. Newcomb), W. H. Patton (from Dr. L. O. Howard), Otto 
mar Reinecke (from Mr. Philip Laurent), Herbert II. Smith (from Dr. 
L. O. Howard). 


The Identity of Neominois ridings! and N. dionysus 
(Lepidoptera, Satyridae). 


Ridinc/si was described from four females taken at Burling- 
ton, Boulder County, Colorado. The types of dionysus were 
taken in the>,Juniper Mountains; on Motmt Trumbull. This 
mountain is "sixty miles east of St. George" in southern Utah. 
N. stretchi Edw. is a synonym of rldingsi and the types were 
taken in Nevada. AshtarotJi Strecker is a synonym of diony- 
sus and the type was a female from Arizona. The question is 
whether we have one or two species represented by these 

Scudder in his description of dionysus says it differs from 
N. ridingsi, to which it is closely allied, by its larger size, its 
more cinereous tints, and by the much more produced serra- 
tions of the margins of all the banded markings of the hind 
wings. None of these characters appear to be differential and 
I have been unable to find characters that warrant the dividing 
these two forms into distinct species. There is a difference 
in size, but it only represents individual difference seen in 
many species. The males range from 20 mm. (one wing) to 
25 mm., and the females from 24 mm. to 28 mm. The color 
varies considerably, but appears to be gradational and not dif- 
ferential. The serrations of the margins of the bands on the 
inferior wings are also gradational. The primary wings are 
identical in all the specimens I have examined. The series in 
the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia are from Whitehorn anad Glenwood Springs in Colorado: 
Beaver Canyon, Idaho ; Medicine Bow, Wyoming, and Flag- 
staff, Arizona. The dates of capture vary from June 23rd to 
July 24th. Mr. W. H. Edwards gives an interesting account of 
rldingsi and says it flies from early June and also states that 
there is a late brood appearing in August and September. 1 
have not seen any specimens with such late dates of appear- 
ance. Mr. Scudder says the types of dionysus were taken 
June 4th and June 7th to 10th. 

David Bruce, who collected extensively in Colorado, states 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 75 

that the two exist at the same altitude and cites ridingsi as 
common near Denver and dionysus as abundant at Glenwood 
Springs, Colorado. He records both forms from Salida, Colo- 
rado. He infers that they are two species and that dion\sits 
is found on sandy and desert tracts and ridingsi is found in 
the short grass. We have a series of specimens from him, 
doubtless from Glenwood Springs, but having only "Colorado" 
on the pins. A series of specimens taken by Prof. A. ]. 
Snyder in Beaver Canyon, Idaho, July 24, 1895, shows very 

Genitaiia of Neominois ridingsi, male. 

considerable variation and both forms may be picked from this 
series. The specimen from Flagstaff, Arizona, is a typical 
ridingsi. The variations in the species do not appear to be due 
to geographical variation or altitude. 

There are not sufficient data to judge of the brood differ- 
ences, but the first brood would be likely to be somewhat dif- 
ferent from a late one. An examination of the genitalia of 
the males shows no difference. The genitalic figure was made 
by Mr. E. T. Cresson, Jr. The original description spells the 
name dionysus (Greek name of Bacchus). The lists spell the 
name dionysius (the elder Tyrant of Syracuse). The original 
spelling should be followed. 


Notes on the Occurrence and Distribution of Ant- 
arctic Land Arthropods (Springtails and 
Mites : Collembola and Acarina). 

By H. E. EWING, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department 

of Agriculture. 

Although vast in extent, the south polar region and more 
especially the Antarctic Continent itself, is remarkably devoid 
of any extensive land flora or fauna. Our knowledge of the 
occurrence of land arthropoda on this continent is in reality 
quite meager. Almost all of the land species so far discovered 
in this region belong to two orders, the Collembola and the 

Statements to the effect that winged insects do not occur in 
the Antarctic Region are not strictly correct, for Racovitza 
reported a dipteron taken by the Antarctic expedition of the 
"Belgica" (1897-1898), and Keilin has recently pointed out 
that Racovitza had not one but two species. One of these 
species, according to Keilin, belongs to the family Chironomidae 
and the other to the family Sciaridae. The reason for this 
apparent mistake by Racovitza was that he presumed that the 
larvae accompanying the adult, which he determined as Belgica 
antarctica Jacobs, were of the same species as the imago. Keilin 
has made a special study of B. antarctica, and states that it 
occurs along the strait of Gerlache between 64 and 65 27' 
south latitude. This is south and somewhat east of Cape Horn. 

Several species of Collembola have been taken in the Ant- 
arctic, and one of these as far south on the continent itself as 
Granite Harbor, 77 S. lat. and 162 E. long., on the south- 
trending continental coast-line of Victoria Land. The sig- 
nificance of the distribution of the Collembola of the Antarctic 
Region has been very ably discussed by Carpenter, who notes, 
among other things, that the groups of springtails represented, 
that were at one time considered characteristically arctic or 
subarctic, are now known to occur in many places either on the 
American continents or adjacent islands. This would seem to 
indicate a former land connection between the Antarctic and 
South American continents. Carpenter states: "We cannot 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 77 

doubt that this affinity points to a former connection between 
the Antarctic continent of which the South Orkneys once 
formed part, and the northern continents." 

The other group of terrrestrial Arthropods represented in 
the meager south polar fauna, the Acarina, have been studied 
by Trouessart and by Berlese. It is interesting to note that 
these two authorities on mites hold almost opposite views in 
regard to the significance of the geographical distribution of 
the Antarctic Acarina. It is largely because of noting this fact, 
but also because of the present writer's knowledge of the 
American Acarina. that these lines are written. A further 
incentive is found, however, in the recent acquisition of a mite 
collection from the Antarctic Region through Captain George 
H. Wilkins. of the British Imperial Antarctic Expedition of 

The material left by Captain Wilkins consisted of a vial of 
insects and mites. Three species are represented, one spring- 
tail and two mites. The specimens were collected on March 
27, 1921, from Port Lockroy, Weinke Island, lat. 64.50 S. : 
long. 63.30 W. This island is just off the coast of Graham's 
Land. The material has been studied and slides made for the 
United States National Museum. A report is here given. 
Species found : 

(1). A springtail, Cryptopygus crassus Carpenter. Many specimen-, 
representing all stages, present. Specimens sent to Dr. Folsom for con- 
firmation of determination.* 

(2). A beetle mite, Halozctcs (Lucoppia) antarctica (Michael). Many 
specimens representing various nymphal stages and both sexes of adult 

(3). A camasid mite, Gamasellus (Gainasus) racoi'itzai (Trouessart). 
A single male specimen found. 

Captain Wilkins made the following note in regard to local 
conditions, habits, etc., of the species found : "Local conditions: 
Exposed cracked granite boulders at few feet above sea level 
on which penguins make their nests. Black-backed gulls nest in 

* Dr. Folsom writes that the specimens sent also agree with speci- 
mens which Wahlgren referred to C. anturcticus Willem. Folsom also 
states that he believes the correct name for this species is Ci'vp 
untarcticus Willem. 


near locality. Bases of rocks are covered with penguin guano. 
Insects are found beneath loose boulders in crevices sometimes 
in separate colonies, sometimes together. Insects are active at 
all hours of day during summer except when rain is falling, at 
such time they seem to be unable to move if exposed to pres- 
sure of moisture. The round-bodied species (Halozctcs ant- 
arc tica} build dome-shaped brown cells closely connected but 
only one story high. Other species apparently do not build any 
kind of extra shelter." 

There are known up to the present at least fourteen good 
species of terrestrial Acarina from the Antarctic Region. These 
species are well distributed in the order belonging, as they do, 
to four different suborders and five different families. Since 
some of these species are almost, if not quite, identical with 
species occurring in the Arctics and others are of a wide 
geographical distribution, Trouessart came to the conclusion 
that the Antarctic continent had no distinctive acarid fauna. 

Berlese, who worked with a much larger amount of material 
and at a later date, came to the conclusion that two of the beetle 
mite species (one of them Halozctes antarctica} were sufficiently 
distinct to be placed in a new genus. He, therefore, established 
in 1^16 the genus Halozetcs, having as its type H. antarctica 
(Mich.). This genus, according to Berlese, includes species 
exclusively of the antarctic fauna and have little of affinity 
with the others which belong to the arctic, or subarctic. If 
Berlese's contention is correct this is the only case of a strictly 
endemic genus of Acarina thus far known in the Antarctic 

When the writer first observed the specimens of Halosetes 
antarctica, left by Captain Wilkins, he was especially struck; 
with its resemblance to species with which he was familiar 
from our own country and from Europe. A more careful 
study of this species has been made, and the writer must insist 
that it is in reality fairly near some of the temperate or tropical 
species of the genus Lucofpia Berlese (type Zctcs lucornm 
Koch). When the type species of Halozrtcs is compared with 
that of Lncoppia- the differences between them appear to be 
sufficiently distinct, but when the type species of Halozctes is 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 79 

compared with various other species of Lucoppia. one is at a 
loss as to where to draw the line of generic distinction. Cer- 
tainly one would hardly conclude that Halozetes has very little 
of affinity TC'/.'/I other genera known from arctic regions. Even 
the tyjje of Berlese's genus Lucoppia, the old Zetes lucornm 
Koch, which occurs throughout all Europe and most of North 
America, is found in Spitzenbergen. The truth of the matter is 
that species rather closely related to Halozctes antarctica 
(Mich.) and H. belgieac (Mich.) are of practically worldwide 
distribution. The genus is practically cosmopolitan. The writer 
has described one species from decaying leaves and trash col- 
lected at Columbia, Missouri, another from decaying mush- 
rooms at Jordan, Minnesota ; another from moss, Nilgiri Hills, 
India, while our Lucoppia pilosits (Banks) is probably found 
throughout most of North America under a variety of condi- 

In closing these notes the writer wishes to state that accord- 
ing to his opinion, we are hardly justified in making any state- 
ment at present to the effect that the Antarctic Region supports 
a distinctive mite fauna that is of any significance whatever. 
Doubtless a more complete survey will bring more interesting 
and, very probably, quite remarkably distinct and character- 
istic mite species to our attention. At least we would expect 
so if we should draw any analogy from the bird fauna of this 
region, which is remarkably distinctive and characteristic in 

many respects. 

Prosimulium fulvum Coquillett a Biting Species (Dip., Simuliidae). 

In his report on the Black Flies, Mr. J. R. Malloch says* with regard 
to this species: "There are no records of whether or not it hites either 
man or animals." This being the case it seems desirahle to publish some 
notes given by Mr. A. H. Twitchell regarding the species, specimens of 
which were collected by Ir'm along Fourth-of-July Creek. Alaska, July 
20, 1 ( )21. He states: "They are not very common but I could get. a 
hundred of them at that place in an hour. They bite horses about the 
ears, inside or out and at times they bite around the eye and also go 
into the mane. I have seem them on no other stock than horses, but 
one bit me on the car." 

Prosimulium fith'itin Coiiuillett ranges from Alaska south to British 
Columbia, Montana and Colorado. It is the largest species of the fam- 
ily in this country and the only yellow species known to occur in 
Alaska. W. T.. M< ATI-F. t". S. Biological Survey. Washington, D. C. 

*Tech. Ser. Bui. 26, U. S. Bur. Ent. 1914, p. IS. 


The Juniper Webworm, Ypsolophus marginellus 
Fabr. (Lepid., Gelechiidae). 

By HARRY B. WEISS and RALPH B. LOTT, New Brunswick, 

New Jersey. 

This European species was first recorded as occurring in 
America by Dr. E. P. Felt in the 26th Report of the State 
Entomologist of New York 1 where it is mentioned as having 
been collected at Tarrytown and Plandome, N. Y., the larva 
feeding on juniper. Smith in his New Jersey list 2 mentions 
the species but gives no localities. Britton 3 states that it occurs 
in Connecticut, giving Hartford, Meriden, Greenwich and 
\Yilton as localities. In all cases, juniper is the recorded food 

During the past several years, this species has been increas- 
ing in several places in New Jersey and doing noticeable dam- 
age. At present it is known definitely to occur at Rutherford, 
Scotch Plains. Springfield and New Brunswick, principally in 
nurseries. The larval feeding appears to be confined to the 
foliage of Jnnipcnis coinuiitiiis and such varieties as anrca, 
horizontalis, dcprcssa, hibcrnica, etc. Overwintering takes 
place in a partly grown larval condition, one-half to almost full- 
grown caterpillars hibernating in the webbed-up foliage. In 
the northern half of New Jersey, the caterpillars become active 
early in May, feeding on the more or less dry leaves and 
becoming full grown and pupating in numbers from the middle 
of May on. Pupation takes place in whitish, silken cases found 
among the partly eaten and webbed-up needles. The first 
moths issue about the last of May or first of June after a 
pupation period of about fifteen days. On account of the 
difference in size of the hibernating larvae, the moths appear 
over a period of several weeks, the majority however emerging 
about the middle of June. At this time they can be noted in 
the field, flying in irregular dashes from one juniper to another 
if disturbed. 

Eggs are deposited singly and can be found in numbers dur- 
ing the third week of June. As a rule they are laid on the new 

!Mus. Bull. 147, p. 35. 1'MO (Diclmincris). 
-Kept. N. J. State Mus. 1909 (Dichomeris) . 
3 15th Kept. State Ent. Conn. p. 137, 1915 (Dichomeris) . 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOI OGICAL NEWS 81 

terminal growth, each egg being deposited in the axil formed by 
the stem and leaf. Many are found on the inner bases of the 
developing leaves near the shoot from which the leaves arise. 
Some are found on the surface of the shoots or stems. Usually 
they are deposited singly, rarely in pairs but an entire terminal 
shoot may bear several or more eggs. The incubation period is 
not definitely known but larvae 0.5 mm. in length were first 
found on July 8. 

After hatching, the larvae feed on the upper epidermis of the 
small leaves, causing them to turn brown in spots and later 
entirely brown. About the last of July, when the larvae are 
about 2 mm. in length, the webs are plainly visible. As the 
larvae become older, their gregariousness becomes more pro- 
nounced and the foliage is webbed -up more compactly. At 
first the web includes the terminal shoot ; later several inches 
behind the tip are included and such webbed-up shoots occur 
on different parts of the plant, spoiling its ornamental appear- 
ance. As the season progresses, the webs become larger, filled 
with more excrement and the leaves become dry and dead. 
Small junipers of the upright kind, such as hibcrnica, may be 
webbed-up solid from top to bottom. There appears to be only 
one brood each year, the caterpillars developing slowly during 
the summer and hibernating during the cold months. In the 
spring, when they become active, if no or little green food is 
available, they appear to develop as readily on the dried foliage. 
The webs vary in length from one inch to two or three inches 
and longer, depending on the manner of growth of the plant 
infested. Such nests contain from several to fifteen or more 

Egg. Length G.5 mm. Width 0.21 mm. Subcylindrical, with hroadly 
rounded ends : ends almost flat ; one end slightly narrower than the 
other; sides suhparallcl ; whitish when first laid, later becoming pinkish 
or tinged with pink: chorion sculptured with numerous, longitudinal, ir- 
regularly parallel wavy ridges. 

Lar:\i. Length ahnut 14 mm. Width of head 1 mm. Klongate, nar- 
row, subcylindrical, slightly tapering at both extremities. Head and pro- 
thorax suhequal in width, remaining thoracic and abdominal segments, 
except the 8th and 9th, slightly wider and subequal in length. Anterior 
dorsal half of mesothorax and mctathorax with transverse plicae. Head 
and body segments each bearing several, short, white hairs, most of them 


arising from dark tubercles. Crotchets of prolegs biordinal, those of 
anal prolegs in two groups. Head dark reddish brown. Antennae yel- 
lowish brown. Thoracic shield broad, a variable brown ; body light 
brown, longitudinally marked as follows : median stripe reddish brown, 
submedian stripes whitish, sublateral dark brown, lateral ones light red- 
dish brown, all somewhat interrupted ; thoracic legs dark brown, prolegs 
yellowish white, apically light brown ; anal plate reddish brown, pos- 
terior margin dark. 

Pupa. Length about 5.5 mm. Slender, reddish brown ; wing cases ex- 
tending to fourth abdominal segment ; terminal segment subacute, nar- 
rowly rounded with a cluster of 5 or 6 irregular, long, slender, hooked 

Adult. This was described by Fabricius in 1781 (Spec. Insect. 2:307) 
as Alucita ttwrfjhiclla, the original description being as follows: "alls 
fusco nitidis, marginibus niueis. Habitat in Juniperetis Angliae. Mus. 
Dom. Yeats. Media. Palpi carassi, bifidi, interne niuei, externe fuscae. 
Caput niueum, antennis fuscis. Alae anticae fuscae, nitidae margine in- 
teriore et exteriore late niueo. Posticae exalbidae immaculatae." 

The adult is rather attractive. The forewings are brown 
with white front and rear margins, the white disappearing 
before reaching the apex of the wing. The hind wings are 
uniformly pearl gray above and below, shining and heavily 
fringed. The thorax and abdomen above and below are light 
brown with a tuft of creamy white hairs on the head and 
prothorax. The wing spread is about 15 mm., and length about 
7 mm. 

According to Rebel 4 this species occurs in Europe except the 
polar regions and Siberia. Meyrick 5 mentions several English 
localities. Central Europe and Northern Asia. He also lists 
another species, YpsolopJuts junipcrellus, as occurring in a web 
on juniper. 

For the control of this species, it is recommended that in- 
fested plants be sprayed or dusted with arsenate of lead during 
the last of June or first part of July when the webs are small, 
weak and easily penetrated. Later a dust could not be used 
and a spray would be necessary to penetrate the more closely 
webbed foliage. On some varieties of juniper, the dried nests 
containing caterpillars could be cut and burned early in the 

4 Cat. Lepid. Palaearc. Faun. 2: 159, 1901 (Nothris'). 
5 Handb. Brit. Lepid., pp. 607-608, 1895 (Ypsolophus). 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 83 

A Correction and a Protest (Col., Carabidae). 

l'>y H. C. FALL, Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. 

In the December, 1919, number of the Journal of the New 
}'oi'k Entomological Society, Mr. Howard Notman concludes, 
after a somewhat elaborate argument, that Hayward, in his 
Review of the North American Species of Bcinbidimn, was in 
error in suppressing the B. arcnatnin and probably also the 
incrcnmtnni of LeConte as synonyms of the European dcntcl- 
liun Thunb. Mr. Notman's points would seem to the casual 
reader to be well taken, but unfortunately his conclusions rest 
almost solely on his interpretation of the descriptions of the 
species in question, while Hayward, as we know, had the 
LeConte types before him at the time of writing, and being 
notably conservative in his work it is fair to presume that he 
would not have suppressed these names without good reason. 

During a recent visit to the Museum at Cambridge I took the 
opportunity to examine carefully the types of arcnatnin and 
incrematum, and to compare them with a good and undoubtedly 
authentic European series of dcntellum present in the Museum 
collection, which comparison quite satisfied me that Hayward's 
course was the correct one. 

This incident is here mentioned, not so much to correct Mr. 
Notman's misapprehension in this particular case, as to express 
a protest against the custom, all too common of late, of creating 
so-called new species on differences evolved from a too rigid 
interpretation of the descriptions of the earlier authors. To 
cite a single instance out of many : There occurs on the 
Southern California seashore a rare and aberrant little Ca rabid, 
described by LeConte, under the name Lyuinacinn Iciticcps, 
afterward referred to Bembidium. In the brief description the 
color is given as piceous tinged with rufous, and the thorax 
is said to be not wider than the head. Tn a recent paper Col. 
Casey describes as new Lyimicops angusticeps from the same 
region and having the same- peculiar characters, but held to be 
distinct because of the color being pale red brown with a discal 
fuscous cloud, and the head not as wide as the thorax. As a 
matter of fact the head is not as wide as the thorax in the 
type of laticcps and the color is substantially as described of 
angusticeps. In other words, Casey's description of any us- 


ticcps fits LeConte's type of laticcps better than does the orig- 
inal diagnosis. I have in my collection specimens from San 
Pedro, California, the type locality of angnsticeps, which are 
unquestionably the same thing, and which show conclusively 
that angusticeps is an absolute synonym of the LeContean 

Here the responsibility for the synonym rests, 1 think, not 
so much upon the rather trifling inexactness of the old Latin 
diagnosis, as upon the failure to allow for this in the face of 
the prinm facie probability that the San Diego type and the 
nearby San Pedro specimens were specifically identical. As a 
perfectly true generalization we may say that every description, 
no matter how carefully drawn up, is in some degree inadequate, 
or as my friend Banks more strongly put it during a recent 
conversation at the Museum, -"descriptions never can be relied 
upon." That there is a very large kernel of truth in this some- 
what epigrammatic statement must be evident when we reflect 
that no two taxonomists would describe the same insect in the 
same way or in precisely equivalent terms ; nor on the other 
hand would a given description convey precisely the same 
meaning to two different individuals, or even to the same in- 
dividual under different conditions, the interpretation as well as 
the description depending upon general experience, degree of 
familiarity with the group in question, and that very real but 
indefinite bias known as the personal equation, not to mention 
certain other incidental factors which may further color the 
views of the individual. 

All this of course is perfectly well known, and yet its entire 
disregard in some quarters coupled with a tendency to magnify 
into specific characters the inevitable more or less trifling in- 
dividual or local variations to which all organic species are 
subject, is burdening our literature with a mass of useless 
names which serve only to further obstruct and befog an 
already difficult pathway. Since of the making of species as 
"of the making of many books there is no end," we should at 
least see to it that our creations rest on reasonably secure 
foundations, lest we give further cause for the mental reserva- 
tion which a glance at the new check list excites in most of us, 
best expressed perhaps by the misquotation of a truth there 
are fewer things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in 
our philosophy. 


A New Diplopod from British Guiana taken at 
Quarantine at Philadelphia. 

I'.y RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
A number of myriopods were found in soil around a potted 
palm from Georgetown, British Guiana, by Inspector Chester 
A. Davis who took the plant from a passenger on the American 
schooner "Rosalie Hall" at Philadelphia on May 23, 1921. 
Among these are two specimens of the chilopod Me cist o- 
ccphalns iiui.villaris (Gervais) which, it may be noted, was 
first described at Paris in 1837 from a specimen apparently 
similarly immigrant. One symphylid occurs, this being the 
widespread Scutigerella innuaculata (Newport). The diplo- 
pods represented comprise a female of the tropicopolitan 
Orthonwrpha coarctafa (Saussure), two very young spirobo- 
loids probably belonging to Rhinocricns, and the interesting 
new nannolenid described below, this being represented In 
several males and females. 


Gnathochilarium as in Epinannolenc. Ocelli present. Head 
and tergites clothed with numerous short hairs. Gonopods of 
male with telopodite presenting a slender branch octal in posi- 
tion and fitting into a notch of the principal branch: the latter 
broad, not two-pronged as in Epmannolene. Posterior legs of 
seventh segment in male abortive. Genotype, T. (juiiuiaims, 
sp. no\ . 

Trichonannolene guiananus, sp. nov. 

Dark brown, with head, antennae and legs paler. 

Head proportionately broad; with no distinct median sulcus across ver- 
tex; clothed with numerous short, straight hairs. Antennae with second 
aiticle narrower than the first, slender and widening distad, the other 
joints widening clavately distad to the fifth, the sixth cylindrical, the 
seventh short and narrower. Hyes widely separated; composed of com- 
paratively few, small and often indistinct, ocelli which are normally in 
two series or with one in a third; e. g., 2. 4; ,\ .1; .1. 4; and 1. 3, 2. 

Col him with caudal margin nearly straight, the anterior margin con- 
vex ; lower ends indexed beneath, rather narrowly rounded, the anterior 
margin flattened or slightly notched a little above the lower end; with 
four principal striae beneath on each side, these striae line and curving' 
upward anteriorly so as to parallel anterior margin for a short distance. 
With numerous regularly spaced ^etae similar to those of head. 



[Mar., '22 

Segments of body deeply constricted, with posterior division longer 
and somewhat thicker than the anterior. Pore well removed caudad 
from furrow. Tergites behind constricting furrow clothed conspicu- 
ously with numerous short straight hairs, similar ones also present on 
anal tergite and valves. 

Last tergite widely rounded behind, equalled or a little exceeded by 
the valves. Valves weakly margined, flattened on each side. Anal scale 
with caudal margin nearly straight. 

Trichonannolene guiananus gen. et sp. nov. Gonapods of male, posterior view. 

The gonopods of male as shown in the accompanying figure. Behind 
the gonopods a pair of minute, conical appendages represent the pos- 
terior legs of the segment in abortive condition. 

Number of segments in male, thirty-one to thirty-eight; in the female, 
to forty-four. 

Length, to about 12 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Food during Captivity of the Water-Striders, Gerris 
remigis Say and Gerris marginatus Say (Hem.). 1 

By C. F. CURTTS RILEY, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 


The writer has been giving attention to the general habitat 
responses of water-striders for the past ten years. In the 
course of these investigations, a considerable amount of data 

1 Certain phases of the food problem of aquatic Hemiptera have been 
discussed by me in another paper, in which reference is made to the 
food of water-striders: 1918. Riley, C. F. C. Food of Aquatic Hem- 
iptera. Science, N. S., Vol. XLVIII, pp. 545-547. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 87 

has been accumulated in connection with their food habits. In 
this short paper it is the intention to direct attention to certain 
different kinds of food used by Gcrris rcmigls Say and Gcrris 
marginatiLS Say while in captivity in aquaria. 

In my habitat studies of these two species, it has been noticed 
that Gcrris rcuiiyis feeds on a variety of insect food, and the 
same is true with respect to Gcrris inaryinatits. Additional 
information was obtained on this tendency toward omnivorous 
feeding, while studying water-striders during confinement in 
aquaria. Many observations were recorded \vith respect to the 
kind of food that was eaten. 

It was found that both Gcrris rcinii/is and Gcrris marginatus 
will feed on the pupae and adults of Gulc.r sp., small and large 
species of Tipulid flies, Syrphid flies. Musco doincstica, Chiron- 
oinns sp., Tabaiuts sp., and Drosophila anipclophila. 

Gcrris rcmiyis is a more vigorous and daring feeder than is 
Gcrris marginal us and has been observed to feed on Notonccta 
nndnlata, Chrysopa sp., Calopteryx inacitlata, Ifctacrina aincr- 
icana, and Arctocorixa sp. 

My observations seemed to indicate that both species of 
water-striders are flesh feeders, but when they have been de- 
prived of food for several weeks, they are, apparently, not 
particular as to the character of their food. Both Gcrris re in it/is 
and Gcrris marginatus were noticed as they were feeding on 
the soft parts of banana fruit and also on the inner softer 
portions of the skin. Several persons in the laboratory saw 
this unusual form of response. During confinement in aquaria, 
both species suck the juices of freshly killed snails, Pliysa sp. 
and Planorbis sp. and also small pieces of fresh beef. 

Gcrris remit/is and Gcrris margmatus display cannibalistic 
responses in their own habitat. When their brook habitat so 
shrinks in volume, during a drought, that then- remain only 
a few small isolated pools in the bed of the stream, thus de- 
priving the gerrids of food, they will attack members of their 
own species. This somewhat unusual respond- has been oh 
served to nrcur in aquaria. Gcrris remit/is not infrequently 
seizes and sucks the body juices of weaker individuals of its 
own kind and also of Gcrris marginatus. Gerris iiniryinatiis 
has been seen to feed on the weaker members of its own species. 


These cannibalistic traits are more in evidence when the gerrids 
have been deprived of food for two or more weeks. This 
statement regarding the cannibalism of these two species of 
water-striders is somewhat at variance with the observations of 
McCook 2 , who has not seen such food responses of gerrids. 

While most of the observations on water-striders in captivity 
seem to indicate that they prefer fresh food, yet they have been 
seen to feed on recently dead insects and also on those that 
have been dead so long that they are beginning to decay. Both 
G err is rcmigis and Gcrris marginatits have been observed to 
use as food freshly killed and stale individuals of their own 
kind, also Miisca domestica and Drosophila ampelophila in a 
similar condition. 

These observations seem to indicate that both species of 
gerrids are indiscriminate feeders and apparently will use as 
food many kinds of animal bodies. Little choice appears to be 
shown, so long as it is possible to push their bill-like mouth- 
parts through the exoskeleton into the softer tissues. 

A Shower of Corixidae (Heter.). 

In 1917 the writer published a Review of instances of "Showers of 
Organic Matter"* and genuine cases of insect rain were found to be 
few. This year the writer received, through the kindness of Dr. A. K. 
Fisher, a mass of Corixidae with the following note by Mrs. A. P. 
Bigelow, of Ogden, Utah, the collector. 

"I am mailing you a box containing samples of a swarm of insects 
which fell near here last night. A few were dead and the living were 
unable to raise themselves from the ground though provided with tiny 
gauze wings. They fell in a thick swarm covering a space not to exceed 
six feet and pattered like hail on the straw hat of the farmer as he sat 
by his door about 9 P. M. They lay thickly covering the ground. I saw 
them this morning (August 3, 1921) still unable to fly and lying in 
thick heaps." 

Subsequent inquiry developed the fact that there was no light which 
might have attracted the insects. This question, among others, asked for 
safety's sake, was really unnecessary since such small insects rarely if 
ever, come to light in numbers so great as to form "thick heaps." 

These water boatmen (of the genera Ramphocorixa and had 
a generally frayed appearance, and although no unusual wind was noted 
when they fell it is probable that somewhere on their journey they had 
encountered some destructive wind phenomenon that resulted in their 
precipitation to the ground. W. L. McATEE, U. S. Biological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 

- 1907. McCook, H. C. Nature's Craftsmen. New York, p. 267. 

* Monthly Weather Review, 45, pp. 217-224, May, 1917. 



Those Incomplete Titles Again. 

Several times in recent years we have had occasion to call 
attention to the derelictions of authors and editors in the mat- 
ter of incomplete titles of papers. An editorial under this 
caption appeared in the NEWS for June, 1915, page 280. In 
a set of "New Year's Resolutions for the Entomologist," in 
our issue for January, 1920, page 22, was one reading: 

6. Add the names of the Order and the Family, to which the insectb 
treated belong, to the title of your paper. 

It seems hardly necessary to point out again the reasons 
for this addition. 

We lately had to sort out some publications of the Federal 
Department of Agriculture for definite purposes and to group 
them by orders and families. Here are some of the snags we 
struck : 

Wade & Boving. Biology of Embaphion muricatum. 1921. 
Beyer. Garden Flea Hopper in Alfalfa and its Control. 1921. 
Snyder. Injury to Casuarina trees in Southern Florida by the Man- 
grove Borer. 1919. 

Brooks. Spotted Apple-tree Borer. 1920. 

Hofer. The Aspen Borer and How to Control it. 1920. 

The list could be extended easily. In all of these cases it 
was necessary to hunt through the text to learn the family and 
order. A professional economic entomologist would probably 
not have had our difficulty, but presumably the publications in 
question are not intended for his use alone, and even the term 
"I'.orer" is, we observe, not co-extensive with the name of 
any one order. The Federal Government should set us a 
better example and help us to conserve our time as well as our 



Notes and Ne\vs. 



Bird Lice (Mallophaga) Attaching Themselves to Bird Flies 
(Dip., Hippoboscidae). 

Finding two instances of this phenomenon led the writer to look up 
previous records. In this he has had the help of Dr. Joseph Becquaert. 
The latter and Mr. J. R. Malloch named the bird flies concerned in the 
present cases and Mr. E. A. Chapin the bird lice. In each of the two 
instances the fly was Ornithoinyia ai'icularia L. as our slightly differ- 
entiated form is still known, and it happened also that the louse in each 
case was the same, namely, Degccriclla rotundata Osborn. One collec- 
tion was made at the mouth of the Macfarlane River, Lake Athabaska, 
Saskatchewan, Aug. 11, 1920, by Francis Harper, from what bird is not 
stated, and the other from a western crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos 
hcspcris} taken near Ontario, Oregon, Sept. 30, 1920, by E. R. Kalm- 
oach. In both cases the mallophagan had attached itself to the hip- 
poboscid by biting the mandibles into the upper surface of the abdomen 
near the hind margin. 

References in the literature to cognate observations are : 
[BANKS, NATHAN.] Entomological Notes from the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Psyche, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb., 1920, p. 20. 

Two specimens of Mallophaga on an Ornithoinyia, one on each side 
near the tip of the abdomen. 
FORSIUS, RUNAR. Ueber den Transport von Mallophagen durch Ilip- 

pobosciden. Meddel af. Soc. pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 38, pp. 58- 

60, Feb. 3, 1912. 

A mallophagan, probably Nirnnts quadratuhts Nitzsch, fastened at base 
of wing of Ornithoinyia aricularia L. p. 58. 

Two mallopbaga, one on the hind tibia, one on the abdominal hairs of 
an Ornithoinyia ai'icularia L., one of them being identified as Nirinus 
uncinosus Nitzsch. p. 59. 
JACOBSON, Enw. Mallophaga transported by Hippoboscidae. Tijds. 

voor Ent. 54, 1911, pp. 168-9. 

"mallophagan clasped between the legs" of an Ornithoeca pusilla Schiner. 
MTOBERG, ERIC. Studien iiber Mallophagen und Anopluren. Arkiv. f. 

Zoologi, VI, No. 13, 1910, p. 10. 

7 Docophorus Icontodon Nitzsch on one, 3 upon another specimen of 
Ornithoinyia, firmly attached to long hairs of abdomen. 
[SHARP, DAVID.] [Mallophagan on Ornithomyia.] Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Lond., 1890, p. xxx. 

Dr. Sharp exhibited a specimen of O. aricnlarc L., collected at Dart- 
ford, England, "to which were firmly adhering apparently by their man- 
dibles several specimens of a mallophagous insect." 
WANACH, B. Transport eines Philopterus durch Ornithomyia avicularia 

L. Ent. Rundschau, 27, No. 17, Sept. 1, 1910, p. 121. ""fest an den 


The extent to which the H'ppoboscid genus Ornithomyia figures in tin- 
above records is rather surprising, certainly more than would be expect- 
ed considering the abundance of flies of this genus relative to others in 
the family. W. L. McAiEE, U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 


Save the Zoological Record! 

[We reprint the following note entitled "The Zoological Record' 
from Science for Dec. 30, 1921.] 

"The Zoological Record, which was founded in 1864 by English 
zoologists, has been issued regularly ever since and contains each year a 
complete bibliography of all publications connected with zoology. It is 
now the sole work of the kind, and is invaluable to all workers in every 
branch of zoology. 

"Previous to 1914 The Zoological Record formed part of the 'hit* ; 
national Catalogue of Scientific Literature,' and was issued under the 
joint responsibility of the Royal Society and the Zoological Society. As 
the Royal Society found itself unable to proceed with the volumes of the 
'International Catalogue' after the issue for 1914, the Zoological Society 
has undertaken to prepare and issue the volumes for 1915-1920, inclusive, 
at its sole financial risk. 

"It is the wish of the record committee of the Zoological Society to 
continue the publication of this most useful work, but it is obvious that 
they cannot expect the Society to undertake the heavy financial liability 
involved in publication unless they receive reasonable support from 
working zoologists both at home and abroad. 

"I hope, therefore, that all working zoologists who agree with me 
that the suspension of the publication of the Record would have a most 
disastrous effect on the progress of zoology, will either subscribe them- 
selves or will urge the librarians of the institutions with which they are 
connected to do so. 

"A prospectus and form of subscription either for the whole or separ- 
ate divisions of the Record can be had on application to the Zoological 
Society. \V. L. SCLATER, Editor. 

"Zoological Society of London, London, X. W. 8." 

The Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin. 
News Bulletin No. 6. 

It is with greatest regret that we have to confirm previous reports 
of the ill health of Dr. Rusby, the Director of the Mulford Exploration. 
Some of the earlier messages from the Exploration party indicated that 
Dr. Rusby was suffering from an infected tooth and from neuritis as 
early as last August. Although his suffering was continuous and un- 
abating in severity, yet he could not be persuaded to give up nor to 
alter the plans which he had laid down for himself. He gamely con- 
tinued to work strenuously at his botanical collection at every possible 
opportunity and he not only pursued vigorously his own department of 
the work, but set himself grimly to the task of directing, controlling 
and planning for the general work and progress of the expedition. 
With all this he found time to write many letters and to keep detailed 
records and accounts of many subjects outside of his own botanical 
work. By the middle of November, his condition had become so bad 
that he was compelled to give up, not because of the pain and .suffering, 
which he seems to have borne with a remarkable stoicism, but because 
the crippling effect of his neuritis made it very difficult for him to get 
about and he decided that it would be better for him to come home 
rather than continue as a drag and hindrance on the work of the 
others. He expected to reach New York sometime before March 1. 

This decision being taken, the duties of the Director of the Hxpedi- 


tion were turned over to Dr. W. M. Mann, Assistant Curator in the 
Division of Insects of the U. S. National Museum, and a man of wide 
experience in tropical travel and collecting. Under his direction the 
party will continue its work in Bolivia and Western Brazil, making 
studies and collections in the valleys of the Rio Beni and some of its 
tributaries, including the Rio Negro and Rio Ivon. The trip into Col- 
ombia as originally planned, was modified, and the party will con- 
tinue its work in Bolivia and Brazil until March or April. The botani- 
cal work of the expedition is being continued by Dr. O. E. \Vhite, a 
representative of the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens and Harvard Uni- 
versity, assisted by Seiior Cardenas, a young Bolivian botanist of prom- 
ise, who was taken on as a member of the party at the request of the 
Bolivian Department of Agriculture. 

In spite of the change of plans for the Colombian part of the jour- 
ney and the early termination of Dr. Rusby's active work in the field, 
we feel confident that the results when ultimately gathered together 
will prove the expedition to have been well worth while and to have 
fully repaid expenditures made therefor. Before Dr. Rusby left the 
party they had collected over 3000 plant numbers and to this many 
more will be added. They have already shipped to this country many 
boxes containing specimens of economic importance. Other depart- 
ments of the work of the expedition have been equally successful. Dr. 
Mann has collected over 100,000 insects, including 125 different 
species of ants. The collection of fish is also important and growing 
rapidly as they descend to the deeper and wider rivers. 

R. H. HUTCHISON, Secretary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not' listed. 

7 Annals of The Entomological Society of America, Columbus, 

Ohio. 10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 
12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, N. H. 21 The 
Entomologist's Record, London. 24 Annales de la Societe Ento- 
mologique de France, Paris. 30 Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, The 
Hague, Holland. 49 Entomologische Mitteilungen, Berlin-Dahlem. 
50 Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 61 Pro- 
ceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 

68 Science, Utica, Garrison & New York. 81 The Journal of 

Parasitology, Urbana, Illinois. 85 The Journal of Experimental 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 93 

Zoology, Philadelphia. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher, Jena. 100 
Biological Bulletin of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Hole, Mass. 110 Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift, Jena. 
114 Entomologische Rundschau, Stuttgart. 133 Zoologica. Scien- 
tific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society. 

GENERAL. Andreae, H. Sammelgerate. 49, x. 199-200. Fox, 
W. H. Obituary. 10, xxiii, 21 '.',. Hoffmann, W. H. Kin denkmal 
fur Carlos Finlay in Habana. 49, x, 104-."). Phillips & Poos A 
lamp for taxonomic work in entomology. 12, xiv, 504-(>. Seaver, 
F. J. Some wood-boring insects. (Amer. Forestry, xxvii. 769-78.) 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. de Baillon, P. C. Note 
sur le mecanisme de la stridulation chez Meconema varium (Phas- 
gonuridae). 24, xc, 69-80. Bodine, J. H. The effect of light and 
decapitation on the rate of CO2 output of certain Orthoptera. 85, 
xxxv, 47-55. Forbes, W. T. M. The small primaries of lepidopter- 
ous larvae. 7, xiv, 344. Gerhardt, U. Neue studien uber copula- 
tion und spermatophoren von Grylliden und Locusticlen. (Acta 
Zool. Stockholm, 1921, 241-327.) Harvey, E. N. The nature of 
animal light. (J. B. Lippincott Company, 1920, 182 pp.) Minnich, 
D. E. The chemical sensitivity of the tarsi of the red admiral but- 
terfly, Pyrameis atlanta. 85, xxxv, 57-81. Pratje, A. Zur chemie 
des Noctiluca-zellkermes. Zeit. f. Ges. Anat., Ivii. 170-32.) Riley, 
C. F. C. Responses of the large water-strider, Gerris remigis, to 
contact and light. 7, xiv, 231-89. Whiting, P. W. Studies on the 
parasitic wasp, Hadrobracon brevicornis. 100, xli, 153-55. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Chamberlin, R. V. The centipeds of Cen- 
tral America. 50, Ix, Art. 7. Welsh, F. R. Poisonous spiders. 68, 
Iv, 49. Wickware, A. B. An unusual form of scabies in fowls. .81, 
viii, 90-91. 

NEUROPTERA. Folsom, J. W. A new Entomobrya. 133, iii, 

HEMIPTERA. Essig, E. O. (See under Hymenoptera.) Mc- 
Atee, W. L. The periodical cicada, 1919; brief notes for the District 
of Columbia region. 10, xxiii, 211-1:5. Osborn, H. Two tachigalia 
membracids. 133, iii, 233-4. 

Hoke, G. Observations on the structure of the Oraceratubae and 
some new Lepidosaphine scales. 7, xiv, 337-43. 

LEPIDOPTERA. d'Almeida, R. F. Notes sur quelques lepi- 
dopteres d'Amerique du sud. 24, xc, 57-C>5. Cockayne, E. A. The 
white border of Euvanessa antiopa. 21, xxxiii, 205-10. Fassl, A. H. 
Zwei Papilio-novitaten aus Brasilien. 114, xxxix, 1. Fox, C. L. 
An account of a collecting trip in the high Sierra. (Lorquinia, Los 
Angeles, 1919, 7-10.) Kruger, E. Papilio laodamas und verwandte 
in Kolumbicn und das weibchen von laodamas laodamas. 114, xxxix, 


3-4. Lathy, P. I. An account of the Castniinae in the collection of 
Madame Gaston Fournier. (South American.) 11, ix, 68-86. Seitz, 
A. Die systematische stellung der Zygaeniden. 114, xxxix, 1-3. 

DIPTERA. Duda, Dr. Fiebrigella und Archiborborus, zwei 
neue sudamerikanische Borboriden gattungen. 30, Ixiv, 119-146. 
Felt, E. P. A new Diadiplosis. 133, iii, 225-G. Greene, C. T. An 
illustrated synopsis of the puparia of 100 Muscoid flies. 50, Ix, Art. 
10. Huckett, H. C. On the morphology of the ovipositor of certain 
Anthomyian genera. 7, xiv, 290-328. Lundbeck, W. New species 
of Phoridae from Denmark, together with remarks on Aphiochaeta 
groenlandica. (Vidensk. Mecldcl., Dansk Naturh. Foren. Koben- 
haven, Ixxii, 129-43.) Young, B. P. Attachment of the abdomen 
to the thorax of Diptera. (Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta., Mem. 44.) 

Curran, C. H.- Revision of the Pipiza group of the family Syr- 
phidac from north of Mexico. 61, xi, 345-393. McAtee, W. L. 
Notes on Nearctic Bibionid flies. 50, Ix, Art. 11. Reinhard, H. J. 
Some new species of Texas Tachinidae. 7, xiv, 329-336. 

COLEOPTERA. Boving, A. G. The larvae and pupae of the 
social beetles, Coccidotrophus socialis, and Eunausibius wheeleri, 
with remarks on the taxonomy of the family Cucujidae. 133, iii, 197- 
224. Champlain, A. B. A long-lived woodborer. 68, Iv, 49-50. 
Hauser, G. Die Damaster-Coptolabrus-gruppe der gattung Cara- 
bus. 89, Abt. f. Syst., xiv, 1-389. Heller, K. M. Systematische und 
faunistische notizen uber kaefer. 49, x, 195-8. Schwarz & Barber- 
Descriptions of new species of C. 133, iii, 189-94. Wheeler, W. M. 
A study of some social beetles in British Guiana and of their rela- 
tions to the ant -plant Tachigalia. Notes on the habits of European 
and N. Am. Cucujidae. 133, iii, 35-1 3(i: 173-83. 

Fisher, W. S. A new Cerambycid beetle from California. 10, 
xxiii, 200-8. Van Zwaluwenburg, R. H. Melanotus hyslopi n. sp. 
10, xxiii, 210-11. 

HYMENOPTERA. Brues. C. T. A new Blepyrus. 133, iii, 
229-30. ^Claassen, P. W. Typha insects: their ecological relation- 
ships. (Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta.. Mem. 47.) Essig, E. O. The 
argentine ant builds earthen protections for mealy bugs. 12, xiv, 
506-8. Friese, H. Ueber die kegelbiencn (Coelioxys) Brasiliens. 
89, xliv, Abt. f. Syst., 420-86. Heikertinger, F. Tauschende ahn- 
lichkeit mit ameisen (Myrmekoidie). 110, 1921, 709-13. Wade & 
Myers Observations relative to recent recoveries of Pleurotropis 
epigonus. 10, xxiii, 202-6. Wheeler, W. M. The Tachigalia ants. 
133, iii, 137-72. 

Cushman, R. A. North American Tchneumon-flies of the genera 
Clistopyga and Schizopyga. 50, Ix, Art. 4. 


T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER. Calcutta. Superintendent of Government 
Printing, India. 1921. 40 pp. 11 Annas. 

This section of the proposed catalogue brings up to date the list ot 
species of the Indian Acrydiidae, offering several very important im- 
provements over the last comprehensive catalogue of this division of 
the Orthoptera. The most important* of these lies in giving, on the page 
margins, the exact localities given in the list of references, referring 
these to each reference by small numerals. In this way the localities 
originally given by each author can be determined at a glance. 

Another decided improvement is tbe omission of numbers, which in 
Kirby's Catalogue were given even more than usual importance, as 
they were used for genotypic citations. 

In the present Catalogue the genotype is in every instance cited and. 
if described from a locality outside of India, that locality is given. We 
believe the system would have been improved, had a reference to the 
original genotypic designation been given. 

The present section is well handled and the Catalogue should be of 
the highest value to students of Indian Entomology. 

We are, as a rule, not in favor of general catalogues and believe 
that, unless thorough and complete in every detail, they can be ot 
real disadvantage to the student, who, relying on such, is sure to miss 
the literature overlooked. In the present case, however, it is evident 
that a general catalogue of Indian insects is greatly needed and the 
present section promises well for a thorough and satisfactory series. 

THE BULLETIN OF THE HILL MUSEUM, Vol. 1, Xo. 1. A magazine 
of Lepidopterology. Edited by J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot, with the 
assistance of L. B. Prout, A. E. Prout and W. Hawker-Smith. Issued 
October 17th, 1921, at the Hill Museum, Witley, Surrey, England. 
With 24 photographic plates of Lepidoptera and 8 photographs of other 
subjects. London. John Bale, Sons and Danielson. Oxford House, 
83-91 Great Tichficld St., Oxford St., W. Price 30s. There are 200 pages 
including the index. 

"Tin's magazine has been established by Mr. J. J. Joicey for the pur- 
pose of giving to the entomological world the results of studies car- 
ried out at the Hill Museum, Witley." An interesting account is given 
of the museum and the personnel of the scientific staff, and the large 
and valuable collections it contains. A bibliography of the previous 
publications of the museum is given. The first paper in the new jour- 
nal is by George Talbot and is entitled, "Euploeincs Forming Mimetic 
Groups in the Islands of Key, Aru, Tcnimber, Australia and Fiji." 
The other papers arc as follows: "New Lepidoptera Collected by Mr. 

* Kirby, Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera, III, PP- 1 to 62. 


T. A. Barns, in East Central Africa," by G. Talbot. "Descriptions of 
New Forms of Lepidoptera from the Island of Hainan," by J. J. 
Joicey and G. Talbot. Judging from the first number this magazine 
promises to be of great value and interest to the Lepidopterist and we 
will look forward to seeing much scientific work come from the Hill 
Museum. H. S. 

Doings of Societies. 

Entomological Workers in Ohio Institutions. 

At the annual state meeting held in the Botany and Zoology Building, 
Ohio State University, Columbus. Friday, February 3, 1922, the fol- 
lowing papers were read : 

GENERAL. A. E. Miller. Problem of a Collector. R. C. Osburn 
The Tabulation of Specific Characters of Insects. Miss Mary Auten 
Insects Associated with Spider Nests. T. G. Phillips The Chemistry 
of some Common Insecticides. J. T. Potgieter and T. J. Naude 
Economic Entomology in South Africa. E. C. Cotton Notes of the 
Year on Inspection Work. J. W. Bulger Control of some Greenhouse 

EPHEMERIDA. F. H. Krecker Emergence of a May-fly from its 
Nymphal Skin under Pelagic Conditions. 

ODONATA C. H. Kennedy The Origin of Put-in-Bay Dragon Fly 

COLEOPTERA. W . C. Kraatz A New Feeding Habit of a Dermestid 
Larva. W. V. Balduf Parasites of the Cucumber Beetle. J. S. 
Houser The Apple Flea Weevil. C. R. Neiswander and R. F. Chris- 
man Hibernation Responses of the Asparagus Beetle. 

HEMIPTERA. C. H. Waid Observations on the Potato Leafhopper. 
T. H. Parks Experiments and Demonstrations in the Control of 
Potato Leafhoppers and Hopperburn. Herbert Spencer Aphid Para- 
sites and Hyperparasites. C. R. Outright Relative Efficiency of Some 
Aphid Predators. D. M. DeLong The Genus Dcltoccphalns. Some 
Notes on the Ecology and Distribution of the North American Species. 
H. L. Dozier Male Genitalia of Delphacids. H. E. Evans Observa- 
tions on San Jose Scale in Southwestern Ohio. 

LEPIDOPTERA. E. W. Mendenhall Observations on the European 
Corn Borer. 

DIPTERA. H. A. Gossard Hessian Fly Emergence at Sandusky, Ohio, 
in 1921. M. B. Jimison Three Years of Hessian Fly Control Work 
in Erie County, Ohio. J. S. Hine Syrphidae Common to Europe and 

The following officers were elected for 1922: President, T. H. Parks; 
Vice President, J. S. Hine; Secretary, W. V. Balduf. 

T. H. PARKS, Secretary. 


Collectors who wish to 
obtain Specimens from 

India, Burma and Ceylon, should write to W. R. McMul- 

len, Port Blair, Andaman Isles. 


Large Stock of Specimens from Ecuador, Cameroon, Celebes and Europe. 
To be sold singly and in lots at very reasonable prices. 

Lists on Application. 



Tropical African (Uganda) Butterflies and Moths, Etc. 

Excellent Material. Great Variety. 

Apply for particulars and prices. 

R. A. DUMMER. Care S. A Museum, Cape Town, South Africa. 



One of the ranking collections of Europe, containing over 1200 species 
and varieties, represented by more than 8000 specimens, collected in all parts 
of the world. 

Owner: L. Gylek, Wahringerstrasse 132, Vienna XVIII, Austria. 
A detailed list of species may be obtained from 


a shut-in invalid and very thankful to hear fr; m any- 
Qne t j iat w jjj pi ease give, exchange, or sell one or more 
perfect specimens or live pupae of large moths, such as Luna, Selene, Ori- 
zaba, Jorulla, Splendida, Promethea, Calletta, Ilyperchiria Io, Budh- 
Incarnata, Luecane, Polyphemus, Imperialis, Cecropia, Cynthia, Papilio, 
etc. Luna pupae and midget mounts for sale. 

WILLIAM ENGELHART, Cooley Farm, Warrensville, Ohio 


From Colombia, South America: 

Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Calico spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

" devilliersi 

From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes Hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) : 
Annandia lidderdalii Parnassins hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 56-58 West 23d Street 

APRIL, 1922 


Vol. XXXIII No. 4 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



^B^ Ai 


Logan Square 

Entered at the Philadelphia, Pa., Post Office as Second Class Matter. 
Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage prescribed for in Section 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized January 15, 1921. 


published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the 
Entomological Section of The Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, and The American Entomological Society. 




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ENT. NEWS, Vol. XXX1I1. 

Plate V. 








APRIL, 1922 

No. 4 


Forbes Five Strange Lepidoptera 
(Oinophilidae, Noctuidae, Gele- 
chiidae) .... 97 

The University of Michigan-William- 
son Expedition to Brazil 104 

Kennedy The Phylogeny and the Geo- 
graphical Distribution of the Genus 
Libellula ( Odonata) 105 

Hall A Carbon-tetrachloride Killing 
Bottle 112 

Williamson Enallagmas Collected in 
Florida and South Carolina by 
Jesse H. Williamson with Descrip- 
tions of Two New Species (Odo- 
nata, Agrionidae) 114 

Information on Bibliographies and Cat- 
alogs Wanted. 118 

Editorial Zoological Bibliographies.. 119 

Marchand Aphis-Lion Attacking Man 
(Neur. , Chrysopidae) 120 

McAtee Note on Abundance of Mos- 
quitoes ( Dip., Culicidae) 121 

To the American Subscribers of the 
Concilium Bibliographicum (Zu- 
rich) 122 

Entomological Literature 123 

Obituary Dr.Thomas Algernon Chap- 
man, Dr Georg von Seidlitz, Dr. 
George Blundell Longstaff, Freder- 
ick William Lambert Sladen, Rev. 
Thomas W. Fyles 127 

Five Strange Lepidoptera (Oinophilidae, Noctuidae, 


By WM. T. M. FORBES, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

(With Plate V) 

The following Lepidoptera are described at this time be- 
cause I would like to refer to them elsewhere, where there will 
not be room for a satisfactory description. The first one is 
thoroughly aberrant, but appears to belong better in the family 
Oinophilidae, which has not before been reported from the 
United States, than to the Tineidae, to which it also shows some 
affinity. The Oinophilidae are a family of somewhat special 
interest, as they appear lo form a connecting link between a 
whole group of families of the lower Tineoidea, namely, the 
Tineidae, Lyonetiidae, Opostegidae and Gracilariidae, with the 
isolated and aberrant genera Ccjiiiostoina, Rcdcllm, Bnccula- 
tri.v, Pliyllocnistis, and their relatives. Of these only the Graci- 
lariidae have been lately revised by Meyrick. In larval habit, 
however, the known Oinophilidae contrast strongly with the 
Gracilariidae, Lyonetiidae and Opostegidae. feeding on decay- 
ing vegetable matter and fungi, like many Tineidae, while in 



appearance and structure the images are closely similar to the 
Lyonetiidae and Opostegidae. They are strongly flattened 
moths, with flat coxae closely appressed to the body, usually 
with smooth heads, rising to a rounded ridge between the 
antennae, but often with a loose tuft on the vertex, as in Oino- 
pJiila itself, and rather small maxillary palpi of the folded type. 
The labial palpi have a well-set-off, fusiform, terminal joint as 
in the Tineidae, and are normally without bristles. The vena- 
tion in the known genera is more or less reduced. Besides the 
well-known European and tropical genera Oinof>liila and Opo- 
gona, and the following genus, there are numerous less known 
tropical forms, gradually grading into the Lyonetiidae and the 
true Tineidae. As a rule nothing is known of the life histories 
of these and nothing has been published on several interesting 
points in their structure, so that it is impossible to say to which 
family they belong, unless the families be combined. 
The present form may be characterized as follows : 

PHAEOSES new genus (</>atds brown; 0-775 moth). 
Head smooth-scaled, as a rule slightly ruffled on the vertex, 
but without any definite tufting; eyes small, far apart; ocelli 
absent ; front somewhat retreating, but convex, the rounded 
ridge between the antennae less prominent than in Opogona. 
Antennae three-fifths as long as fore wing, evidently turned 
back across the eye in repose ; scape a little longer than width 
of eye, a little broadened, but without eyecap or pecten ; shaft 
with a single whorl of appressed scales on each segment, with 
a few weak setae passing between their bases. Maxillary palpi 
small but folded, and stronger than in the Gelechiidae ; tongue 
obsolete ; labial palpi with basal joint short, second upturned, 
smooth and concave on upper surface, fitting the face, but nor- 
mally drooping in death, lower edge rough-scaled ; third seg- 
ment short-fusiform, two-thirds as long as second, rough-scaled 
and flattened dorso-ventrally, commonly held porrect ; no bris- 
tles visible. Body strongly depressed, the abdomen wry flat; 
coxae and especially fore coxae broad and closely pressed to 
body; fore tibia very short and stout, with strong epiphysis ; 
middle legs normal ; hind tibia with spurs at a third its length, 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 99 

with a fringe of long bristly hairs above ; hind tarsus smooth, 
normal. Metathorax relatively large, as in Opogona. 

Fore wing (Plate V, figure 1) lanceolate, not caudate, but 
distinctly curved down at the apex; cell narrow, with a broken 
dividing vein from base to apex, weakly connected with the 
front edge of the cell halfway between the origins of 7^1 ( 11 ) 
and R2 (10), probably representing part of the base of media 
and the stem of R4+5; Rl arising at one-third length of cell, 
R2 just beyond middle, the stem of R between them definitely 
angled at the point of separation of 7^4+5; R3 (9) arising 
shortly before end of cell, well separated from R4-M2 (5 to 8), 
which arise from a common stem at end of cell; 7? 4 (8) given 
off before .172 (5), and Ml (6) practically obsolete, but I tli ink- 
traceable ; R5 (7) running to costa; free parts of dorsal veins 
parallel, but .1/3 (4) strongly converging at origin to the stem 
of R4-M2; .1/3 and Cnl (3) separated by a moderately long 
bent vein, which receives the dividing vein of the cell, Cnl and 2 
(3 and 2) by a long oblique vein; 1st A (Ic) free, the outer 
part well chitinized ; 2nd A (Ib) distinctly forked at base. 
Hind wing two-thirds as wide, lanceolate, with the costa hardly 
at all concave at the middle; fringe 2; 5V (8) ending at two- 
thirds, running close to costal edge; R (7) moderately sep- 
arated from .171 (6), running obliquely to costa; Ml (6) to 
apex; .172 (5) nearly connate with it, continuing the distinct 
base of .17; cell open below M2\ .1/3 (4) lost; Cnl (3) and 2 
(2) forming a strongly forked free vein; 1st A (Ic) well de- 
veloped; 2nd A (Ib) short and obscurely forked; 3rd A (la) 
practically obsolete. Frenulum simple in both sexes ; frenulum- 
hook of male normal, of female made up of a series of hooked 
hair-scales, apparently without any membranous portion. 

Fixed hairs are completely absent, except for the usual patch 
on the inner margin of the fore wing, even the small area over 
the base of 7?, which exists in Opogona and Opostcga, being 
lost, and represented only by a group of weak transverse folds. 
The female ovipositor is membranous, slender and extensile. 

The genus will run by Meyrick's key ( I 'roc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
W. 22: 298, 1897) to Losostoma (Opogona), from which it 
differs in many particulars, especially the convex front, and 


nearly complete venation. Of more recent genera it shows a 
certain resemblance to Hippiochaetcs Meyrick, which has a 
tufted head, and to Amath\ntis Meyrick, which obviously dif- 
fers in the bristled palpi, as well as markedly different venation. 
In North America the flattened body, smooth head and folded 
maxillary palpi will immediately distinguish it, save perhaps 
from a few Cosmopterygidae, which differ in their smooth, 
regularly tapering third palpal segment, and the sinuate costa of 
the hind wing. In my family key it will run to the Acro- 
lepiidae, but is easily distinguished by the separate Ml and 2 
of the hind wing, and completely smooth head. By Hampson's 
key (Nov. Zool. 25: 387, 393. 1918) it runs to the Lyonetiadae, 
family No. 84. 

There is only the following species (genotype) : 

Phaeoses sabinella, new species. 

Shining gray-brown (mouse gray) ; ridge between antennae, face and 
under side much paler, dirty white; outer side of fore coxae and femora, 
fore tibiae and tarsi, part of middle femora, especially toward the base 
and apex, and on the outer side, and shorter spurs of middle tibiae, 
brown ; middle tibiae and shorter spurs of hind tibiae somewhat shaded 
with brown. There is little variation in a series of nearly fifty speci- 
mens of varying quality, but on account of the brilliant gloss it is impos- 
sible to form an accurate judgment of the shades of color, especially 
on the legs. Expanse 9 mm. 

The male genitalia (Plate V, figure 2) are not unlike those of related 
forms. The part considered to be the uncus (Un) is a chitinization on 
each side of the anal opening, continuous with the tegtimcn O'.rT), which 
is itself continuous with the vincuhtm (i.vS}. There is no chitinization 
at all in the mid-dorsal line, and the lateral suture is indicated only by 
the articulation of the valve (V). The valves are ankylosed with the 
JM.vta and cannot be opened beyond the position figured. The valve is 
provided on its inner face with a mass of basally directed hair near the 
apex, and a patch of spines near the base, which are indicated on the 
right side of the figure as visible by transparency. 

Sabine River, Louisiana, opposite Orange, Texas, June 20, 
1917: holotypc and numerous paratypes ; Biloxi, Mississippi, 
June 13, 1917, paratypes; Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, June 17, 
1917, one paratype. Types Cornell U., No. 594. 

The four species remaining are somewhat less aberrant in 
character, although each is so distinct from its relatives that 
some would consider it worthy of a genus. It seems best to 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 101 

describe the two Gelechiidae in recognized genera, as the groups 
of the family to which they belong are rather in need of revi- 
sion as a whole. 

XYLORMISA new genus (uAov wood and Honnisa). 

Near Honnisa. Male antennae unipectinate and heavily 
ciliate at base, and bipectinate beyond the knot, which is about 
a third way out from the base, larger than is usual in Honnisa, 
and apparently not provided with curved spines ; second seg- 
ment of palpus more definitely upcurved, but not strongly so, 
the third short, and normally erect, as in Honnisa. Fore wing 
with well-marked apex ; accessory cell obscure, very small and 
narrow, with R2 to 4 (veins 8 to 10) stalked from its apex. 

This Noctuid genus is closely related to Honnisa and I 
might not separate it, save for the fact it will run to a different 
point in Schaus's Key (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 50: 262). It 
will run to alternative 67, where it is separable by the pectinate 
antennae. In fact the pectinate antennae witli a knot hardly 
occur save in Honnisa, which has a large normal accessory 
cell. The male fore legs are not unlike those of Honnisa, with 
trochanter very slender, and much longer than femur, and 
tarsus concealed. 

Genotype : Xylonnisa lonisiana n. sp. 

Xylormisa lonisiana new species. 

Ground light wood-brown, formed of dark brown dusting on a clay- 
colored base. Head and thorax paler ; antenna concolorous, with the 
swelling somewhat darkened ; palpus with second segment heavily dusted, 
except extreme apex, third segment dark brown, with apex more nr 
less distinctly whitish ; legs heavily dusted and shaded with blackish, 
especially the mid-tibia and tarsus. Abdomen lightly dusted with pale 
gray toward base, the apical segments of the male pale brown-gray with 
whitish margins, in the female not darkened. 

Fore wing becoming darker at the margin; orbicular and claviiorm 
represented by vertically placed black points, reniform of two such 
points, with a third dot below them in the fold, postmedian line repre- 
sented by a strongly outcurved series of four or five Mack dots between 
the veins, on the costal part of the wing; sttbterminal waved, pale, ol so 
lete at the costa ; a broken black terminal line; basal half of fringe dark 
gray, with pale bars in it corresponding to the black terminal bars. 

Hind wing paler, being dusted with pale gray like ihe abdomen, with 
faint shaded pale postmedial and subterminal bands, parallel to the outer 

102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | April, '22 

margin ; terminal line black, continuous, followed by a pale line in base 
of fringe. In the allotype the markings are fainter. Wing expanse 
18 mm. 

Sabine River Ferry, Louisiana, June 20, 1917, tvf>c $ ; 
Schriever, Louisiana, June 17. 1917, allotype 2 . Types, Cornell 
University, No. 596. There is a female from Canada in the 
Barnes collection, but I have no notes on it. 

ARGYRACTIS Hampson, OXYELOPHILA, new subgenus. 

Similar to those North American species formerly in Elo- 
phila, which are now placed by Hampson in Argyractis (fiili- 
calis, bifascialis, etc.). Fore wing (Plate V, figure 3) strongly 
falcate, hind wing with A/3 lost (as in other Argyractis), M2 
and Cn\ stalked. Labial, and in the typical species maxillary, 
palpi longer and more slender than in Argyractis, the max- 
illaries flattened, and acute only in side view. Mid and hind 
tibiae and midtarsi flattened and fringed with hair-scales in 
the female, as in A. fnlicalis and bifascialis; spurs fully devel- 
oped. Fore wing with R3 typically lost, but distinct in A. 
(O.) meianograpta, from Demerara, which also has reduced 
maxillary palpi. 

A. harpalis, lanccolalis, nccomalis and ticonalis also obviously 
belong to this subgenus. None of the species have the ocellate 
spots on the hind wing present in all the Northern species of 

Apparently Hampson had an aberrant specimen of A. bifas- 
cialis, as he indicates that it has M2 and Citl stalked; in a 
considerable series that I have examined of both the type and 
the form kcarfottalis, the veins are always separate. 

Genotype: Argyractis (O.vyclophila) callista n. sp. 

Argyractis (Oxyelophila) callista, new species. 

Similar to A. harpalis Snellen, from Central America (Tijd. v. Ent. 
43: pi. 17, f. 1). R3 lost (stalked in harpalis, according to Snellen). 
White ; front with a black dot at base of antenna ; abdomen with a black 
transverse band on base of second segment, nearly or quite interrupted 
in the middle ; fore coxa and femur with brown streaks, tibia blackish, 
tarsus and middle and hind legs slightly infuscated. 

Extreme base of costa with a black point; a black subbasal dot on 
fold, as well as the ones on costa and near inner margin ; antemedial 
line practically complete, right-angled on Sc and oblique to inner margin, 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 103 

with teeth on cell and fold ; preceded by a broad black-brown fascia, 
which runs through to the costa, obliterating the second antemedial 
costal spot; postmedial marks as in harpalis, but more suffused, with 
the yellow on the costa replaced by dull wood brown, and the white 
circle partly stiff used with brown ; a wood brown terminal band, repre- 
senting the yellow and white one of harpalis, defined inwardly with a 
clean-cut black line, which runs out into the apex, and outwardly by a 
blackish shade. Outer half of fringe white, with fuscous scale-tips. 

Hind wing with a complete irregular antemedian band, starting at Sc. 
preceded by some blackish scaling ; discal spot strong, yclloiv, denned 
inv/ardly by a few brown scales, and outwardly by an incurved blackish 
line; postmedian line black, erect to discal fold, then right-angled and 
incurved in a regular . sweep to anal angle, almost touching the discal 
dot ; followed by a second weaker line, which does not reach the costa, 
and is interrupted at the angle. Fringe whitish, clay colored or light 
wood brown at base, with traces of a black terminal line. Wing ex- 
panse, 13 mm. 

New Braunfels, Texas, June 26, 1917; holotype, six para- 
types and three other specimens in poorer condition, all females. 
Cornell type No. 595. 

Gelechia arenella, new species. 

Clay color; third joint of palpus slightly darker, and second paler on 
sides, with a short, smooth and slightly divided brush ; antennae fuscous, 
tips of tegulae pale. Fore and middle legs fuscous, the midfemora and 
tibiae obscurely mottled and tarsi ringed with whitish. 

Fore wing with darker grayish shading between the veins, leaving the 
veins contrastingly pale ; inner and outer discal points round, and a point 
in the fold before the inner one, all black ; a few scattered black-tipped 
scales, gathering into faint antemedial dots in cell and above inner mar- 
gin, and along the outer margin, and forming a streak below the basal 
part of subcosta. Fringe concolorous. Hind wing pale pearl gray. 
Wing expanse 20 mm. 

Woods Hole, Mass., August, 1917; type and five paratypes 
$ , Cornell type No. 518. Rockaway Beach, New York ; para- 
types in Barnes collection. 

This is apparently the species on which the American records 
of G. pctasitis are based, but it is not even closely related, as 
the figures of the genitalia (Plate V, f. 4, arenella, f. 5, pcta- 
sitis, at the same scale) will show. It is much more robust, 
and the pale veins are distinctive. 

Duvita (?) tahavusella, new species. (Tahawus is the Indian name 
for Mt. Marcy.) 


Scape smooth, as long as the eye, with a single long bristle near the 
base, representing the pecten. Palpi with second joint smooth, but con- 
siderably thickened with scales, third noticeably longer, smooth and 
acute. Fore wing normal, as in Duz'ita and Aproacrcina, with Ml well 
separated from K4+5. Hind wing with produced apex as in Apro- 
inTcina; R and Ml stalked a third way to apex, .1/3 and Cul hardly 
stalked, and M2 somewhat approximate. Penis a sharply curved spine, 
articulated at the base. 

Dark smoky gray, slightly shining, under a lens with pale scale-bases 
arid dark tips. Palpi concolorous ; legs blackish, contrastingly ringed 
with clay color, the hind tibia with pale bands at both pairs of spurs ; 
the hind femur and inner face of tibia and tarsus contrastingly pale. 

Fore wing with pale spots three-quarter way out on costa and inner 
margin, the costal one much larger, and with an obscure black ante- 
median spot in the fold, followed by some pale scales. Hind wing 
gray, paler. Wing expanse 11 mm. 

Uphill Brook, Mt. Marcy trail, Adirondack^, New York, July 
10, 1918, type. Peru, Ad'irondacks, New York, June 8, 1916, 
4 paratypes. Cornell U. type No. 519. 

The Mt. Marcy specimen is fresher than the others in spite 
of its late date, but this is doubtless on account of the high 
altitude (3200 ft.). This species is the first really North Amer- 
ican Gelechiid with a pecten on the antenna, as the genera 
Siiotroga and Pectinophora are introductions from the Old 
World. A couple of European species of Aproacrcina (.-Ina- 
campsis) are closely similar, but I have seen no specimens of 
any of them with a pecten, and all five of my specimens of 
tahawisella have preserved it. 

The University of Michigan- Williamson Expedition to Brazil. 

The expedition left New York on December 15, 1921, as forecast 
in the NEWS for January, page 11. From letters from Mr. Jesse H. 
Williamson to members of his family we are enabled to give the 
following outline of the progress made. On reaching Para they took 
steamer up the Amazon to Manaos, arriving there on January 13. Here 
they saw Dr. Rusby, of the Mulford Exploration, on his return journey 
to New York (see the March NEWS, page 91), and Herr Fassl, the 
well-known collector of insects. On the 14th they left Manaos by 
steamer and proceeded to and up the Rio Madeira, collecting as the 
stops of the vessel permitted, and disembarked at Porto Velho, 
"Brazil's third largest city in the Amazon basin," January 21. Here 
they "secured fine quarters in Hotel Brazil connecting rooms with 
electric lights, shower baths, cold drinks (iced) of all kinds available, 
etc., at about $1.75 per day each." At last writing. February 9, they 
were still at Porto Velho. Showers and cloudy weather had been 
frequent, the temperture about 78 F., altitude 60 meters, latitude 
8 46' South, longitude 63 55' West. 

From Porto Velho several trips into the surrounding country had 
been made, that of two days by motor car on the Madeira-Mamore 
Railway to Guajara, its present terminus, some 350 kilometers, being 
the longest. 

xxxiii,'22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 105 

The Phylogeny and the Geographical Distribution of 
the Genus Libellula (Odonata). 



(Continued from page 70.) 

Group 8. (a) Composita Hagen. PI. IV, fig. 15. Wyoming and 
Utah to southeastern California. A semidesert species of alkali 
sloughs. (?) 

At Laws, California, August 20, 1915, in the very alkaline 
Owens Valley, east of the Sierra, this species was found ovi- 
positing in a very alkaline seasonal or temporary, grassy slough 
made by waste irrigating water. No data were gathered as to 
whether the species succeeded in maturing in such a place. 

This remarkable insect, which has spread probably from the 
dry areas of southern California, where there seems to have 
been a sanctuary for several primitive Odonates, stands inter- 
mediate between Group 7 and Group 8. In the penis, coni- 
posita resembles Group 8, but in size and color of wings and 
body it is related to Group 7. The homologies of the parts of 
the penis in Group 8 were inexplicable until the penis of 
composita was examined. In it all the parts already found in 
the generalized sanifasciata penis are recognizable. It is highly 
specialized in the large lateral lobes and the arched cornual 
base, but is very primitive in that the three cornua are still 
recognizable though rudimentary. The pattern of the wing 
markings suggests nodisticta, Ladona and the Eurasian species 
in which the wing markings are reduced or perhaps have never 
been greater. The insect is highly specialized in its pearly 
white eyes, the white costal border and perhaps in its curious 
habit of flying about in tandem with its mate. Its very re- 
stricted and erratic distribution shows it to be a relict. Just 
how it is related to the species of Group 8 is a question, but 
there is no doubt that it is associated with their ancestry. 

Group 8. (b) Jesseana Williamson. PI. IV, fig. 1(J. Enterprise, 
Florida, April 22, 1921. Known only from a single pond, when- 
Jesse Williamson found these mating and ovipositing. (See Ent. 
News, xxxiii, pp. 13-17.) 


This striking dragonfly has the coral-red wings of 
and the dark body of inccsta. The arguments for its heing a 
good species and not a hybrid between these species are as 
follows : 

1. It has not been found elsewhere where the habitats of 
these species overlap. 

2. It has the composite type one would expect in a species 
surviving from the Miocene times of Florida. 

3. It is local in its distribution as relict species usually are. 

4. It was breeding and ovipositing. 

The writer is inclined to classify jcsscana as another of the 
local Florida species. He believes that these originated in the 
Miocene when north central Florida was an island. As evi- 
dence of this, all of the half-dozen local Florida species are in 
northern genera because the Island of Florida was close to the 
Georgia coast and the Antillean lands had not yet appeared 
above the sea. The local Florida species of Odonata that the 
writer has examined are each among the primitive species of 
its genus, which again suggests an early origin for them. If 
these conclusions are true, jcsscana gives us a fairly definite 
geological date for this horizon of the genus Libellula. Scini- 
fasciata, foliata, and angclina would be from below the Mio- 
cene, while Group 8 (c) and Group 8 (d) would have devel- 
oped since the Miocene. The penis of jcsscana has more of 
its characters like those of the species of Group 8 (d) than of 
Group 8 (c), but the bright red wings associate it just as much 
with the latter group. It is specialized in the curious supple- 
mentary lobe under the cornual base. 

Group 8. (c) Flavida Rambur. PI. IV. fig. 17. Atlantic and 
Gulf Coasts. Habits unknown. 17 

Auripennis Burm. PI. IV, fig. 17. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts to 
Cuba and Mexico. A species of the ponds of the southern ever- 
green forest, which has penetrated the tropics as far as the Isle of 
Pines and Tabasco, Mexico. 

Luctuosa Burm. PI. IV, fig. 19. Maine and Florida to North 
Dakota and northern Mexico. A pond and sluggish stream species 
of the deciduous forest and prairie. 

[ 17 In the pine barrens in New Jersey. P. P. CALVERT.] 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 107 

This is not as compact a group as for instance the nodisticta 
group. Lnctuosa is specialized in the broad, black base of the 
wings and in the black and yellow body-colors. Auripcnnis is 
equally specialized in its coral-red color. Flarida, perhaps, is 
more generalized in that it has the general color pattern of the 
species of Group 8 (d), but shows the reddish cast which is so 
much better developed in auripennis. 

Group 8. (d) Axillena Westw. PI. IV, fig. 20. Pennsylvania to 
Florida and Louisiana. A species of the southern evergreen forest 
usually found near small streams in woods. 18 

Cyanea Fabr. PI. IV, fig. 21. New Hampshire to Indiana and 
Georgia. A species of the deciduous forests, usually found about 
inlets or outlets of ponds. 

Comanche Calv. PI. IV, fig. 22. Montana to Texas, Mexico 
and California. The writer has seen but one specimen of this in the 
field. It was along a swampy stream. 19 

Incesta Hagen. PI. IV, fig. 23. Maine and Wisconsin to Mis- 
souri and Florida. A vigorous, wide flier, over open ponds and 
streams. 18 

Vibrans Fabr. PI. IV, fig. 24. Maine to Missouri and Florida in 
woods swamps. 18 

Because of the great difference between the penis of a.rillcna 
and that organ in the other species of this group, a.rillcna may 
not belong in the group. 

This group appears to be very modern in that the species 
are very close. While the penes show all of them to be good 
and distinct species, the writer has been unable to unscramble 
their relationships to his satisfaction. ^l.riUciia and Z'ibrans, 
by penis characters, are very different, also by the same criteria 
inccs/a is closer to comanclic and cyanca than to ribrans and 
a.villcna. Probably they are a complex of mutants with various 
combinations of a limited set of characters. The following 
four pairs of characters appear in the group : 

1.1 Dark face 1.2 White face 

2.1 Nodal spot 2.2 No nodal spot 

3.1 Basal spot 3.2 No basal spot 

4.1 Dark stigma 4.2 Pale stigma 

18 Jesse and E. B. Williamson to the writer. 

[ 19 Along the outlet of the sulphur springs at Santa Rosalia, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. P. P. CALVERT.] 


These combine as shown in the following lists : 



incest a 

' 1.1 

















By this scheme cornanc/ie appears to he a pale a.rHlcna. 
The other species are various intermediate combinations of 
these paired characters. Comanchc 20 is also the only desert 
species of this group. Probably it has entered the desert from 
the east. This axillcna group represents the very apex of 
North American Odonate evolution, if we consider the Libel- 
lulidae as the apical Odonate family. 

Group 9. Depressa Linn. PI. IV, fig. 25. England to Russia and 
Persia, south to Sicily. Ponds. 21 

This is definitely a European offshoot from the Plathemis 
stock. It may have been traded to Eurasia when 4-nmcnlata 
came to America, but the difference between it and the two 
species of Plathemis is great enough to suggest that it branched 
off much earlier. 

Group 10. Quadrimaculata Linn. PI. IV, fig. 20. England to 
Spain, Kashmir and Japan. In America from Newfoundland to 
Alaska, south in the mountains to North Carolina and California. 
I cannot trace Muttkowski's 22 Arkansas record. 

The nearest relative of this species is angelina of Japan. 
Qnadrimaculata probably entered North America recently as 
it has no near relatives on this continent. It may have come 
in when the very modern EnaHagina cyathigerum entered Eur- 
asia, as the two have the same distribution. It is very modern 
and highly specialized in its intense activity. 

Group 11. Fulva Muell. PI. IV, fig. 27. England to Italy, Den- 
mark to Transcaucasia. Moor swamps and slow-flowing brooks, 
more (often found) in the mountainous regions. 23 

20 Is it possible that our Odonata tend to form a pale desert fauna ? 
Offhand the writer recalls Ophiogomphus ncvadcusis, Gomphus ncva- 
dcnsis, Complins intricattis, Sympetrum madidum, Syinpctruiii corntp- 
tum, LibcIIula composite and Ischnura barbcri. 

21 Frohlich in Die Odonaten u. Orthopteren Deutschlands, p. 13, 1903, 
states that this species is found from May to July, common about all 
smaller pools, swamp and peat ponds. 

22 Catalogue of the Odonata of North America, p. 140, 1910. 

- ? Frohlich, Odonaten u. Orthopteren Deutschlands, p. 11, Jena, 1903. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 109 

This is a remnant of the preglacial fauna of Eurasia, so that 
it lias no near relatives. It is remarkably specialized in the 
penis which has a large inflated tip. Pontia, which Ris rates 
as a variety, the writer has not seen. 

From the foregoing discussion the writer believes that thte 
method of investigation as a preliminary to a study of the geo- 
graphical distribution of a group of species is sound and fur- 
nishes data as to relationships not easily arrived at from other 
methods. The writer admits that he has used other characters 
very little, though they agree as far as he has checked them. 
To summarize : 

1. Scinifasciata is the most generalized living species and so 
probably the most primitive. 

2. The genus LibcHitla originated in the eastern hemisphere 
because there we find the large genus Orthctrnni, placed by 
many writers close to Libcllula, in which the penis has the 
straight lateral lobes of the less specialized Libellulas. See the 
figure of an Orthctrnm penis in the preceding article, Ent. 
News, vol. xxxiii, PI. II, fig. 14, 1922. 

3. Our southwestern species, sitbornata, foliata, nodisticta 
and cowiposita, are the American species most nearly related to 
the Eurasian Libellulas. This taken in connection with the 
fact that the most primitive species, semifasciata, is in eastern 
America, might mean that the genus originated in America 
and spread to Eurasia, later sending northern species back to 

4. These southwestern primitive species indicate a Mexico- 
California faunal centre, which with its long unaltered climate 
has been an asylum for various primitive Odonates, and from 
which developed Group 4, Group 7 and Group 8. 

5. The species with broad lateral lobes comprised in Groups 
3, 5, 6, 9 and 10 have probably been distributed to America 
from Eurasia. This is indicated by the fact that their con- 
necting links are not in America, that three of these, Group? 3, 
9 and 10, are Eurasian to start with. 

6. Depressa and fnli'a are the most specialized away from 
the primitive st-inifasciata penis of any of the Libellulas. (The 
extreme specialization of Plathcinis and Ladonci suggests that 
their stock may have been developed in Eurasia.) It is of com- 


mon knowledge to distributionists that the Eurasian fauna and 
flora are about one geological age in advance of the American. 

7. The Palaearctic species, because of their lack of near rela- 
tives and because of their unrelatedness inter sc are the rem- 
nants of a preglacial fauna, a fauna that was largely wiped out 
when caught between the ice and the southern mountains. 

8. The holarctic 4-uiaciilata originated in Eurasia as it has 
no near relatives in America. 

9. The genus as it exists in America today represents at 
least three levels of development as are indicated by the hori- 
zontal lines on Plate IV. 

10. The tropical Libellulas have probably entered the tropics 
from the north or have been developed from northern stock, 
also Ladona developed from the north to the south. 

11. Orthnnis with a penis that has broad lateral lobes may 
be an American offshoot of the Libellulas with broad lateral 

12. Libellula jcsscana gives us a Miocene date for its level 
in the genus. 

From the foregoing it appears that the genus Libcllnla orig- 
inated in a mild climate in premiocene times, but eventually 
developed species into both the Transition and Subtropical 
Zones ; that its dominance is past in Eurasia but is at its height 
in North America. 

One point of general interest is that in a species or series of 
species of Libelhda extending from north to south, the southern 
individuals or species are small. Ris ( Libellulinen, Coll. Selys) 
states that in julva and depressa examples from the southern 
portions of their habitats are smaller. The same author states 
that the Cuban aiiripcnnis is smaller than the American, that 
the smallest examples of herculca come from Paraguay. How- 
ever, in the last case the species is small in Mexico on the 
northern border of its range. In Ladona the northern species, 
jnlia, is largest, the southern species, dcplanata, smallest. 24 
Dr. W. T. M. Forbes has pointed out to the writer that the 
same is true in some North American Lepidoptera as they are 
usually smallest on the southern edge of their range. Probably 

24 The reverse is true, according to Dr. Calvert, in Agrion macitlatum, 
Gomphus dilatatus, etc. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 111 

it means that they have spread into a region where life condi- 
tions are not optimum. 

The primitive color in the genus appears to have been brown 
because, 1. scuiifasciata is brown; 2. the females of several of 
the species are brownish ; however, the gray and yellow color 
pattern of the high Group 8 (d) is found also in the genus 
Ortlietnun. Apparently the bright reds of auripcnnis and of 
saturata have developed independently of each other.. 

Probably the primitive wing had three broad spots or bands, 
basal, nodal and apical, but just how this pattern is handed 
down through the various lines is baffling. These band? in 
whole or in part may disappear in a series to reappear in some 
apical species. They may disappear in one sex, as in the female 
of lydia^ or may appear in individuals of a species usually 
without them, as in the form pracnubila of 4-inaciilata. Per- 
haps their genes are always present but are inhibited at times 
by other factors. 

The writer believes that the genitalia in this genus show rela- 
tionships so clearly that the subgenera can be defined by them. 
They certainlv can be lined up much better than they were by 
ECirby. 2 The writer's views are substantially those indicated in 
Ris' key to this genus in his Libcllnlincn in the "Coll. Zool. du 
Selys." The species fall into ten subgenera, as follows: 

1. EOLIBELLULA subgen. nov., type I= scuiifasciata. 

2. BELOXIA Kirby, type =r foliata; includes also saturata. cro- 

ccipciinis and hcrcnlca. 

3. SYNTETRUM subgen. nov., type : angdina. 

4. LIBELLULA Linn., type : 4-inaculata; includes pracnubila 

and probably basilinca. 

5. LADOXA Needham, type =: c.ritsta; includes also Julia and 


6. PLAT IT EM is Hagen. type ' r lydia; includes also snbonwta. 

7. PLATETRUM Newman, type == dcpressa. 

8. EUROTITEMIS subgen. nov., type : fitl-va; includes, prob- 

ably, poutica. 

9. NEOTETRUM subgen. nov., type : forcnsis; includes also 

pulchcUa and nodisticta. 

10. HOLOTANIA Kirby, type a.viUcna ; includes also com 
posita. jcsscana. flcrcida, auripennis, Inctnosa, cvanca. 
couianciic, inccsta and ribrans. 

25 Kennedy, Odonata of Kansas, Bull. Kans. Univ., vol. 18, pi. VII, 

figs. 108-110, 1917. 

26 Kirby, Revision of the Libellulinae, 1889. Catalogue of the Odonata, 



[April, '22 


A Carbon-tetrachloride Killing Bottle. 

By GAYLORD C. HALL, New York City. 

There has been a growing tendency for some years past to 
use carbon-tetrachloride as a killing agent for insects. The 
writer began experimenting with it several years ago and dur- 
ing the last summer tried out seriously a killing bottle using 
this fluid. The apparatus, which is shown in the accompanying 
sketch, consists of a bottle of convenient size, in the bottom 
of which is placed a piece of felt, which in turn is covered 
by a layer of cotton. Carbon-tetrachloride is poured in until 
the felt is saturated and the bottle is ready for use. 

The fumes of the tetrachloride 
are very heavy and therefore 
have a tendency to stay in the 
bottle as long as it is not in- 
verted. For this reason it is best 
to remove specimens from the 
bottle with forceps which reach 
the cotton and thus keep the bot- 
tle upright. Likewise in getting 
the specimens from the net into 
the bottle it is better to keep it 
as nearly upright as possible. 

The effect of the tetrachloride 
upon Lepidoptera is surprisingly 
quick. Usually the insect has 
ceased struggling and is lying 
inert on the cotton (alas! with 
wings reversed) by the time the 
cork is replaced, that is, in a few 
seconds. Should it be desirable to bring the wings back to 
their normal position, the butterfly can be taken out, the wings 
reversed, and dropped back again as with a cyanide bottle. I 
have found that fifteen minutes is ample time for killing and 
prefer to take the specimens out after that period has elapsed. 
I always put them immediately into a metal box kept moist by 
means of wet blotting-paper or otherwise, as that treatment 
seems to prevent or at least minimize the rigor mortis. During 
the last summer I caught and set several hundred specimens. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 113 

some set the same day as caught and many at a later date after 
the usual relaxing process, and have had practically no trouble 
from stiff wings. 

In making up the killing bottle use a piece of felt at least 
a quarter of an inch thick. It can be bought under the name 
of laundry felt or moulder's cloth. It should be cut so as 
to make a tight fit in the bottom of the bottle. This can be 
done by the cut and try method, leaving the felt slightly larger 
than the inside diameter of the bottle so that it has to be forced 
down into place. The felt will then be tight and will not fall 
out Avhen the bottle is inverted. Over the felt place a piece 
of cotton to the depth of at least one inch. In making this 
mat of cotton care should be taken that it makes a fairly tight 
fit against the sides of the bottle and that the edges are not 
rounded downward. This is important for if rounded, small 
specimens slide down, become wet with the tetrachloride and 
stick to the Hass and mav be ruined in trying to remove them. 
The tetrachloride itself does not seem to harm the specimens. 
In pouring the tetrachloride, slightly part the cotton from the 
glass, using a pencil, as one is usuallv at hand, and pour the 
fluid down the c ide into the felt without wetting the cotton, 
tipniner the bottle sliehtlv to one side in the meantime. 

The bottle properly prepared. /. c., with the felt well wet, 
will last at least one dav in active service. I used to carrv a 
small bottle of the fluid in the field in order to recharge, but 
found that that was not necessary. The bottle when corked, 
will keep for months. The carbon-tetrachloride can be bought 
at any chemist's and there are also some cleaning fluids such 
as Carbona which seem to be composed largely of it and 
which answer the purpose perfectly. 

The carbon-tetrachloride would seem to lend itself easily to 
other methods of killing insect and other pests, due to its 
extremely heavy vapor and absolute fire-proof quality, and 
we may expect development along this line in the future. 

\Notc. Very frequently boys and girls wish to collect insects and 
it has not been considered safe or wise to allow them to use cyanide 
bottles. At present it is difficult to purchase small quantities of 
cyanide, on account of the regulations in regard to the sale of poisons. 
Carbon tetrachloride would supply a harmless preparation for both 
children and adults. For certain insects that have long tarsal claws. 
it would be necessary to put something smooth over the cotton, with 
perforations, if mvrssary, to permit the gas to escape into the bottle. 
H. S.] 


Enallagmas Collected in Florida and South Carolina 
by Jesse H. Williamson with Descriptions of 
Two New Species (Odonata, Agrionidae). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

(Plate VI) 

Mr. Williamson collected dragonflies in Florida from March 
1 to April 26, 1921. Localities visited and dates are as fol- 
lows: Sebring, March 1; Fort Myers, March 3-7 and 10-19; 
Taxambas, Marco Island, March 8; Labelle. March 21-27; 
Moore Haven, March 29 and 30, and April 2 ; Palmdale, March 
31 and April 3-8; enroute Moore Haven to West Palm Beach, 
across Lake Okeechobee, April 9; Miami, April 12 ; Enter- 
prise, April 15-26. From April 29 to May 9 he collected at 
Kathwood. Aiken County, South Carolina, but at this time 
most of the species observed were just emerging. Mr. Wil- 
liamson has distributed his Florida dragonflies into twenty- 
five sets which he has donated to students of Odonata. 

Dr. Calvert's recent paper, Gundlach's JTork on the Odonata 
of Cuba, (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XLV, 1919) contains a care- 
ful study of certain Enallagmas, related to EnaUagina tntn- 
catinn, which may be designated as the pollution group. This 
work of Dr. Calvert's has made possible the recognition of 
two undescribed species of the group from Florida. The 
following descriptions of these species follow the form of 
Calvert's descriptions and are supplementary to his paper. 

Enallagma sulcatum new species (PI. VI, Figs. 1-5). 

$ . Superior appendages in profile view with the apical margin 
suhequal to the inferior margin, produced; in dorsal view, the intero- 
inferior lamella reaching far beyond the level of the supero-internal 
apical hook. 

Nasus shining black, with a small pale area on either side (similar 
to that of truncatum in Calvert's figure 1, except that the black extends 
nearly or quite to the anterior and lateral margins), to largely orange 
with a transverse bar across the base and another paralleling the 
anterior margin, these bars connected or not at their extremities and 
in the median line, and the anterior bar sometimes broken with orange. 

Frons : pale color of the anterior surface not reaching the yellow or 
orange spot immediately anterior to the median ocellus ; in some speci- 
mens the black anteriorly is slightly more reduced than in figure 4. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL XKWS 115 

Pale postocular spots linear-cuneiform, not confluent with the pale 
color of the rear of the head, being separated therefrom by a broad 
bar of black across the rear of the head above. 

Middle prothoracic lobe in dorsal view predominately black, a yellow 
or orange spot each side, no median twin spots or stripes. 

Width of black middorsal thoracic stripe about .87, of pale ante- 
humeral about .26, of black humeral about .55 mm. 

Second lateral thoracic suture with a black stripe on about the 
upper five-sixths of its length, continued as a thread of black to the 
inferior end of the suture. 

Abdominal segment 9 blue. 

9 . Mesostigmal lamina largely black, with a pale stripe which 
includes the dorsal tubercle and extends downward and slightly for- 
ward ; the posterior and inferior black portion of the lamina grooved 
(hence the specific name) to receive the dorsal branch of the superior 
appendage of the male ; this groove produced dorsally and anteriorly 
across the pale stripe slightly below the dorsal tubercle, at which point 
the pale stripe is more or less interrupted. 

Antero-mesal angle of the pale antehumeral stripe elevated and 
prominent, but not produced into a tubercle. 

Width of the black middorsal thoracic stripe about .78, of pale 
antehumeral about .27, of black humeral about .5 mm. 

Second lateral thoracic suture with a black stripe on slightly less 
than the upper five-sixths of its length, continued as a thread of black 
to the inferior end of the suture. 

Black on dorsum of abdominal segment 9 with the sides nearly 
parallel or narrowing caudad, and extending from the base to from 
two- thirds to three- fourths the length of the segment. 

Abdomen $ 27-28, 9 26.5-29; hind wing $ 16.5-17.5, 9 17-19; 
stigma front wing $ .6-.67, 2 -67, of hind wing $ .67, 9 .7-. 83 mm. 

Anal bridge separating from the hind margin proximal to Cu-A 
a distance about equal to to slightly greater than the length of Cu-A. 
M2 front wing arising at or near the fourth postnodal in 5 male wings, 
at or near the fifth postnodal in 5 male and 8 female wings; M2 
hind wing arising at or near the fourth postnodal in 10 male wings 
and 8 female wings; Mia front wing arising at the seventh postnoda! 
in 10 male wings and 2 female wings, at the eighth postnodal in 6 
female wings; Mia hind wing arising at the seventh postnodal in 10 
male wings and 7 female wings, at the eighth postnodal in 1 female 

Material examined : Gotha, Florida, June 2.\ 1898, through 
James Tough. , coll. E. B. \Y. ; Enterprise, Florida, April 
18. 10, 21, 25 and 26. 1921, J. H. Williamson. 7 3, 4 9. 
Type April 26, allotyfic 9 April 19, coll. E. I',. \V. This 


species was taken by Mr. Williamson at Gleason's Pond. 
IHickeye Homestead Pond, Quackenbos Pond, and a small 
swamp about a quarter of a mile east of Gleason's Pond. 

The male of sulcatitin runs out in Calvert's key to trnncatitni 
and poll it tit in, with the postocular spots more linear than 
cuneiform. From tntncatum it is separated at once by the 
form of the appendages and by the more extensive pale areas 
on the head in dorsal view. From pollntmn it is separated at 
once by having the ninth segment blue, not yellow or orange, 
and by the form of the appendages. 

Writing of the males of vcspernin and signatinn Dr. Calvert 
(p. 376, loc. cit.) says he has found no constant color differ- 
ences. I have seen many specimens of both species and in 
every case abdominal segment 9 of signatinn has been yellow 
and of I'cspcrnui blue, but Dr. Calvert writes me that a speci- 
men of signal it in from Indiana seen by him had 9 blue. This 
coloration is certainly rare, and in the case of the specimen 
seen by Dr. Calvert may have been due to some adventitous 
cause. In the same way, all the males of pollutum seen by 
me have 9 yellow. The males of vcspcrnm and sitlcatinn are 
alike in having 9 blue, and there is a superficial resemblance 
in the shape of the appendages. But sitlcahtin is at once 
separated from vcspcrum and from all other species of the 
poll tit nin group, by having the pale, less chitinized, intero-in- 
ferior lamella produced apically beyond the level of the darker, 
more chitinized, externo-superior branch of the superior 
appendages. In "ccsperum the mesal edge of the intero-inferior 
lamella is emarginate ; in snlcatmn it is entire and slightly 
concave as shown in figure 3. 

In Calvert's key to the known females of the group, 
snlcatmn runs out to signatitin and pollntmn, which are sep- 
arated in the key by the presence in signattini and absence in 
pollutum of mesepisternal tubercles. Sitlcatitm seems more 
like pollutum, as contrasted with signatmn, in this character, 
which, however, is not always readily recognized. It is variable 
(in vcsperum) according to Calvert, and among specimens of 
all the known species, I have found the tubercle absent in at 
least some of the specimens of all the species except signatum. 

xxxiii, '22 j ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 117 

The female of sitlcatitni is further defined in a brief key to 
the known females following the description of E. concisnni. 
Specimens of snlcatnm have been studied by Dr. Calvert and 
in his opinion the species is distinct. 

Enailagma concisum new species (PL VI, Figs. 6-10). 

<J . Superior appendage in profile view with the apical margin about 
two-thirds as long as the inferior margin, oblique, nearly straight, and 
not bilobed but with the inferior apical angle of the intero-inferior 
lamella slightly enlarged. In dorsal view the intero-inferior lamella 
reaches the level or nearly the level of the supero-internal subapical 
hook but the dorso-apical portion of the intero-inferior lamella is 
produced obliquely apically to fuse with the externo-superior branch 
of the appendage, so the distinction between the externo-superior 
branch and the intero-inferior lamella is not well marked in the sub- 
apical part of the appendage as it is in corresponding parts of pictuin. 
Th.'s results from the greater length of the externo-superior branch 
of the appendage in concisum as compared with pictuin, and it is in 
concisum that the supero-internal subapical tooth is relatively more 
apical and therefore more reduced. 

Nasus orange, a transverse basal black stripe and on either side, at 
mid-length, a small brown to black depression. 

Frons : pale color of its anterior surface on either side reaching 
the level of the median ocellus, but the latter is bordered in front 
with a small pale area of varying size and an anteriorly projecting 
quadrangle of black, the latter often unsymmetrical, and in one case 
broken, so the small yellow area in front of and adjacent to the median 
ocellus is joined on one side with the anterior orange color of the frons. 

Pale postocular spots linear cuneiform, widely separated by black from 
the pale color on the rear of the head below. 

Prothorax shining greenish black, front and hind lobes broadly 
edged with orange; and sides of middle lobe paler orange; dorsum of 
middle lobe with a round orange spot, varying greatly in size on 
either side, and with a median orange geminate spot of varying sixe. 
1 resent or wanting. 

Width of black middorsal thoracic stripe about .67, of pale ante- 
humeral about .33, of black humeral about .43 mm. 

Second lateral suture with a black stripe its entire length, widening 
posteriorly from a narrow line at its anterior end. 

Abdominal segment 9 orange on the sides below, dorsum black 
except the apical membranous ring which is orange. 

9 . Mesostigmal lamina largely pale, the upper half, anterior to 
the pale vertical posterior inflated carina, and a very narrow border, 
posterior to this carina, black. 

The merest prominence and no trace of a tubercle on the antero- 
mesal angle of the pale antehumeral stripe. 


Width of black middorsal thoracic stripe about .7, of the ante- 
humeral about .35, of black humeral about .44 mm. 

Second lateral thoracic suture with a black stripe its entire length, 
widening posteriorly from a narrow line at its anterior end. 

Black on dorsum of abdominal segment 9 of uniform width. 

Abdomen $ 24.5-25.5, 9 26; hind wing $ 14.5, $ 17; stigma 
front wing $ .5-.S3, 9 .61, of hind wing $ .5-. 53, 9 .67 mm. 

Anal bridge in front wing separating from the hind margin 
proximal to Cu-A a distance equal to about one and one-half times 
the length of Cu-A ; in the hind wing a distance slightly greater 
than the length of Cu-A. M2 front wing arising at or near the 
fourth postnodal in 2 male wings, at or near the fifth postnodal in 
8 male and 2 female wings ; M2 hind wing arising at or near the 
fourth postnodal in 10 male and 2 female wings; Mia front wing 
arising at the seventh postnodal in 6 male and 2 female wings, at the 
eighth postnodal in 4 male wings; Mia hind wing arising at the sixth 
postnodal in 3 male and 1 female wings, at the seventh postnodal in 7 
male and 1 female wings. 

Material examined : Buckeye Homestead Pond, Enterprise, 
Florida, April 21 and 26, 1921, J. H. Williamson, 13 $, 1 9 ; 
Type $ and alloiypc $ , April 21, coll. E. B. W. 

Mr. Williamson noted of this species on April 21 ; "Occurred 
at Buckeye (Homestead) Pond. Generally found resting in 
inner ring of vegetation where the water was about waist deep. 
Seen only at rest and hard to find.' 


(To be continued) 


Figs. 1-5. Enallagma sidcatnm n. sp. Figs. 1-3, appendages of the 
$ type in lateral, dorsal and dorso-oblique views. Fig. 4, dorsal view 
of head of $ type. Fig. 5, dorso-oblique view of middle lobe of pro- 
thorax of 9 allotype. 

Figs. 6-10. Enallagma concision n. sp. Figs. 6-8, appendages of $ 
type in lateral, dorsal and dorso-oblique views. Fig. 9, dorsal view 
of head of $ type. Fig. 10, dorso-oblique view of middle lobe of 

prothorax of 9 allotype. 


Information on Bibliographies and Catalogs Wanted. 

The Division of Biology and Agriculture and the Research Informa- 
tion Service, National Research Council, are undertaking a canvas of 
manuscript and published bibliographies on plant and animal biology, 
and of manuscript of plants and animals (recent and fossil), with the 
view of relieving the needs of working biologists along these lines. 
Blank forms for reporting such information may be obtained from C. 
J. West of the Council, 1701 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C. 


Plate VI. 

Enallagma sulcatum n. sp.; figs. 1-4, male; fig. 5, female. 

Enallagma concisum n. sp.; figs. 6-9, male; fig. 10, female. 




Zoological Bibliographies 

In the March number of the NEWS, page 91, we published a 
note headed "Save the Zoological Record !" Elsewhere in 
the present issue is a statement concerning resumption of 
publication by the Concilium Bibliographicum. Each of these 
bibliographical agencies appears to have its partisans who see 
nothing good in the other. Both have done good in the past 
and the plan of publication which each has followed has some 
advantages lacking in the other. 

For individuals working in a limited field the cards of the 
Concilium are of very great assistance,* as they permit one to 
associate each year's cards relating to any given subject, or 
to the works of a given author, with similar cards of preced- 
ing years, according to the recipient's preferences and mode 
of work. This obviates the necessity of examining separate 
volumes each devoted to the literature of but a single year f 
Experience, too, has shown that the cards for limited groups 
are distributed at a shorter interval after publication of the 
literature than has been found practicable with the volumes of 
the Record. 

For an institution including a number of investigators inter- 
ested in different divisions of the animal kingdom and of 
/.oology, the book form is doubtless the better, since the im- 
mense number of cards (due to the extent of the whole field 
of this science and the quantity of papers published) demands 
constant service to sort and interpolate the cards and few 
establishments are able to supply this. The entire series of 
cards for even one year necessarily occupies a much larger 
space than a volume containing the same number of references. 
This, too, is an important consideration. I Hit even when the 

*See the NEWS for June, 1 () 21, pages 182-3. 



volume form is received by an institution, the cards relating 
to one or more taxonomic groups, or to one or more topics as 
physiology or anatomy, are often of great aid to an individual 
working therein. 

The book form is furnished both by the Zoological Record 
and the Bibliographica Zoologica of the Concilium. Opinions 
doubtless vary as to which of these is more conveniently 
arranged. Both necessarily include many cross-references and 
their usefulness is measured, to a great degree, by the com- 
pleteness of these. This also applies to the cards. No great 
research is required to discover, even in the latest issues of 
all three series, that the cross-references are by no means 
complete and that dependence on them will not furnish the 
reader with all the references on a given subject that each 
volume or set of cards contains. 

It is a great pity that two distinct organizations exist for 
the same purpose and it would seem to be true economy, 
especially in these days, for the two bodies to combine their 
labors for the greatest benefit of workers in all branches of 
Zoology and, united or co-operating, continue to issue volumes 
(annually or oftener) and cards, to suit the different needs 
of institutions and individuals. Happily, we understand, 
negotiations with such an end in view are under way. But 
whatever may be their outcome, financial support from all 
using these bibliographies is an absolute necessity and we can 
not urge too strongly the duty of all Zoologists (including* 
entomologists) to sustain and strengthen these publications. 

Notes and Ne\vs. 



Aphis-Lion Attacking Man (Neur., Chrysopidae). 

The following observation may he of interest as a case of a preda- 
ceous insect attacking man without provocation. 

With the exception of such insects which, like mosquitoes and blood- 
sucking flies, depend upon blood as food, insects will not generally 
attack man unless taken in the fingers or perhaps entangled in the 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOCICAI, MCVYS 121 

clothing. Under such conditions practically all insects with biting 
mouthparts beetles, grasshoppers, the larger caterpillars, and even 
Dipterous larvae (Tipulidae, Tabanidae) will make use of their man- 
dibles, but they will hardly ever attack spontaneously. 

In August, "1918, at Princeton, New Jersey, I was frequently com- 
pelled, through asthmatic attacks, to sit down or. certain low stone 
walls forming the border of the university campus and shaded by maple 
and sycamore trees which were badly infested with Aphids. On such 
an occasion I suddenly felt a painful bite or sting on the wrist of the 
left hand which was on the stone. Looking for the cause, 1 discovered 
on the hand the larva of the lace-winged fly, L'hrysapa spec., commonly 
called Aphis-lion, which insect had sunk both its long, hollow mandibles 
deep into the skin, as if for sucking, and when being removed, was not 
at all willing to give up. The larva had, apparently, dropped from one 
of the trees, and finding itself hungry, proceeded, in the absence of 
aphids, to attack the next best living prey it could get hold of. A few 
hours later the same thing was experienced a second time. Again 1 
had placed my hand on the stone; after a few minutes a painful prick 
was felt, the cause of which was found to be an aphis-lion sitting on 
the upper side of the hand, the mandibles deeply inserted. Whether it 
had climbed on the hand or dropped from the tree above I was unable 
to ascertain. The specimens were greenish with black markings, but 
were not preserved. 

This observation appears to show that Clirysopit larvae will occa- 
sionally attack man spontaneously and thus assume the role of a facul- 
tative parasite. WERNER MARCHAND, Mendham, New Jersey. 

Note on Abundance of Mosquitoes (Dip., Culicidae). 

Mr. George C. Shupee, Federal Game Warden, has sent in an inter- 
esting note on a plague of mosquitoes on the north Texas coast which 
should be made ava lable to entomologists. His account dated High 
Island, Texas, Oct. 29, 1921, is substantially as follows : 

Old residents say they never were so bad before, millions and mil- 
lions of them; so many perched on the automobile that one could not 
tell there was a glass in the back of the car. They have killed lots of 
cotton-tail rabbits, and every now and then meadowlarks and other 
birds are found dead, apparently from the ravages of the mosquitoes. 
The stock have either gone to the high ridges or come to the gulf where 
they wade out deep. A large boar hog appeared to go crazy on account 
of their attacks; he ran into the gulf and swam out about 1 '/> miles, and 
was given up; he disappeared from sight time and time again in the 
surf, but finally he came back in. Those hunters who are going in after 
ducks surely earn them, wearing heavy leather gloves and stiff canvas 
coat, with mosquito net over bead ; despite all that the pests still bite, 
actually biting through the glove. I never experienced them so bad. Some 
days ago a norther blew them out into the gulf; they were drowned and 
washed into shore, and from Bolivar to Sabine, about 75 miles, a strip 
four inches wide and two deep was left along the beach. Notwithstand- 
ing this occurrence there remain apparently just as many of the mos- 
quitoes as before. 

Most of us have heard of windrows of brine-flies (Bphydra) being 
cast up on the beaches of certain western lakes, but probably few have 
imagined that mosquitoes ever tk'.mvd in a similar phenomenon. -W. I.. 
MI-ATKK, L'. S. I'iologiral Survey. Washington, I >. C. 


To the American Subscribers of the Concilium Bibliographicum 


The difficulties created by the war and after-war conditions and by 
the death of Director Dr. H. H. Field have interrupted, from 1917 
until recently, the sending out of bibliographic cards and of the 
Bibliographia Zoologica. During this time, however, work has con- 
tinued, although in restricted degree, on preparing references, and Vol. 
30 of the Bibliographia Zoologica and certain cards have recently been 
sent out to subscribers. 

The difficulties of the Concilium Bibliographicum caused by the war, 
the uncertainties of exchange since the war and, finally, by the death 
of Dr. Field have been so great as to threaten seriously the contin- 
uance of its existence. But arrangements are now in process of accom- 
plishment by which the continued existence of the Concilium is assurc-d 
and the maintenance and even gradual expansion of its bibliographic 
service provided for. These arrangements have been made possible by 
a co-operation of the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences, the National 
Research Council (Washington) and the Rockefeller Foundation (New 
York), by which all current obligations of the Concilium are paid, a 
certain sum is given to Mrs. Field in partial recognition of hitherto 
unpaid services of Dr. Field, and financial provision is made for assist- 
ance in meeting the current expenses of the Concilium for five years. 

A provisional managing committee composed of representatives of 
the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences and of the National Research 
Council will assume the present control of the Concilium, with Prof. 
Dr. J. Strohl of the Zoological Institute of the University of Zurich 
as Director. Full details of the new arrangements for the reorgani- 
zation of the Concilium and proposed plans for a possible extension of 
its work will be published as soon as the arrangements are formally 
and legally made. 

In the meantime the making of the references and the preparation 
and printing of the bibliographic cards will be vigorously pushed and 
subscribers may be confident that they will again begin to receive cards 
regularly, and that references to papers which appeared during the 
war and in the first years after it as well as references to papers in 
current periodicals will be sent them. An energetic campaign for the 
confirmation of old and for obtaining new subscriptions will be begun 
at once. The campaign for American subscriptions will be undertaken 
by the National Research Council which will represent the interests of 
the Concilium in America. The campaign in Europe will be made by 
correspondence from Zurich and by personal visits to various countrio 
by the Director of the Concilium. Special requests for information 
concerning the Concilium may be made by American subscribers 
directly to the National Research Council (Washington). DR. JEAN 
STROHL, Director of the Concilium Bibliographicum. DR. K. 
HESCHELER, Chairman, Committee on Concilium Bibliographicum, Swiss 
Society of Natural Sciences. DR. VERNON KELLOGG, Chairman, Com- 
mittee on Concilium Bibliographicum, National Krsr.irrh Council. 
Zurich, February 1922. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOM<U.<H;ICAL NI-:\VS 123 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Xatural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record. 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A. London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, 'see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

2 Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Philadel- 
phia. 4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 6 Journal of 
the New York Entomological Society. 9 The Entomologist, Lon- 
don. 10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 15 
Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, Washington, D. C. 16 The Lepi- 
dopterist, Salem, Mass. 19 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological 
Society. 20 Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 
28 Entomologisk Tidskrift, Uppsala. 29 Annual Report of the 
Entomological Society of Ontario, Toronto, Canada. 39 The 
Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Florida. 41 Bulletin de la So- 
ciete Entomolcgique Suisse, Bern. 50 Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipsic. 58 
New York State Museum Bulletin, Albany. 69 Comptes Rendus, 
des Seances de 1'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 82 The Ohio Jour- 
nal of Science, Columbus. 98 Annals of Tropical Medicine and 
Parasitology, Liverpool. 99 Bulletin du Museum National d'His- 
toire Naturelle, Paris. 108 Journal of Genetics, Cambridge, Eng- 
land. 109 Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 
Budapest. 110 Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift, Jena. Ill 
Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 134 Annales de Biologie La- 
custre, Brussels. 135 Schriften der Physikalisch-okonomischen Ge- 
sellschaft zu Konigsberg in Pr. 136 Archives da Escola Superior 
de Agricultura e Medicina Veterinaria, Nictheroy (E. do Rio dr 
Janeiro). 137 Zeitschrift des Osterreichischen Kntomologen-Ver- 
eines Wien. 

GENERAL, da Costa Lima, A. Notas entomologicas. Technica 
para a preparacao e montagem de pequenos insectos para exame 
microscopico. 136, v, 97-121; 123-:2ti. Fyles, T. W. Obituary by 
C. J. S Bethune. 4, liii, :.'i;:Mi4. Lucas, W. J. The order Xeu- 


roptera. [Answer to a question from G. V. Hudson.] 9, 19:22, 61-2. 
Metcalf, Z. P. The age of insects. (Tour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc.. 
xxxvii, 19-53.) Sladen, F. W. L. Obituary. 4, liii, 240. Smiths. 
Inst. Opinions (68-77) rendered by the International commission 
on zoological nomenclature. (Smiths. Miscel. Coll., Ixxiii, No. 1.) 
Tarbat, J. E. Non-attractiveness of electric light. 9, 1922, 64-5. 
Weiss & Dickerson Notes on milkweed insects in New Jersey. 6, 
xxix, 123-45. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Christeller, E. Untersu- 
chungen an kunstlich hervorgebrachten hermaphroditen bei schmet- 
terlingen. 135, lix, 1-20. Dampf, A. Uber innere begattungszeichen 
bei Tortriciden. 135, Ixi, 66-8. Feuerborn, H. Das labialsegment, 
die gliederung des thorax und die stigmenverteilung der insekten in 
neuer beleuchtung. 52, liv, 49-78, 97-111. Harrison, L. Notes on 
the mouth-parts of lice. (Australian Zoologist, i, 214-16.) Macfie, 
J. W. S. The effect of saline solutions and sea water on Stegomyia 
fasciata. 98, xv, 377-80. Meyer, R. Die pollensammelapparate der 
bauchsammelnden bienen (Gastrilegidae). (Jen. Zeit. f. Naturw., 
Jena, Ivii, 229-68.) Onslow, H. The inheritance of wing colour in 
lepidoptera. 108, xi, 277-98. Osorio de Almeida, M. Les reflexes 
musculaires. 136, v, 127-41. Schweizer, C. Der darmkanal des 
maikafers. 110, xxi, 78-81. Speyer, W. Die lokomotorischen ex- 
tremitaten der larve von Dytiscus marginalis. 135, Ixi, 43-54. 
Stumper, R. Nouvelles observations sur le venin des fourmis. 69. 
clxxiv, 413-15. Thienemann, A. Die metamorphose der Chirono- 
midengattungen Camptocladius, . . . mit bemerkungen uber die art- 
differenzierung bei den Chironomiden uberhatipt. (Arch. f. Hydro- 
biologie, Stuttgart, ii, Suppl., 809-850.) Zavrel & Thienemann Die 
metamorphose der Tanypinen. (Arch. f. Hydrobiologie, Stuttgart, 
ii, Suppl., 655-784.) 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Chamberlain, R. V. On some Chilopods 
and Diplopods from Knox Co., Tennessee. On some arachnids from 
southern Utah. 4, liii, 230-33; 245-47. 

NEUROPTERA. Dohler, W. Beitrage zur systematik und bio- 
logic der Trichopteren. (Sitz. Naturf. Gesell., Leipzig, 1914, 28-102.) 
Lestage, J. A. Etudes sur la biologic des Plccopteres. 134. ix, 
257-68. Morstatt, H. Zur standischen gliederung und ernahrungs- 
biologie der Termiten. 41, xi, 9-16. Tillyard, R. J. Revision of the 
family Eustheniidae (Order Perlaria) with descriptions of new g. 
and sps. 29, xlvi, 221-36. Walker, E. M. The nymph and breeding 
place of Aeshna sitchensis. 4, liii, 221-26. 

Davis, W. T. A new dragonfly from Florida. 19, xvi, 109-11. 
Howe, R. H. A new dragonfly from New England. (Oc. Tap. 
Boston Soc. N. H., v, 19-20.) 

xxxiii, '22] RXTOMOi.ur.ic.u. XKYVS 125 

ORTHOPTERA. Hebard, M. The janeirensis group of the 
genus Euborellia, with the description of a new species. (Der- 
maptera.) 2, xlvii, 319-24. Rehn, J. A. G. Studies in Costa Rican 
Dermaptera and Orthoptera. I. Two new genera and three new 
species of Dermaptera. 2, xlvii, 307-18. 

HEMIPTERA. Correction. Under Hemiptera in the February 
number, the reference for Porter should be 131, not 111:.'. Bergroth, 
E. The first heteropteron from Juan Fernandez. 28, xlii, 41-5. 
Hempel, A. Tres novos coccideos. 136, v, 143-46. Horvath, G. 
Genera duo nova Scutelleridarum. 109, xviii, 14.")-(i. Hussey, R. F. 
Ecological notes on Cymatia americana (Corixidae). 19, xvi, 1.'? 1-3(1. 
Jacobi, A. Kritische bemerkungen uber die Cercopidae. Ill, 1921, 
A. 12, 1-05. Parshley, H. M. New England Hemiptera-Heteroptera. 
II. 4, liii, 233-39. Poppius und Bergroth Beitrage zur kenntnis 
der myrmecoiden heteropteren. (So. Amer.) 109, xviii, 31-88. 
d. 1. Torre Bueno, J. R. Food plant of Cymus discors. 19, xvi, 136. 
Weiss, H. B. A summary of the food habits of N. Am. Hemiptera. 
19, xvi, 116-18. Weise, J. Einige ncue Promecosoma arten. Ill, 
1921, A, 12, 313-15. 

Drake, C. J. On some North and South American Tingidae. 39, 
v, 37-43, 48-50. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bell, E. L. Notes on parasites of Epargyreus 
tityrus. 19, xvi, 129. Busck & Heinrich Life history of Ethmia 
macelhosiella. 10, xxiv, 1-9. Dyar, H. G. New American moths and 
notes. A note on Bellura gortynoides. 15, x, 8-18; 50. Griffiths, 
G. C. The pupal habit of Telea polvphemus. 9, Iv, 38-9. Rebel, H. 
Eine neue Nymphalide ans Brasilien. 137, v. (17-8. 

Cassino & Swett Some new species of the geivis Pero. So'ne new 
Geometrids. 16, iii, 135-44; 144-50. Watson, F. E. Miscellaneous 
notes and records of local I,, and descriptions of two new aberra- 
tions. 6, xxix, 108-73. 

DTPTERA. Blacklock, B. Notes on an apparatus for the indi- 
vidual breeding of mosquitoes. 98. xv, 473-77. Bonne- Wenster & 
Bonne A new coloration key for the species of the genus Goeldia. 
15, x, 37-S. da Costa Lima, A. Sobre os Streblideos americanos 
(1'upipara). 136, v, 17-34. Ender'e'n, G. Uber die phvleMsch 
alteren Stratiomyiiden-subfamilien (Xylophaginae. Chiromyzinae, 
Solvinae. Beridjnae und Coeno'^viinac.) (Mitteil. Zool. Mus. Merlin. 
x, 153-21 I.) Ev?ns, A. M. Notes on Culicidae collected in Vene- 
zuela. 98, xv, 4-15-54. Levy. L. Contributions a 1'etude dcs meta- 
morphoses aquatiques cles dipteres. 134, ix, 201-28. MacGregor, 
M. E. The structural differences in the ova of Anopheles maculi- 
pennis, A. bifurcatus and A. plumbens. 98, xv, 417-20. Malloch, 
J. R. Exotic Muscaridac. V. 11, ix, 271-80. 

Curran, C. H. A new western Syrphid. A genus and species of 
Syrphidae new to Canada. 4, liii, 258-00; 200. Dyar, H. G. New 


mosquitoes from Alaska. The American Aeries of the impiger (dec- 
ticus) group. Note on the male genitalia of Culex coronator and 
allied forms. 15, x, 1-3; 3-8; 18-19. Felt, E. P. Mycodiplosis moz- 
nettei n. sp. 39, v, 4fi. A study of gall midges. VII. 58, No. 231, 
81-240. Garrett, C. B. D. New Tipulidae from British Columbia. 
10, xxiv, 58-64. Parker, R. R. North Am. Sarcophagidae : A new 
genus and several n. sps. from the southwest U. S. 19, xvi, 112-15. 

COLEOPTERA. Boving & Champlain The larva of the N. 
American beetle Zenodosus sanguineus of the family Cleridae. 10, 
xxiv, 9-11. Davis, W. T. Cicindela tranquebarica and its habits. 
Note on Cicindela tascosaensis. 19, xvi, 111; 130. Fleutiaux, E. 
Descriptions de deux generes nouveaux de Melasidae de la collection 
de Museum d'Histoire Nat. de Paris. 99, 1921, 413-14. Hopping, R. 
A review of the genus Monochamus. (Cerambycidae.) 4, liii, 
252-58. Nicolay, A. S Corrections and additions to the Leng list 
of Coleoptera. Family Buprestidae No. 1. 6, xxix, 173-78. Pic, M. 
Coleopteres nouveaux de la famille des Hylophilides. 99, 1921, 
415-18. Schwarz & Barber The specific names of two Otiorhynchid 
weevils of Florida. 10, xxiv. 29-30. Van Zwaluwenburg, R. H. 
External anatomy of the Elaterid genus Melanotus, with remarks on 
the taxonomic value of certain characters. 10, xxiv, 12-29. Weiss & 
West Notes on the dodder gall weevil, Smicronyx sculpticollis. 82, 
xxii, 63-5. Wilke, S. Bcitrage zur systematik und geographischen 
verbreitung ungeflugelter Tenebrioniden. (Asidinae.) Ill, 1921, 
A, 12, 248-312. Woodruff, L. B. I athridiidae in the heart of New 
York City. 6, xxix, 178-79. 

Dawson, R. W. New species of Serica (Scarabaeidae). 6, xxix, 
1 (50-68. Fall. H. C. The North American species of Gyrinus. 2, 
xlvii, 269-306. Garnett, R. T. de Tableau des especes du genre 
Buprestis, appartnant a la faune de 1'Amerique du Nord et descrip- 
tion d'un varietc nouvelle. 20, 1922. 9-13. Loomis, H. F. New 
species of the coleopterous genus Trox. (Jour. Wash. Ac. Sc., xii, 
132-36.) Notman, H. Some new genera and sps. of C. collected at 
Westfield, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. 6, xxix, 145-60. Wolcott, A. B. 
A new sp. of Saprinus from Kansas. 19, xvi, 119-20. 

HYMENOPTERA. Cushman, R. A. The identity of a hymen- 
opterous parasite of the alfalfa leaf weevil. 10, xxiv, 64. Forel, A. 
Quelques fourmis des cnvironsjle Quito (Ecuidor). (Bui. Soc. Vau- 
doise des Sci. Nat., liv, 131.) "'Strand, E. Zur kenntnis neotropischer 
Joppinen. 137, vi, 51-3 (cont.). 

Cocberell, T. D. A. The fossil saw-flies of Florissant. Colorado. 
9, 1922, 49-50. Gahan, A. B. A list of phytophagous Chalcidoidea 
with descriptions of two n. sps. 10, xxiv, 33-58. Rohwer, S. A. 
North American sawflies of the subfamily Cladiinae, with notes on 
habits and descriptions of larvae. By W. Middleton. 50, Ix, Art. 1. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTO.MOI.OOU AT. NEWS 127 


DR. THOMAS ALGERNON CHAPMAN died at Reigate. Surrey, 
England, December 17, 1921. He was born at Glasgow, June 
2, 1842. He was an M.D. of the University of his native 
town and was resident physician at institutions at Glasgov/, 
Abergavenny and Hereford until his retirement in 1897. His 
father. Thomas Chapman (1816-1879), was active in ento- 
mology and father and son contributed joint papers to the 
English entomological magazines in the sixties of the last 
century. Dr. T. A. Chapman's work was largely on the life- 
history and genitalia of Lepidoptera, especially the Lycaenidae 
(1910-1915), Ercbia (1898), Scoparidae (1911) and 
. Icronycta, but he also wrote on the habits and transformations 
of Diptera (Atheri.v 1866), Coleoptera (Hylcsiiins, Aphodins, 
Scolytns), Hymenoptera (Oviposition O'f Sawflies, Chrysids 
] arasitic on Odynerus, Alnicra and Bouibvlins ), etc. 

He was a Fellow of the Entomological Society of London 
cilice 1891 and many times a Vice President, but could never 
be induced to accept the Presidency. He was elected a Fellow 
of the Zoological Society of London in 1897 and of the Royal 
Society in 1918. 

His biographer (\Y. G. Sheldon) in The Entomologist for 
February, 1922, considers that 

Without doubt the late Dr. Chapman was one of the greatest and 
most scientific entomologists we have ever produced and one who in 
certa : n departments must be regarded as the greatest exponent Britain 
has given the science. . . . Foremost among his remarkable powers 
was his acuteness of observation ; little facts that others would not 
have noticed were seized upon, their significance realized and important 
deductions made therefrom. His clear, logical mind and soundness of 
judgment were of the greatest importance and usually lei him straight 
to the desired goal. . . . His entomological work was carried out in a 
thorough manner, and every detail carefully studied ... it was always 
illustrated profusely with explanatory plates, many of them exquisitely 
drawn and colored. ... He was one of the strongest exponents of 
the doctrine, that we cannot satisfactorily classify species by one 
character alone, no matter whether it is by the ova, larva or pupa 
stage, or by the structure and markings of the imagine, but that we 
must take everything into consideration. 


(There is also an obituary not'ce in The Entomologists' Mnnthl\ 
Magazine for February, 1922. by Mr. G. C. Champion, accompanied 
by a portrait.) 

The Entomologists' Monthly Magazine for January, 1922, 
announces that Entomologisehe Rlacttcr, XIII, 1917, contains 
an obituary notice of DR. GEORG VON SEIDLTTZ, known for his 
writings on Palaearctic Coleoptera. He was horn June 19, 
1840, in Tschornaja Rjetschka, near Petrograd, and died July 
15, 1917, at Irschenhausen, Oherhayern. 

The same magazine for July, 1921, contains appreciative 
notices of DR. GEORGE BLUNDELL LONGSTAFF, author of 
Butterfly Hunting' in Many Lands, who died May 7, 1921, in 
his 73rd year, and who was a substantial benefactor of the 
Hope Department of Zoology (Entomology) at the University 
of Oxford. 

Other entomologists whose deaths have occurred within the 
past twelve months but have not been noted previously in the 
Reverend THOMAS W. FYLES, obituaries of whom have ap- 
peared in the recently issued numbers of Tlic Canadian Ento- 
mologist for October and November, 1921, respectively. Both 
men were immigrants to Canada, Mr. Sladen in 1912, Dr. 
Fyles in 1861. The former was on the staff of the Dominion 
Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, and was 
perhaps best known for his book, The Humble Bee, Its Life- 
History and Hoiv to Domesticate it (London, Macmillan. 
1912) ; he was drowned off Duck Island in Lake Ontario, Sep- 
tember 10, 1921. 

Dr. Fyles was born at "The Hermitage," Enfield Chase, 
England, June 1, 1832, and died at Ottawa, August 9, 1921. 
He was rector and Immigration Chaplain in the Province of 
Quebec, 1864-1909. His collections were transferred to the 
Museum in the Quebec Parliament buildings in the latter year. 
He was the author of 76 papers in the Reports of the Ento- 
mological Society of Ontario and in other journals (Canadian 
Entomologist from 1882 on), dealing with various groups of 

I have a collection of between twenty and twenty-five 
thousand unmounted insects that I wish to sell. They are all 
numbered and marked when and where collected. Taken in 
California, Florida and around Lake Superior; also a collec- 
tion of Butterflies and Moths. 

MRS. F. S. DAGGETT, 351 Bala Ave., Cynwyd, Pa. 


Fine perfect specimens of this grand rare species are offered ; also O. 
chimaera Zelotypia staceyi, superb rarity many others. Largest stock of 
exotic Coleoptera, rarities and unnamed series. Also the most important 
books on Entomology in stock. 

Janson & Sons, Naturalists & Booksellers 44, Great Russell St., LondonJ.C. I. 

April 1st, my well-known business, 
"THE BUTTERFLY STORE," 80 Fifth Ave., New York 

changed hands. My experienced assistant, Miss Margaret 
Scherbanm will run it I remain in the butterfly market. After 
doing some traveling for entomological purpose?, I intend to 
settle at PYRMONT, HANOVER, GERMANY, and am always open 
for correspondence regarding purchase, sale and exchange of 
Lepidoptera. Specialty : supply of insect pins and other Euro- 
pean utensils. Thanking you, 

0. FULDA, 80 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Tropical African (Uganda) Butterflies and Moths, Etc. 

Excellent Material. Great Variety. 

Apply for particulars and prices. 

R. A. DUMMER, Care S. A Museum, Cape Town, South Africa. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. A journal devoted 
to general Entomology, started in 1864, and now edited by G. C. 
Champion, J. E. Collin, W. W. Fowler, R. W. Lloyd, G. T. Porritt 
and J. J. Walker. 

It contains descriptions of new genera and species in all orders 
(British and foreign) , life histories, reviews of new works, etc. Vol. 
LVIII (VIII of the 3d Series) was commenced in January, 1922. 
The subscription for the 12 numbers is 15 shillings per annum, post 
free, to be sent to R. W. Lloyd, I, 5, Albany, Piccadilly, London, 
W. , England. For terms for advertisements apply to him also. 


From Colombia, South America: 

Morpho cypris Morpho amathontf 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

" devilliersi 

From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 
From Tibet (Bhutan) : 

Arirtandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 56-58 West 23d Street 

MAY, 1922 



No. 5 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 




1 192? - 


Logan Square 

Entered at the Philadelphia, Pa., Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage prescribed for in Section 1103, 

Act of October 3, 1917, authorized January 15, 1931. 


published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the 

Entomological Section of The Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila^ 

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Plate VII. 


tourney i 







MAY, 3922 

No. 5 


Jones Two New Psychids, and Notes 
on Other Species ( Lepidoptera, 
Psychidae ). 129 

Cresson Descriptions of New Genera 
and Species of the Dipterous Fam- 
ily EphydridaeV 135 

Williamson Enallagmas Collected in 
Floiida and South Carolina by 
Jesse H. Williamson with Descrip- 
tions of Two New Species (Odo- 
nata, Agrionidae 1 138 

Champlain and Knull New North 

American Coleoptera 144 

Cockerel! Some Coccidae found on 
Orchids ( Horn. ) 149 

Editorial The Conservation of Nat- 
ural Cond itions 150 

Hutchison The Mulford Biological 
Exploration of the Amazon Basin. 
Bulletin No. 7 150 

Entomological Literature 151 

Review of Carpenter's Insect Transfor- 
mation 153 

Doings of Societies Ent. Sec., Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila 155 

Obituary Sandor Mocsarv. Dr. Ernest 
Rousseau, Sir Patrick Manson, Dr. 
Joseph Lane Hancock 157 

Correction 160 

Two New Psychids, and Notes on Other Species 
(Lepidoptera, Psychidae.) 

By FRANK MORTON JONES, Wilmington, Delaware. 

(Plates VII, VIII) 

Of our North American Psychidae. four species, confed- 
crata firt. carbonaria Pack., fragmentella Hy. Edw., and 
tnicvi Jones have been referred to Enrycyttants Hampton, 
originally created as a sub-genus of Psyche Schrank for the 
reception of an insect from the Nilgiri District. India. In 
this sub-genus the anal vein of primaries sends a single branch 
to the inner margin, "vein 6" is absent from both wings, and 
the anterior tibiae are not spurred; in the two species whose 
descriptions follow, however, and in tracyi Jones, the primaries 
lack even the basal portion of lr K'omstock's 1st anal), a 
condition not shown in Hampson's illustrations of the vena- 
tion of I'syclie or of any of its sub-genera. Since, however, 
by Ilampson's table's, and by that of Xeumoegen & Dyar in 
our own literature, these insects run out to Eurycyttarus, and 
until a detailed comparison with the world-species permits 
their more accurate placing, it seem> best, for the- present, to 

leave them there. 



In both 1919 and 1921 the larval cases of one of the new 
species were found in considerable numbers, attached to tree- 
trunks, at DeFuniak Springs. Florida. The life-cycle of this 
insect is apparently similar to that of confcderata (irt.. for 
in mid-May the larvae creep up from the ground and attach 
their cases to the bark, preliminary to pupation. Where oaks 
and pines grow together, oaks are preferred ; and the cases 
are rarely found more than five feet from the ground. From 
numerous cases gathered about May 20. forty males emerged, 
but not one female ; and since none of the remaining cases 
contained female pupae, the conclusion seems inevitable that 
the female larvae must have sought out other and different 
situations for the suspension of their cases. This habit does 
not seem to have been recorded for any of our North American 
Psychidac, though it has been noted at length (Hofman. Berl. 
Entomol. Zeitschr., IV) of European species. For this insect 
is proposed the name of 

Psyche (Eurycyttarus) celibata n. sp. (Plates VII, VIII). 

Larval case. Roughly cylindrical, 15 mm. in length ; of coarse texture 
externally, the material overlaid upon the silken tube consisting of thin 
flakes of pine hark, and a few short hits of dry pine-needles or fine 
grass-stems irregularly applied longitudinally and not usually projecting 
far beyond the extremity of the case. 

Larta, just before pupation. Length. 9 mm.; width of head, .9 mm. 
White; the chftinized areas of the thoracic segments dark brown, with 
the usual narrow longitudinal white lines. Head dark brown, almost 
black, with the front (or at least its upper portion) white; three oblique 
white bars on each epicranium, the upper and longest extending to the 
adf rental sclerite; the frontal punctures inconspicuous, the frontal setae 
opposite them, and the 2nd adfrontals slightly higher. Prothoracic 
spiracle not regularly oval, almost as high as wide. Primary body-setae 
present, as indicated in the illustration. 

Pupa of $ . Length 6 mm. ; dull amber brown, darker dorsally, the 
eyes dark brown. Front smoothly rounded. The mesothoracic wings 
extend halfway across the third abdominal segment ; the prothoracic 
legs and the antennae extend almost to the caudal margin of the wings ; 
the mesothoracic legs reach the wing-margin, and the metathoracic legs 
slightly exceed the margin. Abdominal segments 8, 9 and 10 are curved 
ventrad; the two caudal hooks are large, each terminating in a sharp 
thorn. The dorso-cephalic portions of the abdominal segments are 
finely striated, and from the dorso-cephalic margin of segments 6, 7 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 131 

and 8 projects a toothed ridge, the teeth directed caudad, successively 
more prominent in the order named, and forming a conspicuous comh- 
like projection on the 8th segment. The usual dorso-caudal row of fine 
short spines, their points directed cephalad, occur on abdominal seg- 
ments 3, 4 and 5. The spiracles are raised above the body surface. 

The pupal stage lasts about four weeks.' 

Adult $ . Expanse 10.5 to 12.5 mm. Brownish black, the wings 
broad and much rounded. Vestiture of head, thorax and abdomen 
rather long, hairy and erect, with an admixture of white hairs. In 
dried examples the abdomen rarely exceeds the margin of secondaries. 
The scaling of the wings is uniform and moderately dense, the costa 
of primaries narrowly darker. The primaries have 11 veins, the sec- 
ondaries 7. The venation of ten examples was studied in detail, the 
primaries showing no significant variation, and the extreme range found 
in the secondaries is exhibited on Plate VIII. the first figure showing 
the more usual condition. 

Described and illustrated from numerous bred examples; 
the type is in the collection of the author, and paratypes will 
be distributed. T\f>c tocalitv. DeFuniak Springs. Walton 
County, Florida. Larvae and cases apparently identical were 
also collected near Wilmington, North Carolina. Dates of 
emergence (1921) ranged from May 24 to June 22. 

The larval cases and larvae of a second and larger species 
have been turned up at intervals throughout the last few years, 
from localities ranging from North Carolina to south and 
west Florida, and by several collectors including the author, 
who. however, did not succeed in breeding the moth until the 
autumn of 1921. It proves to be a close ally of tracyi Jones. 
An interesting difference between the two species is in the size 
of the legs of the adult males, shown, at the same scale, on 
Plate YITI. This seems to be correlated with a difference in 
the female cocoons, to which the males must cling in mating. 
That of tracvi (see Entomological News XXII. May, 1 () 11. 
Plate VI ) is wide and blunt at its extremity, while that of the 
new species is more slender, or rather, the silken tube is 
almost bare of thatching material at its lower end. Because 
of this "weak-legged" condition, for this insect is proposed 
the name of 

Psyche (Eurycyttarus) cacocnemos n. ^p. ( I'latrx \ II. VIII). 

Larval case. Length, 25 to 30 mm. Similar in type to that of tracyi. 


but the thatching material, flat bits of grass or sedge, sometimes 
slender rush, is much less evenly arranged and the fragments are less 
uniform in size. Especially on the case of the $ , a few much longer 
pieces, sometimes pine needles, are attached to its upper portion, often 
projecting beyond the lower extremity of the case. The lower half 
of the case bears fewer and- shorter pieces, usually showing the silken 
tube in part ; and the general effect is of a shaggier, more slender and 
tapering case than that of tracyi. 

Larva, last stage. Length, 15-20 mm.; width of head, 2.1 mm. Pale 
dull grayish brown ; the head and the strongly chitinized portions of 
the thoracic segments are dark brown with white markings, which are 
continued less conspicuously on the setal plates of the immediately suc- 
ceeding abdominal segments, fading out caudally. The pale markings 
of the thoracic segments consist of the usual narrow longitudinal lines 
and the margins of the chitinized plates. Though the proportion of 
light and dark is variable, the conspicuous head-markings usually con- 
sist of three oblique bars on each epicranium, in a symmetrical distribu- 
tion of light and dark areas on the front, and in a horseshoe-shaped 
band whose arms reach the adfrontal sclerites between the adfrontal 
setae. The 2nd adfrontal, the frontal puncture, and the frontal seta 
are almost in line, the latter falling very slightly below a line drawn 
joining the other two. 

Puf>a of $. Length 10-11 mm. Structurally similar to that of 
tracyi, but dark chestnut brown in color (tracyi is reddish amber), 
more rugose and less polished than that species. The mesothoracic 
wings overlap a portion of the third abdominal segment, ventrally; the 
mesothoracic legs and the broad antennae extend to the wing-margin, 
and the prothoracic legs almost reach the margin. The cephalic por- 
tions of the abdominal segments, especially dorsally, are striately 
rugose. A short spiny dorso-cephalic ridge, the teeth directed caudad, 
is present on segments 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, low and indistinct on 3, 4 and 
5, thence progressively more prominent, on 8 expanding into a leaf-like 
appendage. Segments 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 each bears a dorso-caudal row 
of fine short spines, their points directed cephalad. The caudal seg- 
ments are curved ventrad, each caudal hook terminates in a single 
thorn, and the abdominal spiracles are raised slightly above the body 

Adult $. Expanse, 17mm. Blacker (less brown) than tracyi. The 
antennae are broadly bipectinate, with 30-34 joints (in the several 
species examined the number of joints proved variable, and the apparent 
3rd joint bearing more than two pectinations was counted as a single 
joint). As in cclibata and tracyi, the shaft and its pectinations are 
scaled on one side with semi-appressed hair-like scales. Compared 
with tracyi of approximately the same robustness and wing expanse, 
the legs are shorter and more slender, the primaries are apically more 


Plate Vlll. 



xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 133 

acute, the secondaries are proportionately longer and narrower. The 
caudal segments of the abdomen are widely tufted laterally. The end 
of the cell of primaries is obscurely marked with a vertical black bar. 
In both species (cacocncmos and tracyi) the primaries have 11 veins, 
the secondaries 7, the anal veins of primaries as in cclibata; the illus- 
trated difference in the radial veins of primaries is not specific, but 
occurred in both species ; in the limited number of examples available 
for detailed study the differences shown in venation of secondaries were 
apparently specific. 

Adult 9. Of the usual grub-like form. Length, living, 11 mm.; the 
chitinized dorsal portions of the thoracic segments are pale straw- 
yellow, and the abdominal band of downy hair is very pale dull fawTi- 

Described and illustrated from 5 males and 1 female, bred 
from larvae collected near Jacksonville, Florida. The author 
hi!.s collected similar cases, some of them containing living- 
larvae, near Wilmington, N. C. ; at Summerville, S. C. ; at 
DeFuniak Springs, Walton Co., Florida ; other records include 
Tampa, Florida (E. L. Bell), and Lakeland, Florida (J. A. 
(Irossbeck). The larvae of this insect are found feeding, in 
open and sunny places, upon sedges, grasses, rushes, some- 
times on low growing herbaceous plants, occasionally on 
shrubs growing among these, and they reach their full growth 
in spring or early summer. Of 80 larvae brought from Florida 
!> Delaware in early June and confined with growing plants 
nut of doors, where they fed intermittently throughout the 
summer, only a few survived to pupate in September and 
( Vtober. the moths emerging the same season. Tracyi, as far 
as we have records, emerges in the spring. 

The /v/v,v and parqtypes are in the Collection of the author. 

Oiketicus toumeyi Jones (Plates VII, VIII). 

In Entomological News XXXIII, 1 ( )22, page 12, a new 
i'sycliid from Arixona was briefly described as Oiketicus 
toitinevi. In mid-April, 1918, the larvae of this insect were 
found in abundance nn locust trees growing along the cit\ 
Greets of Tucson. Some had already spun their cases fast 
for pupation, others were about to do so, and no early stage 
larvae were observed. The foliage showed little signs of feed- 
ing, and these conditions were interpreted to indicate that this 


msect hibernates as a full-grown larva. Emergence of the 
moths took place from June 15 to July 3. It is now possible 
to publish illustrations of this insect, and some additional 
descriptive matter : 

Larval case. Length usually from 60 to 70 mm., but occasionally 
exceeding 100 mm. ; diameter at widest part about 10 mm. For pupation 
usually suspended from a twig by a strong encircling band of silk, 
below which the case widens abruptly, thence of almost uniform diam- 
eter for about two-fifths of its length, then tapers to the lower extrem- 
ity. It is composed of tough grayish-white silk, of which usually a 
considerable portion is bare of attached material; this mav consist of 
bits of slender sticks or of leaf -stems, applied longitud.nally, or of 
dry leaf-fragments, or of both of these materials in indiscriminate 

Last stage lan'ae. Length 40-60 mm. ; width of head 3.9 mm. Dull 
brown; the head and the chitinized areas of the thoracic segments, less 
conspicuously the setal plates of the abdominal segments, almost white. 
The head and the thoracic shields bear foliated markings of dark 
brown, and most of the setae of the head and thorax arise from dark- 
brown dots. The markings of the head are asymmetrical, though not 
always to the extent illustrated. A line drawn from the 2nd adfrontals 
through the bases of the frontal setae also touches the upper margin of 
the frontal punctures. 

Pupa of $ . Length 21 mm. ; chestnut brown, the head, thorax and 
wings lighter than the abdomen, which is more conspicuously and 
striatel;- rugose, especially its dorsal portions. The front terminates 
in a sharp median ridge with flattened lateral expansions along the 
epicranial suture. The mesothoracic wings only slightly overlap the 
third abdominal segment ventrally. The antennae are broad and short, 
their apices reaching a point midway from the frontal crest to the caudal 
margin of the wings ; the prothoracic and mesothoracic legs reach points 
respectively two-thirds and three-quarters the distance from the crest 
to the margin of the wings. The caudal segments are curved ventrad, 
and the caudal hooks are heavily chitinized, almost black, and bear 
single thorns. A dorso-cephalic spined ridge, its strong teeth directed 
c; ndad, occurs on each of abdominal segments 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; and a 
durso-caudal row of fine bent spines, their points directed cephalad, on 
each of segments 2, 3, 4 and 5. The abdominal spiracles are produced 
beyond the surface of the body. 

Adult 9 . Length 24-30 mm. Of the usual form, more nearly resem- 
bling the 9 of abboti, rather than that of ephemerae formis. The crest- 
likt- medio-dorsal ridge of the thoracic segments is high and sharp, and 
caudally the body is truncated rather abruptly. The abdominal ring of 
downy hairs is less abundant in quantity, paler in color, and less evenly 
distributed than in abboti. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 135 

The wing-venation of 18 males of toinncyl was studied in 
detail and the more significant variations illustrated, together 
with the fore tibia with its strap-like appendage. The illus- 
trations of this and other species (Plates VII, VIII) are 
almost self-explanatory, though it might be noted that no effort 
was made to indicate the very inconspicuous pupal setae. 

The generic references of these four insects are admittedly 
unsatisfactory ; but not only the literature of exotic species, 
but more complete knowledge and representative series of the 
insects themselves are requisite for a better understanding of 
this puzzling and interesting group. "One is compelled to 
conclude" (Tutt, British Lepidoptera, II, 127, 1900) "that 
the higher Psychids are almost unknown, so far as their 
relationships to each other are concerned." 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the 
Dipterous Family Ephydridae. V.* 

By F.ZRA T. CRESSON, JR., Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Plagiops Kinei new species. 

Black; antennae, apices of tibiae and all tarsi, yellow. Halteres 
black. Win^s yellowish-hyaline, with extreme base blackened. Sculp- 
turing of frons and face medianly, strongly granulose, that of meso- 
nutum and scutellum in form of minute pits. Face with the broad 
parafacialia yellowish. Abdomen and face somewhat metallic green. 
Length 2.3 mm. 

T\pe. 9: Puerto I'.arrios, ( luatemala. March ,v!4, 1905 
(J. S. Mine). [Ohio State University Collection. | 

Peltcpsilopa schwarzi new species. 

Black; antennae, including arista, tibiae and tarsi, yellow. Halteres 
black. Entirely highly polished, metallic blue, green or purple Wings 
yellowish; extreme base blackened. Length 2 mm. 

Type- ' ?; Cayamas. Cuba, May 16 ( K. A. Scluvarz). 
IU/S. N. M.. No. 25309.] Paratype.} ?; topotypical. 

Ceropsilopa dispar new species. 

Black; apices of tibiae and all tarsi yellow. Halteres white. Wings 
hyaline with pale veins. Shining species; face polished. Frons with a 
narrow transverse depression above antennae. Face weakly convex, 
not prominent medianly. Length 1.75 mm. 

*For paper IV see Ent. News, xxviii, 340-341, 1917. 


Type. 9 ; San Diego County, California, March 12, 1907. 
[Washington State College Collection.] Paratype. 1 9 ; San 
Diego, California, June 30 (M. C. Van Duzee). 
Ceropsilopa coquilletti new species. 

Legs, including coxae and apices of tarsi, yellow. Shining to polished 
with little or no metallic tints. Face narrow, strongly, transversely 
convex, and transversely sculptured, especially on lower portion, giving 
it a subopaque appearance. Length 2.75 mm. 

T\pe. 9?; Pacific Grove, California, October 7, 1906 (J. 
C. Bradley). [Cornell University Collection.] Paratvpes 
2 specimens ; topotypical. 

LEPTOPSILOPA new genus. 

This genus is proposed for the reception of those Psilopa- 
like species having a sculptured, more or less transversely wrin- 
kled face; facial bristles high, about middle of facial profile, 
and the black fore tarsi noticeably thickened. 

Genotype. Psilopa sliuiUs Coquillett, 1900. 

Leptopsilopa lineanota new species. 

Very similar to similis Coq. with its fore coxae, middle and hind 
femora pale, but differs from that species by the infuscation of the 
wings occupying the first posterior cell except its base. The 'wings are 
narrow, pointed. Length 2.25 mm. 

Type. $ ; Paraiso, Canal Zone, Panama, February 7, 1911 
(A/Busck). [U. S. N. M. Coll., No. 25310.] Paratypes- 
1 $ ,2 9 ; topotypical. 1 9 ; Corazal. Canal Zone, Panama. 

Leptopsilopa subapicalis new species. 

Very similar to sitnilis, but the distal infuscation of the wings is con- 
fined to a narrow, subapical fascia at the tip of the second vein ; fore 
coxae, middle and hind femora pale. Length 2.5 mm. 

Type. 9 ; Port of Spain, Trinidad (Ujhelyi). [ Hungarian 
National Museum Collection.] Para type. 1 ? ; topotypical. 

Leptopsilopa nigricoxa new species. 

Simulating subapicalis, but the fore coxae are black and the fore 
femora pale; wings distinctly maculate. Length 2.5 mm. 

Type. $ ; Asuncion, Paraguay, 1905 (Vezenyi). (Hun- 
garian National Museum Collection.] Para types. 1 , 1 9 : 

Psilopa skinneri new species. 

Similar to fulvipennis Hine, but the head is not so broad, and the 
mesonotum and scutellum more convex and scarcely sculptured. Head. 
thorax and abdomen, coxae, femora and halteres black. Face flattened. 


rot highly polished, with a sparsely polliniferons median stripe. Wings 
yellowish with dark base. Length 2.5 mm. 

T\pc. 9 ?; Guantanamo. Cuba. February 10, 1914 (Henry 
Skinner). [A. X. S. P., No. 6346.] Paratypcs2 9 ? : topo- 

Psilopa olga new species. 

Very similar to P. Icncoxtoniii Meigen of Europe, which also occurs 
in our fauna. In the present species the antennae and legs except the 
tarsi are black. The wings have a distinct fuscous spot at the tip of the. 
third vein and a faint one at the tip of the fourth. 

Type. S ; Olga, Washington. J ul >" 26, 1909 (A. L. M dan- 
der). [Washington State College Collection.] I'.initypcs 

2 $,2 9 ; topotypical. 
Psilopa dimidiata new specie?. 

Very similar to Psilof>a olf/a, but less polished ; face more shining 
with scarcely noticeable white pollen, and in profile more convex ; 
cheeks narrower; wings at most with traces of spots at tips of veins. 
Length 2 mm. 

Type 3 ; Chalcolet, Idaho, August, 1915 (A. L. Alelan- 
der). [Washington State College Collection.] Parutypcs. 

3 $,6 9 ; topotypical. 
Trimerina adfinis new species. 

Black: antennae except third joint above and apices of tarsi, yellow. 
Middle and hind femora and bind tibiae somewhat bnmnish. Palpi 
brownish. Halteres white. Wings brownish; cross veins clouded, and 
brown spot at tip of submarginal cell. Shining, at most thinly grayish 
or brownish pruinose. Face subopaque, grayish white. Moonotum 
and scutellum faintly and minutely punctured. Latter noticeably 
bronzed. Head in profile flattened, with frons and face nearly vertical. 
Face long; median area transversely convex, with two bristles each 
side. Mesonotum without prescutellars, but with setulac distinctly seri- 
ated. Abdomen with lateral margins revolute. Length 2 mm. 

'r\<pc. 9 : Kaslo, Hritisli Columbia, February ~ J . ( R. \\ Cur- 
rie)~ [U. S. N. M., No. 21843.1 Paratype.--\ 5 ; topotypical. 

Discocerina aliena new species. 

Black, \vith bases of tarsi pale. Halteres white. \\ ings hyaline, 
with dark veins. Shining to polished: frons more obscured, brownish, 
becoming whitish anteriorly. Face opaque, silvery or while, flattened 
below, or with slight median swelling: t'ovcae shallow: one bristle 
present at slightly below middle of profile; parafacials linear. Length 
3 mm. 

'fypc. - ' ; P.erkeley. Alamcdn County, California. l ; cbru- 
ary"23, 1908 (Cresson). [A. X. S. I 1 .. No. 6347.] Pani- 
tvpcs. 2 S, 1 9 ; topotypical. 


Enallagmas Collected in Florida and South Carolina 
by Jesse H. Williamson with Descriptions of 
Two New Species (Odonata, Agrionidae). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

(Continued from page nS) 

The male of concisitin runs out in Calvert's key to pictnm, 
which species it resembles very closely, the only reliable char- 
acter for their separation I have detected being in the distinctly 
longer and differently shaped abdominal appendages of 
co.ncisuin. A small color difference seems to be constant: in 
pic tn in the second lateral thoracic black stripe is abruptly nar- 
rowed at three-fourths or two-thirds its length to narrow line 
for the anterior fourth or third of its length; in concisitin the 
stripe widens almost uniformly from its most anterior end 
to the posterior end. 

In Calvert's key to the known females of the group, 
concisiiin has the wide black humeral stripe of his first divi- 
sion, but due to the shortening of the mesostigmal lamina 
(hence the specific name), the meeting of the black stripe and 
the lower end of the mesostigmal lamina is by a point only. 
Concisiiin would then run out to plctum, from which species 
it is separated in the following key which is supplementary to 
Calvert's key. 

in concisum (and pictnm) the pale colored legs of the 
female, with the femora conspicuously dark on the dorsum, 
are in marked contrast with the orange, and entirely unmarked, 
legs of the male. Also it is a curious fact that in concisnin, 
where the male abdominal appendages are conspicuously 
longer than in its near ally, picinin. the female mesostigmal 
laminae, which these appendages grasp, in concisiiin are much 
shorter than in pictum, but in the single female of concisum 
I have seen there is on either mesinfraepisternum, near its 
upper edge, and below the lower edge of the mesostigmal 
lamina, a distinct small round contact point which, in all likeli- 
hood, is engaged, during mating, by the supero-internal sub- 
apical hook of the superior appendage. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 139 

Key to knoicn female EntiUuiimas of the pollutum f/roup. 

1. Black humeral stripe imt touching the lower end of the meso- 
stigmal lamina, pale antehumeral stripe wider than the black 
humeral, second lateral thoracic suture with a black stripe on its 
uppermost fourth or fifth only vesperum 

Y. Black humeral stripe touching the lower end of the mesostigmal 
lamina 2 

2(1'). Dorsum of segment 10 pale colored 3 

2'. Dorsum of segment 10 black; prothoracic dorsal pits small, each 
with a small pale area anterior and adjacent to it 5 

3 (2). Prothoracic pits large, situated near the anterior border of 

the middle lobe, a pale area posterior and external to each. 
Mesostigmal lamina black, a pale stripe from and including the 
dorsal tubercle downward and forward across the lamina ; the 
lower end^ of the lamina deeply indenting the mesinfraepisternum, 

s : gnatum 

3'. Prothoracic pits smaller, situated at or near the mid-length of the 
middle lobe, pale color adjacent to each more extensive anterior to 
it or to its level, rather than posterior to it . .4 

4 (3'). Mesostigmal lamina barely touching the mesinfraepisternum. 

Anterior end of the antehumeral pale stripe bordered with a 
broad stripe of black on the mesostigmal lamina, which black 
widely separates the antehumeral stripe from the pale vertical 

stripe on the lamina sulcatum 

4'. Mesostigmal lamina slightly but distinctly indenting the mesin- 
fraepisternum. Antero-mesal end of the antehumeral pale stripe 
very narrowly separated by black from the extensive pale area of 
the mesostigmal lamina pollutum 

5 (2'). Prothoracic dorsal pits situated anterior to the middle of 

the middle lobe. Dorsal tubercle of the mesostigmal lamina pale 
colored, from which a narrow pale stripe runs downward and 
forward across the lamina ; posterior to this pale stripe the 
lamina is broadly black, grooved, and with its lower end very 
slightly indenting the mesinfraepisternum; the extensive black on 
the lamina widely separates the lower end of the pale antehumeral 
stripe from the pale stripe on the lamina, or, to express it in 
possibly a better way, the dorsal and humeral black stripes are 
broadly joined by a black bar across the mesostigmal lamina, 

pic tu in 

".'. Prothoracic dorsal pits situated at about mid-length of the middle 
lobe. Dorsal tubercle of the mesostigmal lamina pale colored, 
from which a pale line extends downward to or nearly to the 
lower end of the lamina, the lower half of this pale line expanded 
to cover the lamina to its anterior border; apparently the meso- 
stigmal lamina, the ventral mesostigmal plate and the mcscpis- 


ternum converge to a point on the edge of the mesinfraepisternum 
(see paragraph, middle of page 374, Calvert, loc. cit.) ; dorsal and 
humeral black stripes narrowly joined by a black stripe on the: 
mesepisternum-mesostigmal lamina suture concisum 

Enallagma signatum Hagen. Fort Myers, Florida, March 4 and 
11, 1921, 3 $ ; Enterprise, Florida, April 16 and 20, 1921, 25,1 9 , 
all by J. H. Williamson. At Fort Myers the specimens were col- 
lected on a small creek just west of a cemetery about half a mile east 
of town. At Enterprise the specimen taken April 20 was captured 
at a small swamp on the south side of the railroad one mile east of 
the station. 

In these Florida specimens the male superior appendages 
are in every case slenderer than in all other specimens I have 

Enallagma pollutum Hagen. Miami, Dade County, Florida, Ever- 
glades, January 23, 1899, S. N. Rhoads. 3 $ ; Fort Myers, Labelle, 
Moore Haven, Palmdale and Enterprise, Florida, for dates see first 
paragraph of this paper, J. H. Williamson, 313 $, 104 9, a few 
tenerals and many pairs taken in copulation, most of the specimens 
taken at Fort Myers, Moore Haven and Palmdale, while at Labelle 
and Enterprise the total catch for both stations was 9 $ and 4 $ . 

At Fort Myers, Mr. Williamson noted: "Taken along 
shady stretches of a small, mucky-bottomed creek where it 
flows through orange groves. Easily caught as they rested on 
green vegetation at the water's edge." At Moore Haven he 
noted : ''Taken in large numbers along sun-exposed drainage 
ditches; vegetation in water and on ditch banks scanty." And 
at Palmdale : "Frequented floating, grass-like vegetation in 
shallow, running water at shaded parts of Fisheating Creek." 
Generally the Enallagmas of the pollntnui group are lake or 
pond species; pollutum however seems to prefer streams. 

A pair taken March 30, 1921, at Moore Haven is preserved 
with the male appendages in position grasping the female. In 
these specimens, the apices of the male inferior appendages 
are just above the dorsal prothoracic pits of the female, and 
confirm Dr. Calvert's suggestion that the appendages, in copu- 
lation, engage the pits. The externo-superior branch of the 
superior appendage grasps the mesostigmal lamina of the 
female, the anterior raised border of the latter fitting in the 
concavity between the externo-superior branch and the intenio- 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 141 

inferior lamella of the superior appendage, the latter lamella of 
which overlaps and engages the anterior border of the mr- 
stigmal lamina. 

In tenerals of both sexes the yellow or orange color of adults is 
replaced by pale blue, yellowish appearing first on the face and frons. 
Abdominal segment 9 of the female has the dorsal black of nearly 
uniform width in nearly every case, rarely the apical third or fourth 
is abruptly narrowed and more rarely the dorsal black is triangular 
in shape, but, as indicated by Hagen's original description and contrary 
to Cal vert's description (p. 378, loc. cit. ), the black may not reach the 
apex of the segment by a distance of sometimes as much as nearly 
one-third the length of the segment, though usually the color is as 
described by Calvert. The pale postocular spots in both sexes are also 
not constant and I have seen males in which the spots might properly 
1>e described as more nearly linear than cuneiform. 

In Hagen's original description of the male pollutant, ab- 
dominal segment 9 and the sides of 10 are blue. This is tnu- 
only of very teneral specimens. Dr. Calvert arrived at his 
determination of pollutant by sending drawings and notes to 
Mr. Banks for comparison with the Hagen types. To further 
confirm the matter I sent specimens to Mr. Banks, who care- 
fully compared the Fort Myers specimens, collected by Mr. 
Williamson, with the seven specimens in the Hagen collection. 
Mr. Banks not only compared the abdominal appendages hut 
carefully checked the color patterns of head, thorax, legs and 
abdomen, and he writes that the two sets of specimens are 
identical, and that the "blue" of segment ' is certainly an 

In a letter of November 6, 1921, Dr. Calvert writes: "Laurent 
recently sent me some E. polhttiiin be took at Gunntown, Florida, last 
March, one male of which had a pair of orange stripes, transverse to 
the main axis of the body, on the disk of the nasus and orange twin 
spots on the dorsum of the mid prothoracic lobe as in the female; 
pale antehumeral and black humeral stripes each .37 wide at mid- 
height. Abdomen 28, 9 (in copulation therewith) 27; hind wing 

<? 17.5. 9 19." 
Enallagma vesperum Calvert. I'ahmlale, Florida, April 1, r.i:M, 1 

9 ; Kathwood, Aiken County, South Carolina, May 4 and May .">, 
lOL'l, 2 $, 1 9 , all by J. II. Williamson. 

The South ('arolina specimens were sent to Dr. Calvert who 
pronounced them rrx/vru;;;. The 1'almdale female is certainly 


identical with the Kathwood female. Of one of the Kath- 
wood males Dr. Calvert writes : "This male is a gynandro- 
morph in so far as the mid prothoracic Inhe is concerned, 
having asymmetrical pits." 

Enallagma geminatum Kellicott. Kathwood, Aikcn County, South 
Carolina, May 5, 1921, 22 cj, 11 9 , J. H. Williamson. 

The dorsal prothoracic pits of the female first figured by 
Carman, but not mentioned in his text (Bulletin 111. State 
Lab. Nat. Hist. Vol. XII. 1017), and first discussed by Calvert 
( Gundlach's Work on the Odonata of Cuba, 191-), are pres- 
ent, in addition to the. species of the pollution group, in 
geminatum, hagoii, rccurrotnin and possibly in others, cer- 
tainly, in a modified form, in others. 

Enallagma divagans Selys. Kathwood, Aikcn County, South Caro- 
lina, April 29-May 9, 1921, J. H. Williamson, 35 <$ , 7 9. 

Enallagma exsulans Hagen. Enterprise, Florida, April 15, 1921, 
2 ^ ; Kathwood, Aikcn County, South Carolina, April 29 and May 
4-7, 1921, 41 5, 19 $ ; all by J. H. Williamson. 

Enallagma doubledayi Selys. Enterprise, Florida, April 18, 19, 20. 
21, 22 and 25, 1921, 178 5 , 20 9: Kathwood, Aiken County, South 
Carolina, April 29, 1921, 1 $ ; all by J. H. Williamson. 

At a five acre swamp, about three-eighths of a mile from 
Gleason's Pond, near Enterprise, Mr. Williamson noted : % 
"Very abundant in a swampy tract, water and muck half -knee 
deep, grown up with scattered bushes, waist to shoulder high. 
This species and Erythrodiplax minusciilum were so numerous 
they were a nuisance. Lestcs I'idita was hard to see." Else- 
where in his notes he remarks that E. doubledayi was much 
rarer at the four ponds about four miles east of Enterprise, 
and from a quarter to a half a mile north of the railroad, than 
at the ponds and swamps north of town. 

Enallagma durum Hagen. Labelle, Florida March 25 and 2fi. and 
Enterprise, Florida, April 16 and 20, 1921, 8 $ , 1 9 , J. H. William- 

At Labelle Mr. Williamson noted: "Rested on reed tips in 
the river or flew swiftly over the river close to the water's 
surface." And at Enterprise: "Flies over Lake Monroe, close 
to the surface, and occasionally alighting on reeds." Crossing 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 143 

Lake Okeechobee on motor launch on April 9: "Teneral> of 
II. durum, II. pnllutnw and Iscluiiii'a nunburii were found rest- 
ing on railings and woodwork on the boat." 

Enallagma cardenium Hagen. Miami, Dade Co., Florida, January 
24, 1899, S. N. Rhoads, 5 $ ; St. Petersburg, Florida. April Hi, 1908. 
Mrs. C. C. Deam, 1 $ ; Fort Myers, I.ahclle. Palmdale and Enter- 
prise, Florida, for dates see first paragraph of this paper, J. II. \Yil- 
liamson. 111 $,8 9 ; 75 $ and 6 9 of the above catch were taken 
at Ft. Myers. 

The form of the male superior appendage is practically iden- 
tical in all the Florida specimens I have seen. In supero- 
internal view the inferior lamella is about like Calvert's figure 
AOa. while the superior branch is slender, like his figure 44a. 
but apically hooked as in, figure 38a. Males vary in size from 
abdomen 26 to 30, and in some the wings are slightly brown 

This species is dull and quite un-Enallagma-like in color. More- 
over there is an almost universal loss or obscuring of color due to 
postmortem changes in preserved material. Mr. Williamson made the 
following notes on living colors: "Eyes largely black, paler beneath: 
postocular spots dull violet gray. Thorax dull violet, marked with 
dark stripes, the middorsal stripe metallic black. Abdominal pale 
markings same shade of dull violet as the pale color of thorax." 

At Palmdale Mr. Williamson noted: "Frequented floating 
water hyacinths in running water, sandy-bottomed stretches 
of Fisheating Creek." 

A male taken at Ft. Myers on March 4. 1921. has an ant'- 
head firmly attached by the mandibles to the left middle tarsus 
at about one-third its length. This specimen was sent to Dr. 
I 1 ". M. Gaige. who reports that the head is a male Pseudomyrwia 
species. Dr. Gaige informs me that the males are all winged 
and that most of the species are arboreal. It is possible the 
dragonfly may have seized the ant in the air or the attack^ may 
have been made when the ant was running about over vege- 
tation. Dr. Gaige has also identified the head and thorax of 
another ant attached to the legs of a Hctacrina Incsa from 
British Guiana. In this case the ant is a Phcidolc species, and 
the head and thorax belong to a minor worker. Dr. Gaige 
writes that many species of Phcldole forage on vegetation to 


the height of several feet and that they are "pugnacious little 
devils." Such an ant might conceivably seize a resting drag- 
onfly by its legs, but I have little doubt that the dragonfly was 
the aggressor and that it plucked the ant from its perch, and 
the ant retaliated by seizing a leg in a death grip. I have 
elsewhere recorded tropical dragonflies with heads of stingless 
bees attached to their legs. 

New North American Coleoptera. 

By A. B. CHAMPLATN and J. N. KNULL, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Harrisburg, Pa. 

The following paper presents a number of apparently unde- 
scribed species in our collection. The specimens were not taken 
in any particular region, but represent material collected and 
received from various sources, as indicated in each description. 

\Ye are indebted to Prof. H. C. Fall, who has been of great 
assistance to us in examining specimens, and for his opinions 
in regard to the material ; also to Dr. Henry Skinner and E. T. 
Cresson, Jr.. for the use of the Horn collection. 

Chrysobothris woodgatei n. sp. 

Robust, depressed, piceous, elevated spaces shining, ventral surface 
with coppery bronze lustre. Head densely punctate and rugose, with 
lon<s white pubescence. Clypeus broadly emarginate at middle, arcuate 
each side. Antennae coppery bronze, third joint longer than following 
joints, joints four to eleven, gradually narrowed. 

Prothorax twice as wide as long, widest in front of middle, obliquely 
narrowed in front, arcuately narrowed toward base, surface convex, a 
deep median densely punctate sulcus ; a broad, smooth, slightly elevated 
space on each side, a narrower sinuous elevated space nearer to the side. 
the surface otherwise coarsely and densely punctured, punctures with 
long white hairs. Scutellum small, triangular. 

Elytra wider than prothorax, widest back of middle, sides parallel 
near base, sinuate in middle, rounded on posterior third to broadly 
rounded apices, lateral margin serrulate along its entire length, disk 
convex, first costa expanded into a smooth area on basal half, apical 
half a raised line, second and third costae somewhat interrupted into 
broad, smooth sinuate areas, fourth costa a raised line parallel to lateral 
margin, intervals very densely and finely punctate. 

Prestcrnum lobed in front, pubescent, with median smooth area. Last 
ventral segment of abdomen serrulate along margin, submarginal ridge 
not well marked, abdomen densely and irregularly punctate. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 145 

Length 14 mm. 

$ . Last ventral segment with a semi-circular emargination, anterior 
tibia arcuate, with a lamina on the inside near tip, forming an abrupt 
dilation, middle tibia similar to the first, but tooth not as pronounced. 
posteror tibia straight. 

9. Last ventral segment with a narrow emargination, anterior tibia 
arcuate, dilate at tip, but without a tooth. 

Described from one male and two females collected at Jemex. 
Springs. Xew Mexico, in July, by John \Yoodgate. in whose 
honor the species is named. T\pc material in authors' collec- 

According to Horn's* table, this species would come near 
( . quadrilineata Lee. 

Mastogenius castlei n. sp. 

Head and prothorax bright metallic blue, elytra metallic green, cupre- 
ous along costal margin, a piceous spot in middle which extends pos- 
teriorly along suture, ventral surface including legs aeneous. Head con 
vex, impressed in front, coarsely and densely punctate, eyes small. 
coarsely granulate. Antennae aeneous, serrate from the fourth joint. 
first and second joints globose, third joint narrow, elongate, shorter than 
the fifth and about half as long as fourth. 

Prothorax wider than long, widest a little back of middle, sides arcu- 
ate. more strongly rounded anteriorly, surface convex, coarsely punctate. 

Elytra as wide at hase as basal line of prothorax. widest hack of mid- 
dle, side margins parallel at hase, sinuate in middle, apices rounded, sur- 
face coarsely punctate. 

Abdomen sparsely punctate. Posterior margin of hind coxal plate 
broadly cmarginate. 

Length .} mm. 

Described from one specimen collected at Miami. Florida. 
May 4, by Dr. D. M. Castle, in whose honor the species is 
named. 7'v/v in authors' collection. 

According to Schaeffer'st key. this species should follow 
Mastogenius puncticollis Schaef. 

Idoemea bicolor n. sp. 

Slender, elongate, pubescent, testaceous; head orange in color. Head 
wider than prothorax, vertex impressed. Eyes large, coarsely granu- 
late, narrowly separated on vertex, deeply cmarginate, upper portion 
smaller than lower. Antennae eleven-jointed, nearly twice as lonu i 
body, covered with short dense puhr-,cence which becomes sparse and 

*G. II. II. ,i-ii Trans. . \rner. Knt. Soc. XIII. ISSf,. p. 5. 
tChas. SchacltV, Jour. X. V. Knt. Soc. Y. _'(. 1918. p. J14. 


longer near base, scape stout, with small concave cicatrix near outer 
apical margin, second joint very small, remaining joints about e<|ual in 
length and gradually tapering. 

Prothorax cylindrical, dilate at middle, longer than wide, surface 
unevenly punctate, and with long pubescence, on each side, a dorsal 
smooth area, and two protuberances, one basal and one lateral. 

Elytra wider than prothorax, three- fourths the length of the abdomen, 
narrowed posteriorly, apices rounded, surface coarsely and unevenly 
punctate, covered with fine pubescence. 

Abdomen sparsely punctate, with short pubescence. Legs with long 

Length 9 mm. 

Described from one specimen collected at Jemez Springs, 
New Mexico, in August, by John Woodgate. Type in authors' 

Elaphidion albomaculatum n. sp. 

Form of Elaphidion irroratum L.. brunneous, marked with dense patches 
of white pubescence. Head with front irregularly punctate, vertex 
transversely strigate, eyes prominent, coarsely granulate, emarginate, a 
patch of dense white pubescence in emargination, another patch beside 
each eye on vertex. Antennae about one-half longer than elytra in male, 
only slightly longer than elytra in female, eleven-jointed, third, fourth, 
fifth, sixth and seventh joints bearing a moderate spine on inside, outer 
joints finely pubescent, punctate. 

Prothorax longer than wide, cylindrical, widened in the center, con- 
stricted at apex and base, surface irregularly punctate and pubescent, 
with an irregular smooth callus in center, and another on each side in 
front and to the rear, also three similar areas along each side; a round 
patch of dense white pubescence on each side back of anterior margin, 
another elongate downwardly deflected patch on each] side at base, 
and a small patch in front of scutellum. Scutellum triangular, covered 
with dense white pubescence. 

Elytra wider than prothorax, sides nearly parallel, apices truncate. 
spinose on the outer side, surface irregularly punctate, punctures becom- 
ing obsolete near apex, covered with short pubescence intermixed with 
longer hairs, marked with irregular patches of dense white pubescent e. 

Sides of meso, and metathorax, and segments of abdomen with patches 
of dense white pubescence ; abdomen sparsely punctate, pubescent. 

Length 13 mm. 

Described from three males and one lemnle collected at 
Miami, Florida, on April 2. by J. X. Knull. Type material in 
authors' collection. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS . 147 

Elaphidion (Anepsyra) delongi n. sp. 

Form and color of Elaphidion (Aneftomorpha} suhpnl'cscnis Lee. 
Head densely and irregularly punctate. Kycs prominent, coarsely gran- 
ulate, emarginatc. Antenna about a third longer than elytra in the malr, 
slightly longer than elytra in the female, eleven-jointed, piibescent, pubes- 
cence longer toward hase. third joint with a spine ahont half the length 
of the fourth joint, fourth joint witli a shorter spine, fifth with small 

I'rothorax cylindrical, longer than wide, surface densely and inegu- 
larly punctate, with a median smooth callus on basal half, long flying 
hairs numerous. Scutellum densely pubescent. 

Klylra wider than prothorax, sides nearly parallel, apices hispinose, 
surface densely and regularly punctate, each puncture hearing a long 
white hair, punctures becoming less prominent posteriorly. 

Abdomen finely punctate, pubescent. 

Length U mm. 

Described from a male and a female collected at Miami. 
Florida, on April 3 and April 12 respectively, by D. M. I VLon^. 
in whose honor the species is named. Type material in author-' 

Anthophilax quadrimaculatus n. sp. 

Brumicous, elytra ochraceous. with two piceous spots on each side. 
Ib-ad coarsely and irregularly punctate on vertex, more finely punctate 
on front. Kyes finely granulate, emarginate. Mandibles long, dark at 
apex. Antennae eleven-jointed, extending beyond two-thirds the length 
of the elytra, scape stout, second joint very small, third joint shorter 
than first, but longer than fourth, fifth joint longer than any preceding 
joint, remaining six joints approximately equal in length to the fifth. 

Prothorax longer than wide, acute lateral tubercle at middle, a dec]) 
transverse depression near anterior and posterior margins, base trisinu- 
ate, surface deeply and irregularly punctate with median callus, and also 
a transverse callus near basal margin. Scutellum small, triangular, finch 
and densely punctate. 

Elytra wider than prothorax, sides nearly parallel, rounded in apical 
fifth to obliquely truncate apices. Surface densely irregularly punctate 
on basal half, becoming extremely line toward apex. Color ochraceous. 
a lateral piceous spot behind humeral angle, and another in middle of 

Abdomen densely punctate and pubescent. 

Length 16 mm. 

Described from a female specimen collected at Kock I'.rid^e. 
Ohio, in June, hy Robert J. Sim and C. J. Drake. Y'y/v in 
authors' collection. 


According to Nicolay's* key, this species would fall next to 
A. subz'ittatiis Casey. 

Atimia huachucae n. sp. 

Piceous, legs and antennae brunneous, covered with coarse luteous 
pubescence, with some denuded spots on head, prothorax and elytra. 
Head convex, covered with luteous pubescence, with the exception of a 
median denuded stripe. Eyes finely granulate, emarginate. Antennae 
finel}' pubescent. 

Prothorax wider than long, quadrate, disk convex, irregularly densely 
punctate, covered with luteous pubescence, which becomes sparse, form- 
ing a fine central dark area and two rather broad dorsal and lateral 
vittae. Scutellum quadrate, covered with dense luteous pubescence. 

Elytra with sides gradually converging to obliquely truncate apices, 
surface irregularly punctate, covered with dense luteous pubescence, with 
numerous irregular smooth, round, denuded areas. 

Ventral surface and legs with short luteous pubescence. 

Length 9 mm. 

Type and paratypc collected at Cooney, New Mexico, and 
Huachuca, Arizona, respectively, in the collection of H. W. 
Wenzel. One paratype collected at Paradise, Arizona, by H. 
H. Kimhall. in authors' collection. 

This species resembles .-Itiiiw confnsa Say, but can be dis- 
tinguished easily from this species by the round denuded areas 
on the elytra. 

Leptostylus floridanus n. sp. 

Resembling Lfptostylus arucntntits Duv. in form and color. Head 
clothed with gray pubescence. Eyes coarsely granulate, emarginate. 
Antennae eleven-jointed, slightly longer than elytra, mottled between an- 

Prothorax wider than long, with a well developed lateral tubeicule, 
disk convex, with a median raised area on basal half, and two similar 
areas on each side, surface covered with dense silvery-white pubescence, 
pubescence darker in front of scutellum, and a faint line on each side. 
Scutellum densely clothed with silvery-white pubescence. 

Elytra wider than prothorax, sides parallel near base, widened on basal 
half, rounded anteriorly to obliquely emarginate apices, each elytron 
with three somewhat interrupted raised lines bearing tubercules, and 
also a row along suture, surface deeply and evenly punctate, clothed with 
dense silvery-white pubescence on basal two-thirds, apical third and a 
small patch back of scutellum darker, a piceous stripe running parallel 
to costal margin from humeral angle to apex, deflected obliquely on basal 

* A. S. Nicolay Jour. N. Y. Ent. Sue. V. 25, 1917, p. 38. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEW? 149 

half toward suture, on apical third a second oblique stripe running par 
allel to the first, and extending from costal margin to suture, a short 
oblique stripe in center diverging from suture to first raised line. 

Femora strongly clavate. 

Length 9 mm. 

Described from one specimen collected on Finns caribaea at 
Miami, Florida, on April 3, by J. N. Knull. 7 v/H 1 in authors' 

Some Coccidae Found on Orchids (Horn.). 

The following Diaspine Coccidae, found on greenhouse orchids, are of 
interest on account of the locality and, excepting the first, new host- 
plant record^. 
Aonidia pseudaspidiotus (Lindinger). 

I'arlatoria pseudaspidiotus Lindinger, Insekten Borse, XXII (1905). 
p. l.U. 

Female scale about 1.4 mm. diameter, circular or slightly oval, slightly 
convex; first skin a little to one side of middle, strongly green, varying 
to cream-color; second skin concealed, enclosing female, dense and chest- 
nut red, but covered with pale secretion, so that in the scale the area 
around the first skin is whitish; outer part of scale purplish-black, but 
the thin margin whittish. No thick ventral film. 

bemale circular, without lateral incisions or projections; three pairs of 
well-formed lobes, and a fourth small tooth-like one; median lobes 
\\idely separated, trilobed : second and third lobes bilobed, the outer lobe 
in. ill ; spines ordinary, small; squames strongly fimbriate, those beyond 
the (bird lobe mostly very large, subtriangular ; large transverse thicken- 
ing, below tbi' interlobular intervals; no circumgemtal glands; anal ori- 
fice elongate, with thickened margins; mouth parts very large. 

i >n stems oi I'ini/Li tercs Lindley, found by Mr. S. Knudsen in a 
-ireenbouse at ISoulder, Colorado. The orchid belongs to the Indian re- 
i ii, ami the scale is undoubtedly an Oriental species. 

This species appears to be closely related to .-lunidin ov>n</,;,',i Green 
( I. cl'cn'i "Green," I.eonardi), and in spite of its great resemblance to 
such species as I'tirliitoritt pcrinindci. I think it is properly an .l,iidia. 
./. pseudaspidiotus was found on an orchid at quarantine at the port of 
San Francisco, se\eral wars ago.* 

Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan). 

i in ( i>,'li></\'iic crisliitii Lindley, infesting the leaves. Greenhouse at 
! 'i ulder, ( < Joi ,ido. 

Diaspis boisduvalii Signoret. 

( )n Lael-iocattleya bybr. t'iclnr'uic ( "Oucen Victoria," hurt.) and 
Odontoglossum rnx.fii l.mdiey. Greenhouse at lloulder, Colorado. T. 1 ). 
A. COIKKKKI.I., 1'oulder. Colorado. 

,*B. 11. Whitney, Montbly Hull. Calif. Comm. Hort., July, 1 ( 'U, p. 
S.v Parlatoria mangiferae Marlatt, apparently the same species as that 
from /',/;;,/,/. was I'mmd on man'.'o. not on orchids. Macgillivray places 
nnuiiiif era,' and pseudaspidiotus (as distinct species) in his genus 



The Conservation of Natural Conditions. 

The activities of many entomologists are directed toward the 
destruction of insects on as large a scale as their ingenuity and 
the material resources at their command will permit. \Yhen 
the insects so destroyed are operating against human life, health, 
food, clothing, shelter and enjoyment, we applaud the efforts 
of our economic colleagues. In earlier days in this country 
we generally approved of the killing of various reptiles, birds, 
mammals and men who similarly threatened our lives and our 
property. Later, a portion at least of the American people 
recognized that some of these animals, including the human 
species, were, for various reasons, worth saving, especially in 
those cases where their destruction touched our personal and 
financial interests. Similar reasons have very lately led to 
movements for the conservation of forests. 

It is well worth considering whether many of our interesting 
insects are not being threatened with extermination as a conse- 
quence of the destruction of the environment on which their 
existence depends. The fate of some of the I'ritish butterflies 
is an indication of what may happen here. Various movements 
for the conservation of natural conditions are under way, 
without respect to financial or commercial considerations but 
with regard 10 our intellectual, recreational, esthetic, moral and 
spiritual advancement. To all such efforts, the support of ento- 
mologists should be forthcoming without delay. 

Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin. 
News Bulletin No. 7. 

The safe return on Feb. 26th of Dr. H. H. Rushy, Director of the 
Mulford Biological Exploration, was an occasion for rejoicing on the 
part of his many friends throughout the country. 

Cable messages have just brought the information that the other 
scientists of the Mulford Exploration, who have put in four months of 
hard work in the Bolivian and Brazilian forests since the time Dr. 
Rusby left them, are at last on their wav home. They are expected vo 
arrive on the Booth Line SS. Justin, at Brooklyn, on April 13th. 

This party consists of Dr. W. M. Mann, assistant entomologist of 



the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who has been acting as director 
of the expedition since Dr. Rusby was compelled to leave them on 
account of ill health; Dr. O. E. White, assistant botanist at the Brook- 
lyn Botanical Gardens and orchidologist of this expedition for Dr. 
Oakes Ames of the Bussey Institution of Harvard University ; Dr. 
Everett Pearson, ichthyologist of the University of Indiana, who has 
been collecting fishes on this expedition for the forthcoming work on 
the fishes of South America by Prof. Eigenmann of Indiana University, 
reptiles for Dr. Noble of the American Museum of Natural History 
nnd batrachians for Prof. Ruthven of the University of Michigan. 

Messrs. MacCreagh, Brown and McCarty, the motion-picture photog- 
raphers, who accompanied the exploration, will remain until the latter 
part of May. In addition to photographic work, they are at present 
investigating a special problem for Dr. Rusby concerning the use of 
certain drug plants among the Indians of the lower Uaupes River and its 
tributaries near the Brazilian-Colombian frontier. 

Dr. Mann reports that all members of his party are in good health 
and that they are bringing back with them about two and a half tons of 
scientific material. In addition to the preserved specimens, they have 
a small menagerie of living animals for the National Zoological Garden 
at Washington. 

These collections, supplementing the very large amount already 
shipped home and brought home by Dr. Rusby, will form a very notable 
contribution to the scientific investigation of South America, notwith- 
standing that the entire period between the time of leaving and of 
returning to New York is less than eleven months. 

Arrangements are being made for a reception to the scientists of this 
exploration, including a number of their friends and many prominent 
leaders in the various departments of scientific work represented. 

R. H. HUTCHISON, Secretary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

[The daily newspapers reported the arrival of Messrs. White, Pearson 
and Mann at New York on April 1.3. EniTOK.J 

Entomological Literature 


I 'mil ! tin- above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Acadeiii\ af Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
loinology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
I'Ui coni rihutions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of inserts. 
ho\v< -ver. \vlic-ibc-r relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy-Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few except ions, are recorded only at their 
tirst installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
if Mexico are cronped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
( iffice of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also 11' view of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ejito- 
mology. see lleview of Applied Entomology. Series I! 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 10 Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Washington, D. C. 12 Journal of 
Economic Entomology, Concord, N. H. 21 The Entomologist's 


Record, London. 54 Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, D. C. 69 Comptes Rendus, des Seances de 1'Aca- 
demie des Sciences, Paris. 77 Comptes Rendus des Seances de la 
Societe de Biologic, Paris. 82 The Ohio Journal of Science 
Columbus. 90 The American Naturalist, Lancaster, Pa. 100 
Biological Bulletin of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Hole, Mass. 128 Zeitschrift fur Induktive Abstammungs- und 
Vererbungslehre, Leipzig. 138 American Museum Novitates, New 
York. 134 Annales de Biologic Lacustre, Brussels. 

GENERAL. Dean, G. A. How we may increase the effective- 
ness of economic entomology. 12, xv, 41-53. Kelly, E. G. Co- 
operation of agricultural colleges with high schools and rural schools 
in economic entomology. 12, xv, 54-02. Robertson, C. The sun- 
flower and its insect visitors. (Ecology, iii, 17-21.) 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Belehradek, J. Experi- 
ences sur la ccllulase et 1'amylase de la salive chez Dixippus moro- 
sus. (Arch. Intern. Physiologic, xvii, 260-65.) van Bemmelen, J. F. 
On the primary character of the markings in Lcpidoptera. (Proc. 
Sec. Sci., Konink. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, xxi, 58-67.) Bowen, 
R. H. Studies on insect spermatogenesis. 100, xlii, 53-84. Bridges, 
C. B. The origin of variation in sexual and sex limited characters. 
90, Ivi, 51-6!!. Crampton, G. C. A comparison of the first maxillae 
of apterygotan insects and Crustacea from the standpoint of phylo- 
geny. 10, xxiv, 65-82. Godoelst, L. Le trimorphisme larvaire des 
Oestrides. 77, Ixxxvi, 501-4. Kennedy, C. H. The homologies of 
the tracheal branches in the respiratory system of insects. 82, xxii, 
84-90. Mohr, O. L. Cases of mimic mutations and secondary 
mutations in the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. 123, 
xxviii, 1-22. Muller, H. J. Variation due to change in the indi- 
vidual gene. 90, Ivi, 32-50. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Gandara, G. El piojo bianco del hombre. 
(Mem. Soc. "Alzate," Mexico, xxxv, 275-301.) 

Petrunkevitch, A. Tertiary spiders and Opilionids of No. Amer- 
ica. (Trans. Conn. Ac. Arts & Sci., xxv, 211-79.) 

NEUROPTERA. Lestage, J. A. Etudes sur la biologic des 
Plecopteres. 134, x, 2:>1-60. Longinus Navas, R. P. Insecta nova 
(Mem. Ponti. Aecad. Romana, Nuovi Lincei (2), v, 1919, 1-29.) 

HEMIPTERA. Knight, H. H. Nearctic records for species of 
Miridae known heretofore only from the palaearctic region. 4, liii 
2HO-8S. Poisson, R. Brachypterisme et apterisme dans le genre 
Gerris. 69, clxxv, 947-50. 

Dozier, H. L. A synopsis of the genus Stenocranus, and a new 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 153 

species of Mysidia. 82, xxii. (i'.t-s:;. Drake, C. J. A new species 
of Plea (Notonectidae.) 82, xxii, 114-1(1. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Cockerell, T. D. A. A fossil moth from 
Florissant, Colorado. 138, No. ::4. Farm Collection Sale of the 
Farm collection. 21, xxxiv, 4S-51. Warren, B. C. S. The genus 
Hesperia. A correction. 21, xxxiv, 41-2. 

Busck, A. Alicrolepidoptera from Hritish Columbia. 4, liii, :>T<)-s<i. 

DIPTERA. Riquelme Inda, R. Las moscas llamadas "Tse-tse" 
en el Africa, no existen en la America. (Mem. y Rev., Soc. Cient. 
"Antonio Alzate," Mexico, xl, 47-55.) 

Curran, C. H. New species of Canadian Syrphidae. 4, liii, :>75-f>. 

COLEOPTERA. Dozier, H. L. An annotated list of Mississippi 
Chfysomelidae. 82, xxii, 117-24. Riquelme Inda, J. El "Max" del 
henequen. (Scyphophorus acupunctatus.) (Mem. Soc. "Alzate," 
Mexico, xxxv, 303-18.) 

Buchanan, L. L. Notes on Apion. with descriptions of two n. 
sps. (Curculionidae.) 10, xxiv, 82-4. Chapin, E. A. New North 
American Hydnocera (Cleridae). 54, xxxv. 55-8. 

HYMENOPTERA. Cockerell, T. D. A. Bees of the 
Perdita from the western United States. 138, No. I',:;. 

Zoology, Royal College of Science, Dublin; Sec. Royal Irish 
Academy. Methuen and Co., Ltd., 36 Essex Street, W. C., Lon- 
don. 282 pp., 4 plates and 124 illustrations in text. 
Professor Carpenter's researches on various groups of insects are so 
well known to entomologists in general that a new book from his pen 
is sure of a cordial welcome from them. This work is, to use the words 
of his preface, "designed to serve as an introduction to the study of 
growth and change in the life of insects," and he hopes that it "may be 
of some service to serious workers in entomology as well as to begin 

The plan of the book is a good one. The reader is first introduced 
to a few familiar examples of the changes that accompany growth in 
the lives of insects, and the morphology of the adult insect is fully 
explained before any attempt is made to classify the different types of 
change met with. Then, by the use of the ('.rasshopper, Dragonfly and 
Moth as examples, the reader is led to the generalized conceptions to 
which entomologists have come to apply the comparative terms "anieta 
bolic," "hemiinctaholir" and "lioli unetabolic." following Dr. Sharp'* 
lead, the phenomena of metamorphosis amongst winged insects is then 
divided into its two main sections, the "open" t\pe oi wing-growth 
(Exopterygota) and the "hidden t\pe (Endopterygota), and examples 


are given illustrating the metamorphosis of eacli of the Orders of 
Insects that come under these two headings. This leads, in Chapter V, 
to the consideration of wingless insects and the effect of parasitism on 
the form of an insect, and this secondary winglessness is then con- 
trasted with the primitive unaltered winglessness of the true Aptery- 
gota, the Spring-tails and Bristle-tails. The ground thus covered enable* 
the author to give in Chapter VI a concise classification of the Insecta, 
in which twenty-three Orders are recognized. Chapter VII deals with 
the correlation between the growing insect and its surroundings, and 
we are here introduced to the secondarily aquatic larvae of certain 
Diptera (sandfly, mosquito, etc.), the habits of burrowing and sucking 
the juices of plants, the formation of galls, the parasitism of one insect 
by another, and finally the care of the helpless young by the adult, as 
in the case of ants. The last chapter deals with the general -problems 
of insect transformation, and emphasizes the apparent paradox that, 
whereas, in other groups of animals, low-grade forms are found to 
undergo more profound changes than high-grade forms, yet in the case 
of insects the reverse is true, metamorphosis becoming more and more 
complete as we pass upwards to the more highly evolved forms. The 
reason for this is very clearly explained, and we can recommend th.b 
part (Chapter VIII) as the best in the book, particularly the illuminat- 
ing discussion as to the probable primitive type of insect larva, the 
evolution of the two types of wing-growth, and the short but excellent 
summary of the palaeontological evidence. 

Any book dealing with so large a subject can scarcely claim to be 
original, but the author certainly has as much claim as anyone to be con- 
sidered an authority on his subject. Thus we note, as we should expect, 
that he has introduced illustrations and examples from a number of 
recent researches by modern authors, which greatly enhance the value 
of the book. While the general conception and detail of the book are 
alike excellent for the beginner, the more advanced student will note 
some omissions of considerable importance. For example, in dealing 
with the problem of wing-growth, no mention is made of the turning 
o\er of the wing-buds in Odonata and certain Orthoptera, in which the 
hindwing sheath conies to overlie that of the forewing. In dealing with 
the evolution of the pupal state (Chapter II) the author passes in 
review the various larval forms found in the Hymenoptera, but quite 
fails to mention the praepupal or subpupal stage, which is the most 
significant of all facts in connection with this problem, and so misses 
the clue to the explanation of the reduction of the number of instars, 
without which a true view of the meaning of the pupal state can 
scarcely be attained. Again, much has been written in late years on 
the internal changes accompanying metamorphosis, yet this fascinating 
and intricate subject is dismissed in ten pages at the end of Chapter IV. 
There are many students of insects at the present day who would be 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 155 

extremely grateful for a clear exposition of the stages by which the 
"imaginal buds" of Weismann as seen in the Dipterous maggot, have 
been evolved, and for an authoritative account of the definite change- 
undergone by the various internal organs and tissues of the insect body 
during the actual metamorphosis. Though we realize that these are 
difficult subjects and that more researches upon the older Holometabola 
are still needed, we may be allowed to feel disappointed that so little 
help in elucidating these problems is offered in the present volume. 

The text and figures have been on the whole very carefully prepared, 
though there are a few errors that need to be corrected. On p. \<>, 
fig. 7, the letters A, C, M are made to point to the wrong veins. On 
p. 106 we are told that "the ninth segment has a pair of stiff, bristly 
cerci" ; the accepted definition of "cerci" makes this statement inaccu- 
rate. On p. 178 we read that, in the Order Orthoptera, "the female's 
ovipositor is well and typically developed" ; but this is certainly not 
true of the Cockroaches and Mantids, included in the Order. On pp. 
178-9 the definitions of the Orders Plecoptera and Isoptcra leave much 
to be desired, while the Embioptera or Web-spinners are entirely 
omitted ! A stereotyped error due to Alvah Peterson and others, is 
perpetuated on p. 185, where it is stated that "labial palps are absent" 
in the Diptera ; the latest researches go to show undoubtedly that the 
labellum is formed from these palps. On p. 269 it is stated that the 
Coleoptera of the Trias include representatives of the Chrysomelidae 
and Weevils. This is incorrect ; the only families which can be shown 
to have existed with any certainty at that time are the Cupesidae and 
Hydrophilidae, though there is a strong probability that other elytra 
belonged to the Carabidae, Tenebrionidae and Cerambycidae, together 
with a few more obscure archaic families. 

In concluding this review we should like to congratulate the author 
on this his latest work, which is to be strongly recommended to all 
students who are interested in this fascinating subject. R. J. TILI.YAKU. 

Doings of Societies. 

Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences of 


Meeting of September 22, 1 ( '21. Thirteen persons present. \ ire 
Director R. C. Williams presided. 

( iKXF.K.M.. Mr. Rehn gave a brief narrative of the summer field excur 
sion taken by Mr. Hebard and himself in the western States. Mi 
Hornig exhibited specimens showing an Knglish method of interesting 
young people in nature, in this case entomology, and said that he thought 
Midi methods would be practical here in America. The exhibit consisted 
of a box of twelve micro-slides of parts of insecst, selling for about 
two or three shillings, also a book entitled "Butterflies and Moths at 


Home," containing over fifty half-tone illustrations showing the com- 
moner species. This, he said, sold for about sixpence. 

COLEOPTERA. Dr. Skinner exhibited specimens of a coleopterous insect 
which is reported to be seriously injuring the rose bushes about Phila- 
delphia. It is a Chrysomelid, Typophorus guadrinotatus Say. and it 
apparently new as a rose-foliage pest. 

HYMENOPTERA. Dr. Skinner also exhibited a specimen of a male 
of Pelecinus polyturator Dru., captured by one of our contributors, Mr. 
A. R. Allen, at Northeast Harbor, Maine, August 10, 1921. He spoke 
about the scarcity of the males of this insect in the United States and 
said that Dr. Hagen, while on a visit to Philadelphia, asked to see the 
male, stating that he came to Philadelphia especially to see one. 

ODONATA. Dr. Calvert spoke briefly on the Co~ta Rican species of 
Palaemnema. stating that the six species which he had collected in that 
country differed from each other in the shape of the abdominal append- 
ages of the males, as well as in slight color characters, but that in 
three species the penis was alike, while in the remaining three the penis 
differed in the shape of the tips of the terminal filaments from that of 
the first three. Thus on penis-shape there were two groups within the 
genus. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 

Meeting of December 12, 1921. Eight persons present, including 
Mr. Theodore H. Prison, of Riverton Japanese beetle laboratory. Vice- 
Director R. C. Williams presided. 

GENERAL. The following report of the editors of the Entomological 
News was read : 

The Entomological News has just completed a trying year. The 
cost of printing reached its maximum this year, compelling us to meet 
an increase of about $300 for the yearly edition. In order to balance 
this additional expense an increase in the subscription price was con- 
templated, but wishing to be reasonably sure that there would not be 
a great falling off of subscriptions, a vote was taken in the latter part 
of 1920 of the subscribers as to their willingness to continue with an 
increase of 50 cents. This resulted in sufficient votes to warrant the 
trial. The latest mailing list shows 407 subscribers, which is but slightly 
(about 15) below that of 1920. Were it not for this increase in price 
and the loyalty of the majority of our subscribers, our present balance, 
although small, would have been impossible. Of course the Society' has 
extended its helping hand by purchasing the copies used in the exchanges 
for the Library, but it has done this for several years past and it is 
seemingly proper that it should do so. 

The following officers and committees were elected to serve for W22 
Director, Philip Laurent; Vice-Director. R. C. Williams, Jr.; Secre- 
tai-v, ). A. G. Rehn; Recorder, E. T. Cresson, Jr.; Treasurer, E. T. 
Cresson: Conservator, Henry Skinner, M.D. ; Publication Committee. 
E. T. Cresson, P. P. Calvert, Ph.D., and E. T. Cresson, Jr. 

HYMENOPTERA. Mr. Prison made a very interesting communication 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 157 

on the life-history of the Bumblebee, illustrated with excellent lantern 
slides, showing the various stages in the nesting life, methods of rear- 
ing and establishing of colonies. The nesting habits were discussed 
in detail, how and where colonies are established by the queen in the 
spring of the year. The successive stages beginning with the honey- 
pot, then the egg cell, then the emergence of the adult, were shown. 
The different forms of cell-making by several of the species observed, 
and the most serious parasites were also shown. The speaker then 
explained how experimental colonies are introduced in the field and 
laboratory, and the apparatus used. It was evident that the speaker 
was well acquainted with his subject, and that it must have taken a 
number of years of study in order to secure the information and technic 
which he possesses. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 


Thanks to Dr. T. Tzabo-Patay of the Hungarian National 
Museum, I have recently received the January-February. 1916. 
number of Rorartani Lapok which includes an obituary notice 
of our lamented SANDOR MOCSARV. For the sake of those 
interested, to whom the facts are not accessible, I venture to 
introduce the following free translation of the German sum- 
mary published in the same place. 

A. Mocsary. 1841-1915. The highly meritorious Hymen- 
opterologist, A. Mocsary, Abteilungsdirektor i. P. of the 
Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, died suddenly 
Dec. 26. 1915, after a protracted illness. He was the Nestor 
of the Hungarian entomologists, a generally esteemed scholar, 
whose death will be deeply mourned by his colleagues. 
Apropos of his 40 year service jubilee, Roi'artani Lapok, Vol. 
17, 1910, pp. 161-175. published a sketch of his life ami this 
obituary refers back to that sketch. To complete, it remains 
to be. noticed that Mocsary was born in Nagyvarad, Sept. 27, 
1841, where he also pursued his studies. In 1870 he was 
appointed as assistant in the National Museum, to which insti- 
tution he belonged for 44 years as an energetic official. The 
first of lune. 1915, he entered on his well-earned retirement; 
still he could not long enjoy this as his stomach trouble re- 
curred and caused him to take to his sick bed. The burial 
took place December 28. On this occasion Dr. G. Iforvath. 
representing the National Museum and the I 'nganselie 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, and J. Jablonowski, the Ung. 


Entomologischen Gesellschaft, took their leave of the deceased 
in nobly held funeral orations. 

So much for the translation. I may add that Mocsary's 
bibliography comprises 178 titles, mostly devoted to Hymen- 
optera, especially Chrysidoidea. His contributions to science 
cover approximately 2594 pages. H. L. VIERECK. 

Among those who have contributed to entomology, whose 
deaths have not hitherto been noted in the NEWS, is Dr. ERNEST 
ROUSSEAU, who died November 13, 1920. Two notices of his 
life and work have appeared, both by M. J.-A. Lestage, one 
in the Bulletin dc la Socictc Entomologique dc Bclglquc (tome 
III, pp. 35-41, with a portrait), the later and longer in the 
Annalcs dc Biologic Lacustrc (tome X. pp. 261-283). Both 
are accompanied by the same list of his biological writings. 

He was born at Ixelles, Belgium, May 27, 1872, his father 
professor of physics at the University of Brussels, his mother. 
born Hannon, a botanist. "Eleve dans un milieu si hautement 
scientifique." says his biographer, "Rousseau devait fatalement 
venir a la science; en effet, il lui consacra toute sa vie." While 
a medical student in Brussels, he joined the Entomological 
Society there and published on Carabidae and Malacoderms of 
Belgium. Eor some years his zoological activities were turned 
to sponges and to insect histology, then again to the Carabidae, 
when he contributed to Wytsman's (rcncra Insectorutn. In 
1906 the Museum of Natural History at Brussels placed him 
in charge of those limnological studies for which he is best 
known. In pursuance of these he established a fresh-water 
biological laboratory at the Lake of Overmeire and a new jour 
nal, the Annalcs de Biologic Lacustrc. which has reached its 
tenth volume. Of the 57 papers (some unpublished) listed in 
his bibliography, 1 deals with Hydrachnids, 3 with insect his- 
tology and anatomy, 6 with Odonate larvae, 14 with adult 
Coleoptera, 2 with larvae of Coleoptera, 2 with Diptera, 1 with 
aquatic Hymenoptera. At the time of his death he had two 
works in preparation, one on La l'>i<<lo</ic dcs cau.r donees tor 
the Encyclopedic Scientifique of Doin et fils, Paris, the other 
Les Larvcs aquatiqucs dcs Inscctcs d'Europe, in collaboration 
with J.-A. Lestage and H. Schouteden. The first volume of 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 159 

the latter has appeared since his death, consisting of 987 page^ 
and 343 figures, and deals with the aquatic larvae of the Hem- 
iptera, Odonata, Ephetnerida. Plecoptera, Megaloptera. Plan- 
nipennia and Trichoptera. According to a note on page 32 of 
the Bulletin quoted, the second volume will treat of the L.epi- 
doptera, Coleoptera. Diptcra and technique. 

His biographer, writing of him as an intimate friend, de- 
clares him to have been a man thoroughly good, generous, 
enthusiastic over his work, who irresistibly attracted the sym- 
pathies of all. P. P. CAIAT.RT. 

The daily newspapers announced the death of Sir PATRICK 
MANSON, in London, April 8, 1922. fie rendered two import- 
ant services in ascertaining the mode of transmission of human 
diseases. The first was in 1878, when he discovered the man- 
ner of carriage of Filaria from man to man by mosquitoes.* 
thus, as Howard. Dyar and Knab state, becoming "the dis- 
coverer of the first recognized transfer of a disease organism 
by mosquitoes." The second was when he "first clearly for- 
mulated the hypothesis fof the role of carrier of malaria by 
mosquitoes] t. and it was largely due to his suggestion that 
Ross in Indian undertook to solve the problem" (Riley and 
Johannsen) . 

He was the son of fohn Manson. of Fingask, Aberdeen. 
was born October 3, 1844, was educated as a physician, 
and contributed to the literature of parasitology and tropical 
medicine. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, an 
honorary LL.D. of Aberdeen and of Hongkong, and an hon- 
orary Sc.D. of Oxford. In recent years he lived at The 
5iheiling, Clonbur, County Galway, Ireland. 

His son, Dr. P. Thurburn Manson, was one of two who 
offered to be bitten by malaria-infected mosquitoes from Rome, 
in testing the malaria-mosquito theory, and who developed 
characteristic malaria as a result. --P. P. CALVFKT. 

*The development of I'ilaria sanaitinis hnniinis. Medical limes and 
Gazette, London, II, p. 731, 1878. On the development of I<~ Ini-in 
sani/iiinis hominis and on the mosquito considered as a nurse. Journ. 
Linn. Soc. London, Zool., xiv, pp. 304-311, 1S7S. 

tHypothesis as to the life history of the malarial parasite outside tin- 
human hody. Lancet, London, 1896, ii, pp. 1715-1710. 


Dr. JOSEPH LANE HANCOCK, one of the leading American 
authorities on Orthoptera, died of heart disease in Chicago, 
March 12, 1922. Born in that city on April 12. 1864, it is said 
that he "had attained almost equal distinction as a physician, 
naturalist, landscape artist and as an author." 

In the study of Orthoptera. Dr. Hancock specialized on the 
Tettiginae (Acrydiinae) or "Grouse Locusts." His work on 
this group was equal in volume to, if not more extensive than, 
that of any other authority on the suhject. His scientific pub- 
lications, begun in 1895, continued until 1918. when press of 
work as a practicing physician forced him to abandon the 

His largest publications in chronological order, are : The 
Tettiyidac of North America, The Tcttigidae of Ceylon, a 
series of Studies of the Tefriginac in the Oxford University 
Museum and Indian Tetriginae. His collection of Acrydiinae. 
one of the largest in the world, has been kept in an exception- 
ally good state of preservation, and now forms a portion of 
the Hebard Collection, deposited at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, having been acquired by purchase. 

He was also the author of Nature Sketches in Temperate 
America (Chicago, McClurg & Co., 1911), "a popular account 
of insects birds and plants, treated from some aspects of their 
evolution and ecological relations," the last chapter being an 
"interpretation of environment as exemplified in the Orthop- 

Dr. Hancock was at one time Curator of the Chicago Ento- 
mological Society and Editor of its Occasional Memoirs. He 
was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science and of the Entomological Society of London. 

Always kind and liberal in co-operation with other students 
of the Orthoptcra, it is our regret that we knew Dr. Hancock 
only through infrequent correspondence. MORGAN HEBARD. 


Insert the word "catalogs" after "manuscript," page 118, 4th line from 
the bottom. 


Fine perfect specimens of this grand rare species are offered ; also O. 
chimaera Zelotypia staceyi, superb rarity many others. Largest stock of 
exotic Coleoptera, rarities and unnamed series. Also the most important 
books on Entomology in stock. 

Janson & Sons, Naturalists & Booksellers 44, Great Russell St., London, W.C. I. 

CA1 17 A large collection of butterflies Papilios 


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mounted and classified in three large cabinets. 

C. F. GROTri 

14 Poplar Place, New Rochelle, N. Y, 



Published quarterly. Containing original articles on Economic Entomology (illustrated ). Ann- 
ual Subscription in advance for Vol. xiii ( 1922), 155. post free ; separate parts 55. each, pest 
free. Prices of back parts on application. 


Published monthly. Containing reviews of current works on Economic Entomology throughout 
the world. Published in two series, "A" dealing with insect pests of cultivated plants, and 
"B' 1 dealing with insects conveying disease or otherwise injurious to man and animals 
Annual Subscription in advance for Vol. x ( 1922), Series "A" izs.; Series "B" 6s. post fret . 
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The Entomologist s Monthly Magazine. A journal devoted 
to general Entomology, started in 1864, and now edited by G. C. 
Cbampion.J. E. Collin, W. W. Fowler, R. W. Lloyd, G. T. Porritt 
and J. J. Walker. 

It contains descriptions of new genera and species in all orders 
(British and foreign) , life histories, reviews of new works, etc. Vol. 
LVIII (VIII of the 3d Series) was commenced in January, 1922 
The subscription for the 12 numbers is 15 shillings per annum, post 
free, to be sent to R. W. Lloyd, I, 5, Albany, Piccadilly, London, 
W. , England. For terms for advertisements apply to him also. 


From Colombia, South America: 

Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

" devilliersi 

From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes Hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) : 
Arrnandia Hdderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 56-58 West 23d Street 

JUNE, 1922 


Vol. XXXIII No. 6 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 





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VOL. XXXIII JUNE L _1922 No. (i 


Fall Notes on Clivina, with Descrip- 
tion of a New Species from the 
Pacific Coast ( Col., Carabidae). ... 161 

Cliamberlin A new Milliped of the 

Rosewall Insects of the Yellow Thistle 
( Hem., Col., Lepid., Dip., Hvm.). 176 

Weiss and West Notes on ihe Desmo- 
dium Leaf Miner, Pachyschelus lae- 

Genus Polyxenus from the Florida vigatus (Say) (Col.: Buprestidae) 180 

Keys 165 ; Nakahara On Anomalit-s in Wing 

Felt A new Gall Midge on Rushes 
(Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) 166 

Holland A few Notes on Distribution 
(Lepid., Orth., Blattidae) 168 

Cabrera Observations on Dibelona cu- 
bensis Brunner.a liitle-knownCuban 
Gryllacrid (Orth., Tettigoniidae).. 169 

Hough Observations on Two Mealy 
Bugs. Trionymustrifolii Forbes and 
Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrh. 
(Horn., Coccidae) 171 

Markings of Basilarchia astyanax 

Kab. ( Lepid., Rhop.: Nymphalidae) 183 
Editorial Collect Data First, Speci- 

mens Second ...................... 185 

The University of Michigan-William- 

son Expedition to Brazil ........... 186 

A Request for Exchanges with Russia. 186 
Entomological Literature .............. 187 

Doings of Societies The American En- 

tomological Society 

Notes on Clivina, with Description of a New Species 
from the Pacific Coast (Col., Carabidae). 

By H. C. FALL, Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. 

In rearranging parts of my collection to conform to the 
order in the new list, it became necessary to transfer my Cli- 
vinae to a new box. In so doing the species were examined 
somewhat critically, and certain errors in the last published 
table (by LeConte) were noted, to which it may be well to 
call attention. 

The genus Clii'ina, fortunately perhaps, has long escaped 
the attention of systematists, and except for the placing of 
collaris Hbst. as a synonym of fossor L., the species stand in 
the Leng List just as left by Dr. LeConte in the table pre- 
pared with others for the Brooklyn Bulletin in 1879. As for 
collaris and fossor, these two introduced forms, though closely 
allied are now considered distinct by the best European author- 
ities and are so recorded in the latest European Check List. 
Ganglbauer, in his Co1cof->tcni mn Mittclcuropa, gives the dis- 
tinguishing characters, of which the rufous c-lytra with black 
suture in collnris is an all-sufficient criterion. I'ossor is not 
so colored, the elytra being of nearly uniform tint, usually 



piceous, but varying to rufous. I have seen numerous exam- 
ples of collaris from Massachusetts, and a few of fossor from 

Briefly, the errors in the LeConte table are these collaris 
(and also fossor} has a spur near the outer tip of the middle 
tibia and should therefore have been tabulated with the species 
possessing that character. Striatopunctata has the clypeal out- 
line as well as the other characters of fcrrca,, etc., 
and should be included in the same group with them. Rnfa 
should stand between amcricana and month. It is interme- 
diate in size between these two, and differs in no way except 
color from black examples of like size which may be placed 
either with amcricana or month, according to personal judg- 
ment or caprice. Tt is highly probable that month, ntfa, amcri- 
cana and cordata represent nothing more than size and color 
variations of a single species. 

Of the characters used by LeConte in the table referred to, 
that of the spur near the outer tip of the middle tibia is of im- 
portance and is correctly used except in the case of collaris 
alluded to above. The meaning of the next leading character 
used in the table -"clypeus with lateral lobes" or "clypeus 
rounded at sides"- is not quite so easily interpreted. There 
are in reality three types of clypeal outline. In the first, rep- 
resented by dentipcs alone, the clypeus is bi-emarginate or 
bilobed at sides. In the species impressifrons to cordata inclu- 
sive the sides of the clypeus are uni emarginate, the posterior 
convex outline defining the lateral lobe. In the remaining 
species the structure differs from the preceding in that the 
anterior margin is but slightly advanced, leaving a very small 
notch or emargination at the angles, the lateral lobe thus occu- 
pying almost the entire side of the clypeus. 

Certain other characters, not mentioned or only vaguely 
alluded to by LeConte, are so definite and simple in their appli- 
cation as to make them well worthy of consideration. Classified 
according to the dorsal setigerous punctures of the elytra the 
species separate as follows : 

Elytra with five dorsal punctures . . dcnfipes 

Elytra with four dorsal punctures imt>rcssifnnis to cordata 

Elytra with two dorsal punctures striatopunctata to 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 163 

Or, the species may be grouped with equal definiteness by 
the anal ventral setigerous punctures. There are always four 
such punctures (two each side) regardless of sex, arranged as 
follows : 

Intermediate anal punctures mutually twice as distant as from the 
lateral ones dcntipes 

Anal punctures very nearly equally spaced. ... impressifrons to fossor 

Intermediate anal punctures widely distant and close to the lateral 
ones rnfa to cordata 

Intermediate anal punctures close together at the middle of the apical 
margin striatopunctata to stic/inulu 

The last group beginning with striatopunctata is again 
sharply delimited by a character of such importance that the 
failure of LeConte to mention it is difficult to explain. The 
lateral marginal line of the thorax here fails to attain the true 
base, but turning inward forms a pseudobasal margin at the 
summit of an abrupt declivity very much as in certain genera 
of Anthribidae. 

I would then divide our species of Clh'ina into four groups, 
giving each the name of its best known representative, as fol- 
lows : 

DENTIPES GROUP. Middle tibia with subapical external spur ; clypeus 
bi-emarginate at sides ; front thighs acutely dentate beneath apically : 
elytra 5-punctate ; intermediate anal setae twice as distant from each 
other as from the outer setae. Represented by dcntipes only. 

IMPRF.SSIFRONS GROUP. Middle tibia with subapical external spur; 
clypeus uni-emarginate at sides ; elytra 4-punctate ; intermediate anal 
setae approximate to the lateral ones. Includes impressifrons, tcxana, 
planicollis, pia'Ctulata, punctiticra. rubicunda, pallida, collaris, fossor. 

Of these, collaris and fossor may be recognized by their 
color : pallida by having the ventral surface in great part pol- 
ished (reticulato-alutaceous in all others) ; rubicunda by the 
very thick frnnt thighs, which are convex both above and be- 
neath and rather deeply sinuate apically beneath, also by the 
presence of diverging raised lines at the middle of the first ven- 
tral segment, these being otherwise present only in the aincn- 
cana group. The remaining species are closely allied and diffi- 
cult to distinguish, and it is rather probable that tr.vaiuis does 
not differ specifically from planicollis. 


AMERICANA GROUP. Middle tibia without subapical external spur ; 
clypeus uni-emarginate at sides ; elytra 4-punctate ; intermediate anal 
setae approximate and distant from the lateral ones ; first ventral seg- 
ment with diverging raised lines at middle. Includes analis, amcricana, 
tufa, morula and cordata. 

Analis is not known to me ; the remaining forms are appar- 
ently identical in all respects except color and size and may be 
varieties of a single species. 

BIPUSTULATA GROUP. Middle tibia without subapical spur; clypeus 
rounded at sides almost throughout ; prothorax with pseudobasal mar- 
ginal line continuing the side margins which do not attain the extreme, 
base ; elytra 2-punctate ; intermediate anal setae approximate. Includes 
stnatopunctata, fcrrca, conrc.ra, bipustitlata, marginipennis, fostica, 

Putzey's species are practically unknown to us. They may 
perhaps be recognized by LeConte's table, but I suspect will in 
part prove not to be valid. 

The following species in my collection is undescribed : 

C. oregona new species. 

Similar in form, size and general characters to punctulata, from 
which it differs as follows: The color is dark reddish brown to 
piceous brown, the prothoracic punctuation sparse, and so fine as to be 
barely perceptible; mentum strongly longitudinally carinate, the trans- 
verse posterior tumidity rectilinear; basal joint of protarsus without 
external dentiform prominence. In punctulata the color is bright red 
brown, prothorax distinctly punctulate, longitudinal carina of mentum 
feeble, the posterior transverse tumidity Insinuate behind, basal joint 
of protarsus with an external dentiform angulation. 

Six examples of oregona are before me, the length varying 
from 4.8 to 5.5 mm. The t\pc is from Corvallis. Oregon. 
Other examples are from Seattle, Wash. (Prof. O. B. John- 
son). All in my collection. 

The dentiform angulation on the outer side of the basal 
protarsal joint is a quite persistent feature peculiar to the spe- 
cies of the iinpressifrons group ; its absence in orcyoua is there- 
fore notable. Oregona may probably be safely determined by 
its locality label; the Calif ornian punctulata is the only other 
species known from the Pacific Coast region and is rare at 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 165 

A New Milliped of the Genus Polyxenus from the 

Florida Keys. 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
In January, 1919, Dr. Paul Bartsch took a Poly.vcnus either 
emerging from or taking refuge in the breathing pore of a 
Cerion on the Tortugas. Florida. The specimen apparently 
represents a new species which is here described. 

Polyxenus bartschi, sp. nov. 

The type specimen is not fully adult, being in the stage pos- 
sessing eight pairs of fascicles of lateral setae. It is in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

The dorsum is marked with a hroad longitudinal stripe along each 
side and a narrow median pale stripe. Setae of caudal pencil white as 

The eight articles of the antennae present and apparently fully devel- 
oped ; the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth articles respec- 
tively .04, .058, .05, .1, .05 and .02 mm. long, with the corresponding 
widths being .046, .05, .05, .058, .05 and .03 mm. The precise number of 
ocelli in the patch on each side of head was not determined because of 
the obscuring pigment. 

The major and more numerous setae of the head are relatively slender 
and flexible with the teeth long, slender and numerous, subdensely 
appressed ; the naked terminal lobe distally a little rounded. There 
are fewer short scales which are only four times, or less, as long as 
thick and are half or less the length of the long setae; their teeth are 
coarser and fewer in number. 

The setae of the lateral fascicles are similar to the major ones of 
the head, hut are mostly less flexible and with the lateral teeth usually 

The setae across the tergitcs are in general similar to the shorter 
setae or scales of the head ; mostly with seven or eight teeth in each 
lateral series, the terminal lobe with distal margin convex; mostly 
between four and five times longer than wide. 

In the caudal pencils there are two principal types of setae. There 
arc, firstly, the mostly peripheral setae very similar to those of the lateral 
fascicles excepting for their greater length. The greater portion of 
the pencils, however, is composed of much finer setae of \arying length 
which have subspatulate distal ends which are usually a little Ix-nt. 
X'one of the characteristic hooked setae, such as occur in /'. liuinnis 
and /'. fiisciciilutus. are present. 

Length, without caudal pencil. 2 mm. Length of caudal pencil, .66 
mm. Length of maximum setae of head, .2 mm.; of setae m' anterior 
paired fascicles, .23 mm.; of posterior paired fascicles, .28 mm.; of the 
dorsal setae or scales up to about .1 mm. 


A New Gall Midge on Rushes (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae). 

By E. P. FELT, Albany, New York. 

Very little is known of the host relations existing between 
gall midges and rushes, though the writer found a midge larva 
in the deformed fruit of a rush some years ago, but was unable 
to obtain the adult. The record given below is the first Amer- 
ican species reared from Jinicits. It is interesting to note that 
Houard in his monograph on The Plant Galls of Europe fails 
to list even one species from the Juncaceae. He records a 
number of species as having been reared from the Cyperaceae 
and in our tabulation of American species, 1 it will be noted that 
several species (4) have been obtained from plants in this 
family, while 33 have been reared from the grasses, Gramineae. 
The fauna of the last named is by no means thoroughly worked 
up and the probabilities are that careful collecting and rearing 
would result in material additions to our sedge-inhabiting forms 
and very likely some increase in the number of species occur- 
ring in rushes. 

Procystiphora junci n. sp. 

A series of these interesting midges was forwarded by Mr. 
W. H. Larrimer. West Lafayette, Indiana, accompanied by 
the statement that they resemble somewhat the Hessian Fly, as 
to appearance, the effect on the host plant and the two genera- 
tions annually occurring at about the same time as in the case 
of this wheat pest. The specimens were labeled, "reared from 
Jnncits dudlcyi, Centralia, 111., October 6, 1921, W. 1'.. Cart- 
wright, Collector, Centralia, No. 2111." 

In spite of the general resemblance of these midges to the 
Hessian Fly, there is a striking chitinization and infuscation 
of the basal segments of the ovipositor, likewise apparent in 
the type of the genus, namely P. coloradcnsis Felt. The above 
food habit record tends to confirm the opinion of Prof. Cock- 
erell to the effect that the host plant of the type of this genus 
is Carc.r. It would not be surprising if both species had a 
somewhat similar effect upon the host plant. 

$. Length 2 mm. Antennae (possibly of this sex, though not cer- 
1 1918, N. Y. State Mus. Bui., 200, p. 216. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 167 

tainly), about three-fourths the length of the body, sparsely haired, dark 
brown ; sixteen and possibly eighteen segments, the fifth with a stem 
about three-fourths the length of the basal enlargement, the latter with 
a length about twice its diameter, and a sparse subbasal whorl of short, 
stout setae, and a median whorl of much longer, curved setae; terminal 
segment compound, produced, with a length over three times its diam- 
eter, a distinct constriction near the distal third and a short, broadly 
triangular process apically. Palpi : first segment short, irregularly 
quadrate, the second smaller than the first, the third a little longer than 
llu- second, somewhat swollen distally, and the fourth one-half longer 
than the third, more slender. 

Mesonotum dark brown, the sub-median lines sparsely haired ; scu- 
tellum and postscutellum dark brown, sparsely haired, reddish brown; 
the distal segments distinctly swollen: genitalia dark brown; wings 
hyaline, sub-costa uniting with the margin at the basal half, the third 
vein just before the apex of the wing, the fifth at the basal third, its 
branch near the basal half; halteres reddish brown, pale yellow basally ; 
legs a nearly uniform dark brown ; claws moderately long, slender, 
strongly curved, minutely unidentate ; the pulvilli nearly as long as the 

Genitalia : basal clasp segment moderately long, stout ; terminal clasp 
segment as long as the basal clasp segment, rather stout ; dorsal plate 
long, deeply and triangularly emarginate, the lobes broadly rounded ; 
ventral plate rather long, somewhat deeply and narrowly emarginate, 
the lobes broadly rounded ; style rather long, stout, narrowly rounded 


$ . Length 2.5 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the abdomen, 
sparsely haired, very dark brown; 17 subsessile segments, the fifth with 
a length nearly twice its diameter, the subbasal whorl of setae rather 
short, weak ; the suhapical whorl somewhat long ; terminal segment pro- 
duced, with a length about four times its diameter and terminating in 
a somewhat slender, irregular apex. Palpi: first segment short, irregu- 
lar, the second quadrate, with a length about one-half greater than its 
width, the third nearh twice the length of the second, more slender, 
distinctly enlarged apically, the fourth twice the length of the second 
and more slender. 

Mr onotum very dark brown: scutellum, postscutellum and abdomen 
dark reddish brown, the last almost black at its extremity (really the 
basal segment of the ovipositor), the tip of the ovipositor honey yellow; 
uings hyaline; c<>sta dark brown, the third vein uniting with the margin 
a little before the apex of the wing, the fifth at the basal fourth, its 
branch near the basal half; halteres reddisli brown, yellowish basally 
and apically; leu- a nearly uniform dark brown; the claws rather long, 
moderately heavy, strongly curved, finely though distinctly unidentate; 
the pulvilli as long as the clawv 

Ovipositor when extended probably about as long as the abdomen, the 


basal segment apparently rather heavily chitinized and distinctly infus- 
rated, the seventh abdominal segment with irregular fuscous, mesal 
thickenings dorsally and ventrally, the posterior margins of these dis- 
tinctly produced laterally. 

Type Cecid. A. 3209, N. Y. State Museum. 

Described from a series of females and one broken male. 

A few Notes on Distribution (Lepid. ; Orth., Blattidae). 

By W. J. HOLLAND, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 


As the author of a couple of manuals, which have had wide 
circulation, I am in constant receipt of letters from all over 
the country informing me of the discovery of insects at places 
beyond the limits of distribution given in The Butterfly Book 
and The ]\loth Book. Some of these notes made by corre- 
spondents are of interest. I regret that in past years I have 
not always preserved them and cannot, therefore, refer to them 
at this moment. It has occurred to me, however, that it might 
be worth while to mention a few of those, which during the 
past twelve months have been brought to my attention, and 
which I find upon my desk. 


Euptoieta Claudia (Cramer) has been reported to me as found in 
Minnesota, the Dakotas and Alberta. 

Argynnis idalia (Drury) was formerly regarded as a rarity in the 
vicinity of Pittsburgh. The species has been taken rather commonly 
in recent years in Allegheny and Washington Counties, in south- 
western Pennsylvania. 

Vanessa j-album Boisduval and LeConte. This insect has recently 
been found quite abundantly in western Pennsylvania in the vicinity 
of Pittsburgh. 

Junonia coenia Hiibner. This species is reported, to me as occur- 
ring as far north as Minnesota and Dakota. 

Charis borealis (Grote & Robinson). This insect has been taken 
abundantly in the vicinity of Columbus, Ohio. It has never been 
taken, so far as I know, in western Pennsylvania in the same lati- 
tude as Columbus, which is rather remarkable. 

Nathalis iole Boisduval. This species ranges as far north as 
Davenport, Iowa. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 169 


Erebus odora (Linnaeus). The capture of specimens of this spe- 
cies has been reported to me from Boston, Mass.; Toronto, Ontario; 
Central Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Alberta. 

Thysania zenobia (Cramer). The capture of this moth has been 
reported to me recently from McPherson, Kansas. 

It is possible that the presence of these moths in northern 
localities, far removed from their southern metropolis, may in 
part be accounted for by transfer by railroads. The moths, 
hiding in freight cars beginning their run in southern Texas 
and Florida, may be carried far north, and then, escaping, be 
captured. I have an Ercbits odora taken at Leadville, Colorado, 
on July 4, in a snowstorm. It was sent me years ago by one 
of my correspondents. 


Panchlora cubensis Saussure. The Green Cuban Roach has been 
recorded from Indiana, Massachusetts, Vermont, Florida, and Texas. 
It is well established at Brownsville, Texas. It has been reported 
from Philadelphia (Rehn, Hebard) and Pittsburgh (Riky). It 
appears to have been introduced with bananas and other tropical 
fruit. My cook brought me a specimen the other day found to her 
horror in the kitchen. It probably found its way into the house from 
a fruit-store. This is the second record for Pittsburgh. The speci- 
men was promptly consigned to a cyanide bottle. It is unlikely that 
this species will become established in this locality. 

Observations on Dibelona cubensis Brunner, a little- 
known Cuban Gryllacrid (Orth., Tettigoniidae). 

By JOSE CABRERA, Cotorro, Cuba. 

The first time I found Dibcltuia cubensis was eight years 
ago, in Camoa, Havana Province. It was a very young speci- 
men hidden under a leaf fastened to a palm tree trunk. Later 
in opening some leaves fastened together, and which 1 believed 
contained a chrysalid, I was surprised to find a cricket-like 
insect in them. T remembered at once what Dr. Gundlacli said 
in his work on Cuban ( )rthoptera. about a locustid he found 
under leaves fastened to tree trunks in Yateras, < )riental De- 
partment of the island. 

The specimens found by me were young, so 1 kept searching 
for a while and found, in a hollow twig, a fully mature female. 


This I brought home, and put it in a glass jar with some leaves 
and fruit. Next day it appeared neatly enclosed in three leaves 
it had united. Then I knew I had Dibdona cnbcnsis I'runner, 
a very rare species with this curious habit. 

Sometimes the species is found a foot from the ground, at 
others high up in tall trees. It is very voracious, as once one 
of them ate a young Haplopns cnbcnsis Saussure and a Dcllia 
insulana Stal, which I had in the same jar with it. Sometimes 
the insect stayed enclosed in its house as long as six to seven 
days, but when disturbed it would move continuously up and 
down in the jar, jumping from side to side, and not falling to 
the bottom. Most of the young specimens I kept died during 
the moults. 

A mature specimen, found September 11, 1921, gave me 
opportunity for these notes. In making its house it began In- 
cutting the leaf to the required size, from the margin to the 
stem. The leaf was too long and the insect did not use two or 
three leaves as others did. Then it stood on the uncut side of 
the leaf, holding both sides of the leaf with the fore legs, by 
means of the tarsal claws ; the holding is done from the center 
of the leaf, not from the margin. When using two or three 
leaves the insect stands on the stronger one. Then one sees it 
act as if chewing something; it is making the mucilaginous 
paste. After a few seconds the mouth is applied to the margin, 
and a thread-like fluid is seen to issue therefrom. This thread 
is attached to the opposite margin and the operation is con- 
tinued, the labial palpi touching the threads and searching for 
openings and weak spots in the weaving. These are covered 
by forcing the leaf into position, where it is held by the threads. 
The insect's head goes regularly to and fro, stopping a while 
now and then to make more paste, then adjusting the margins 
again until the work is finished. When the leaf cover is com- 
pleted the insect's body (21 millimeters long) is hidden, but 
not its antennae, which are very long (110 to 115 millimeters). 
By turning two or three times around inside the house, the 
antennae are rolled around its body. 

Dibdona has an enemy, a hymenopterous parasite of the 
Microgastrine group, the larva of which feeds upon its body. 
With so many precautions jt is often a victim of a tiny an- 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 171 

Observations on Two Mealy Bugs, Trionymus trifolii 

Forbes and Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrh. 

(Horn., Coccidae). 

By W. S. HOUGH, State Crop Pest Commission, Winchester, 


There was a time not long- since when all mealy bugs were 
thought to he restricted feeders, that is, each species was 
thought to be limited to a single host plant or at most to very- 
few. Likewise, a single host plant harbored but one species. 
With this belief prevalent it is quite natural that when different 
mealy bugs were found on the same host they were considered 
different forms of the same species. As a result, cases of sea- 
sonal forms or seasonal dimorphism appeared in literature 
from time to time and were not openly questioned until Ferris 
(1918 a & b) presented evidence that probably all such cases 
involved two or more species. The history and literature of 
several typical cases is reviewed by Ferris in the articles re- 
ferred to. 

The first case of seasonal dimorphism was established by 
Davis (1894) in connection with his observations on the clover 
root mealy bug (Trionymus trifolii. Forbes). He observed a 
"winter form" which was an "oval, plump, mealy, egg-like 
object" and a "summer form" having "white waxy filaments 
which project out from the body." Both of these "forms" 
were studied by the writer at Columbus, Ohio, and were kept 
under observation from October, 1920. until June, 1921. A 
summary of the information obtained follows. The study was 
made under the direction of Dr. Herbert Osborn. (i. F. Fer- 
ris, of Stanford University, and Harold Morrison, of the 
Bureau of Entomology, examined specimens of Pscitciococcns 
maritimus Ehrh., the so-called "summer form." The ants 
were identified by Dr. W. M. Wheeler. 

Trionymus trifolii Forbes. 

In life the adults vary from 2 mm. to 3 mm. in length, are oval, 
plump, and when viewed laterally appear somewhat cylindrical. Tin- 
flesh-colored body is covered 1>y a white wax powder. There is but 
a single pair of white caudal tassels which usually vary from one-eighth 
to one-fifth of the length of the ho<ly. TlitM' tassels are frequently 


curled and lie so close to the body as to be easily overlooked. The short 
antennae are inconspicuous, about .15 mm. long, seven-segmented and 
straw-yellow in color. The legs are very short and straw-colored. 
Although the adults are sluggish the young are active and move 
from one part of the plant to another. At birth the young are .4 mm. 
long, a bright pale yellow, flat rather than plump and cylindrical, have 
six-segmented antennae and legs which in proportion to the body are 
much more conspicuous than the legs of the adult. 

Adult specimens were placed on the roots of small clover 
plants which had been transplanted into straight-edged vials. 
A single specimen was placed in each vial and the vial wrapped 
with black paper. Water was introduced from one to three 
times daily as the needs of the plant required. Eight adults 
brought from a clover field on February 14 began giving birth 
to young one month later, March 12 to 15. The total number 
of young produced was recorded daily for two individuals, 
one produced 131 larvae in 23 days and the other 162 larvae in 
17 days. The other six adults gave birth to young over a 
period averaging 17.8 days and all died within three or four 
days after the last young appeared. 

Within a short time, a few hours to a day, after birth the 
young left the flimsy cottony mass beneath the body of the 
mother and migrated to the stems and leaves where feeding 
began. About one week (20 individuals averaged 7.7 days) 
later the first molt occurred and within another week (28 indi- 
viduals averaged 6.8 days) the second molt occurred, after 
which most of the larvae migrated down to the upper roots, 
on the crown and beneath the bracts around the base of the 
stems. Because of this migration it was with difficulty that 
only four individuals were followed through the third larval 
stage which averaged 12.2 days. These were kept under obser- 
vation for five weeks after the third molt, when the writer left 
Columbus. During this time they had assumed the appearance 
of adults except for reduced size, being only 1.7 mm. long. 
Overwintering adults were from 2 mm. to 2.5 mm. in length 
and before young were produced in the spring the average 
length was increased to 3 mm. No males were observed. 

In October adults, but no young, were common on the roots 
of clover two years old or older. They were always asso- 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 173 

dated with the brown garden ant (I.asius ni</cr Linn. var. 
americouns Emery) wliich had mined tunnels along all of the 
roots on which the mealy bugs were feeding. December 13 
was the last fall date when any were found on the roots, and 
not until early in March did they again appear on the roots. 
By the last of March they were easily found within an inch 
of the surface and during the first week in May they began to 
produce young, which within a few hours' time deserted the 
subterranean life to pass the first larval stage, and in some 
cases the second larval stage, on the stems and leaves. Con- 
tinual search throughout the winter revealed the fact that all 
of the adults had been collected by the ants and placed in spe- 
cially constructed chambers from 10 inches to 12 inches below 
the surface. As spring approached the ants replaced them on 
the roots, bringing them nearer the surface as the weather be- 
came warmer. Not only did the ants extend their numerous 
tunnels along the roots of clover but sometimes included in 
their tunnel system the roots of dandelion, plantain and blue 
grass, on all of which the mealy bugs were found feeding. 
Mr. P. R. Lowery informs me he found this same species on 
sunflower roots. 

In order to more closely observe the relationship existing 
between the ants and the mealy bugs three ant colonies, whose 
nests were about the roots of clover, were transferred to the 
insectary. The plants in two of the nests were then killed by 
keeping them very closely clipped. In both instances the ants 
tunneled to the living roots of surrounding clover plants, which 
were not less than eight inches away, and transferred their 
mealy bugs to the living roots. At the same time ten mealy 
bugs were placed on the roots of a living clover plant, which 
was then kept closely clipped. Although this dying plant was 
entirely surrounded by living plants not over eight inches away, 
all of the mealy bugs died with the dying plant. \ repetition 
of this gave the same result and in both tests nothing but loose 
earth was between the living and dying rooN. The mealy bui^ 
have never been found unattended by ants and it seems they 
have ceased foraging for themselves. ( )n the other hand, the 
ants depend on the profuse honey dew as one of their chief 


Honey dew is produced freely. After the third molt it was 
necessary to remove the colorless liquor daily from the speci- 
mens which had been placed in vials. Some of the adults from 
which the honey dew was not removed finally perished in the 
viscous mass. 

Certain factors as humidity and temperature no doubt deter- 
mine the movements of the ants with their mealy bugs. One 
cloudy morning in November the ants in the third nest, which 
had been transferred from a clover field several weeks before, 
moved their 24 mealy bugs over a surface path from the nest 
in a flower pot to a newly constructed tunnel in a bean bed two 
feet away. After watching this transfer a careful examina- 
tion of the new tunnel revealed all of the mealy bugs stored in 
three cells. Three days later the sun was shining and the ants 
carrying their mealy bugs returned over the same path to the 
clover roots in the flower pot. Both movements took place at 
8 A. M. 

Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrh. 

At various times during the fall months and frequently dur- 
ing the spring months the "flat" mealy bug with lateral "fila- 
ments which project out from the body" was found associated 
with the clover root mealy bug. As already stated, this "sum- 
mer form" proved to be none other than the Baker mealy bug 
(Pseudococcus I'lai'itiiiuts Ehrh.) which Ferris has reported 
from the Pacific coast (1918). New York (1918), Florida 
(1919). England (1919) and Lower California (1921). 

During the progress of this study in Ohio it was taken from 
sycamore, elder, osage orange and the roots of clover and in 
Virginia it has since been found ovipositing on the green bark 
of apple trees. On two occasions it was ovipositing in the stem 
end of apples. Mr. P. R. T.owerv, who has collected mealy 
bugs in Ohio for several years, informs me that he has collected 
it from the following additional hosts: Flowering dogwood, 
roots of goldenrod, hackberry, hazelnut. hickory, maple. Rho- 
dodendron maximum and wild cherry. In the botanical green- 
house at Ohio State University it ranks second to Psendococcns 
citri Risso as a mealy bug pest. Tn this greenhouse it was 
found on 26 different host plants. The common name, "omni- 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 175 

vorous mealy bug," which was once aplly applied to this insect, 
is not a misnomer. It is now recorded from 80 hosts and the 
list is far from complete. In the Shenandoah valley of Vir- 
ginia it far outnumbers the clover root mealy bug on the roots 
of clover, but in central Ohio the latter was more abundant. 

In life this species is very easily distinguished from the clover root 
mealy bug. The adults vary from 2 mm. to 6 mm. in length, width 
approximately half the body length, elongate oval when viewed dorsally 
and somewhat flattened from a lateral view. The reddish -brown body 
is covered with a white wax powder and around the body margin are 
17 pairs of lateral tassels or filaments, which increase in length toward 
the posterior end, the caudal pair being from one-half to two-thirds as 
long as the body. The eight-segmented antennae are about one-fifth as 
long as the body and similar in color. The legs are slightly lighter. 

Immature forms have the general appearance of the adults. First 
and second stage larvae have six-segmented antennae and larvae of the 
third stage have seven-segmented antennae. The caudal tassels make 
their appearance in the first larval stage and late in the second stage are 
nearly as long as those of the adult. Except for reduced size third 
stage larvae are similar to the adults. 

The males are minute winged forms, 1.3 mm. in length, with ? 
white pair of caudal tassels equal to two-thirds the length of the body 
They are active fliers, without functional mouthparts, and live for a 
few days only. 

Since the life history has been studied in California (Clausen, 
1915) a brief summary of observations made under Ohio con- 
ditions is given here. Specimens and eggs transferred from 
sycamore to clover were reared on the latter in the insectarv, 
where the temperature fluctuated from 45 degrees to 90 degrees 
Fahrenheit. The complete life cycle from egg to egg averaged 
85.5 days for six individuals. As spring approached this time 
was shortened. Winter was passed in every stage of develop- 
ment. As cold weather approached every stage of development 
was retarded, the immature forms and adults alike became very 
sluggish and inactive. None were ever found stored in ant 
nests. Kggs collected on December 1 and kept in a shaded 
place outdoors did not hatch until the middle of March. 

Although found associated with the clover root mealy bug 
on the roots of clover, the ants rarely carried this species about. 
\Yhcn a colony was disturbed the ants lust no time in carrying 
the clover root mealy bug to a place of safety, but the Baker 


mealy bug was usually left to shift fur itself. The latter does 
not produce honey dew as profusely as the former. 

When disturbed or handled rather roughly both species would 
eject from one to four dorsal globules over the location of the 
dorsal ostioles. When the ants touched these liquid globules 
they were invariably repelled while at the same time the anal 
secretion of honey dew was always eagerly accepted. As a 
rule honey dew was ejected in response to a gentle stroke of a 
stiff hair or' needle, but when the treatment became too severe 
the dorsal globules were suddenly ejected, the ostiole nearest ttvj 
point of disturbance being the first to respond. 

CLAUSEN, C. B. 1915. The Mealy Bugs of Citrus Trees. Univ. of 

Cal. Exp. Sta. Bull. 238, pp. 26-30. 
D.wis, G. E. 1804. Mealy Bugs and Their Allies. Insect Life 7: 

1804. Insects That Are Common But Xot Destructive. Mich. 

Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 116, pp. 58-60. 
FERRIS, G. F. 1918. (a) The California Species of Mealy Bugs. 

Stanford Univ. Publication, Univ. Series, pp. 48-40. 
1918. (b) The Alleged Occurrence of a Seasonal Dimorphism in 
the Females of Certain Species of Mealy Bugs. Entomological 
News, 20:349-352. 

1910. Observations on Some Mealy Bugs. Jour. Econ Ent. 12:293. 

1921. Report of a Collection of Coccidae from Lower California. 

Stanford Univ. Publication, Biological Sciences, 1. No. 2, p. 83. 

Insects of the Yellow Thistle (Hem., Col., Lepid., 

Dip., Hym.). 

By O. W. ROSEWALL, Louisiana State University. 

Baton Rouge, La. 

Practically throughout the entire state of Louisiana one can 
find the plants of the Yellow Thistle (Caniitits spinosissiimis 
Walt..) growing at some time during the year, and in the south- 
ern part of the state the prickly green leaves may be found 
during the whole year, except when heavy frosts destroy them. 
In the spring, during the flowering season, the}- are very notice- 
able, especially in pastures and along the roadside where they 
stand as sentinels because the cattle have eaten the surrounding 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 177 

vegetation. The following statements taken from I'.ritton and 
Brown's Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada 
give the technical description of the plant : 

Biennial or perennial, somewhat wooly when young, but becoming 1 
glabrate ; stem branched, leafy. 2 ft. to 5 ft. high. Leaves green 
both sides, lanceolate or oblong in outline, sessile and clasping or the 
basal ones short-petioled and somewhat spatulate pinnatifid into tri- 
angular or broader, spinulose-margined and prickle-tipped, entire or 
dentate lobes ; heads involucrate by the upper leaves, 2 to 4 inches broad, 
\ 1 A to \ l /2 inches high; bracts of the involucre narrowly lanceolate, 
roughish and ciliate, long-acuminate, unarmed ; flowers pale yellow, 
yellowish, or occasionally purple. 

In moist or sandy soil, Maine to Pennsylvania, Florida and Texas. 
Abundant along the edges of salt-meadows in New York and New 
Jersey. May-August, or earlier in the South. 

In Louisiana this plant is attractive to very few animals; 
however, certain insects may be found feeding on or visiting 
this plant. The collections of these insects* were made by the 
author in the vicinity of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, including the 
levee along the Mississippi River, and all dates in this paper 

ai'e of the year 1920. 


Acanthocephala declivis Say. (Coreidae.) Mar. 29. Several speci- 
mens taken on leaves. May 4. Numerous. 

Agallia constricta Van D. (Cicadellidae.) Mar. 29. Few. 

Euschistus bifibulus P. B. (Pentatomidae.) Mar. 29. Common. 

Euschistus ictericus L. Mar. 29. One specimen taken. 

Euschistus servus Say. Alar. 28. Common. April 20. Numerous, 
copulating. May 4 and 20. Common. Specimens practically 
on every plant. 

Euschistus tristigmus Say. Alar. 28. Two specimens. 

Entylia concisa \Yalk. (Alembracidae.) Mar. 29. Common. 

Leptoglossus phyllopus Linn. (Coreidae.) Alar. 28 and 29. Nu- 
merous all over plants. 

Myzus braggii Gillette. (Aphididae.) April 8. Some of the plants 
almost covered with this aphid. 

Nezara viridula L. (Pentatomidae.) Mar. 29. Few. April 8. 

Phymata wolfii Stal. ( Phymatidae.) April 8. Occasional specimen- 
found in (lowers. 

Repipta taurus Fab. (Reduviidae.) April 20. One specimen. 

* The author is indebted to the following for some identifications: 
Dr. J. M. Aldrich, Dr. H. G. Dyar, W. L. McAtee, H. L. Viereck, 



Acmaeodera tubulus Fabr. (Buprestidac.) April 29. One speci- 
men in flower. 

Anthonomus suturalis Lee. (Curculionidae.) April 20. One speci- 
men in flower. 

Aphelogenia vittata Fab. (Carabidae.) Mar. 29. In axil of leaf. 

Baris dicipula Csy. (Curculionidae.) Mar. 29. Few in axil of 

Bruchus obtectus Say. (Bruchidae.) Mar. 29. Single specimen 
on leaf. 

Calandra oryzae L. (Curculionidae.) April 8. Few in axil of leaves. 

Chalcodermus aeneus Bob. (Curculionidae.) Mar. 29. One speci- 
men in axil of leaf. 

Chariessa pilosa Forst. (Lampyridae.) Mar. 29. Several speci- 
mens on leaves. 

Chauliognathus marginatus Fab. (Lampyridae.) Mar. 29. One or 
two specimens on each plant. April 1. Very numerous and 

Coccinella sanguinea L. (Coccinellidae.) Mar. 28, Alay 4 and April 
1. Occasionally seen on all plants and numerous on those in- 
fested with aphids. 

Diabrotica balteata Lee. (Chrysomelidae.) April 1. Few. Feed- 
ing on leaves. 

Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv. Feb. 4. Two specimens feeding on 
leaves. April 8. One or more specimens on every plant in- 

Disonycha glabrata Fab. (ChrysomeHdae.) April 8. One speci- 
men taken in axil of leaf. 

Disonycha quinquevittata Say. April 1. One specimen on leaf. 

Drasterius elegans Fab. (Elateridae.) Mar. 29. Few. 

Euphoria sepulchralis Fab. (Scarabaeidae.) April 20. This beetle 
is found in practically all mature flowers and occasionally two 
or three specimens may be removed from one head. They bur- 
row deep in the flowers. 

Lebia marginicollis Dej. (Carabidae.) April 8. One specimen on 


Lebia viridis Say. April 8. One specimen on leaf. 
Lema sayi Crotch. (Chrysomelidae.) April 8. One specimen in 

axil of leaf. 
Limonius auripilis Say. (Elateridae.) April 20. One specimen on 


Lina scripta Fab. (Chrysomelidae.) Mar. 29. Occasional speci- 
mens found in axils of leaves. 

Megilla maculata Dej. (Coccinellidae.) Mar. 28. Common. 
Myochrous denticollis Say. (Chrysomelidae.) Mar. 29. Common 
in axil of leaves. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 179 

Pyropyga decipiens Harr. (Lampyridae.) May 4. Several speci- 
mens taken in flowers. 
Statira gagatina Mels. (Lagriidae.) April '20. One specimen in 

Uloma mentalis Horn. (Tenebrioniclae.) Mar. 29. One specimen 

on leaf. 

Autographa biloba Stephens. (Noctuidae.) Caterpillar collected on 

April 8 while feeding on the leaves. Reared in insectary and 

moth emerged April 20. 
Homoeosoma electellum Hulst. (Pyralidae.) Caterpillar collected 

on May 21 while feeding in base of bud. Reared in insectary 

and moth emerged June 2. 
Phlyctaenia ferrugalis Hbn. (Pyralidae.) Caterpillar collected 

April 8 while feeding on leaves. Reared in insectary and moth 

emerged April 23. 


Carphotricha culta Wd. (Trypetidae.) When present they may 

be found resting on the various parts of the plant. April 8. 

Common. May 17. Reared several adults from pupae which 

had been taken from the interior of the base of the dried up 

Chrysops flavidus Wd. (Tabanidac.) April 30. One specimen 

taken on flower. 
Eutreta sparsa Wd. (Trypetidae.) May 21. Occasional specimens 

on flowers. 
Dilophus orbatus Say. (Bibionidae.) April 8 and 20. Numerous 

on all parts of plant. 

Hydrotaea houghi Malloch. (Anthomyidae.) April 20. One speci- 
men taken on flower. 
Lucilia sericata Meig. (Muscidae.) April 8 and 20. Common on 


Phormia regina Meig. (Muscidae.) April 8. Common on flowers. 
Pseudopyrellia caesariana Meig. (Muscidae.) April 20. Common 

on flowers. 
Rhamphidia flavipes Macquart. (Tipulidae.) Mar. 29. Very nu- 

nu-rous. Ofter .10-7.1 individuals on a single plant would have 

a synchronic motion, moving the bodies up and down as if the 

legs were springs. 
Sarcophaga quadrisetosa Coq. (Sarcophagidae.) April 20. One 

specimen taken on flower. 
Tipula sp. ? (Tipulidae.) Mar. 29. A few specimens taken among 

the numerous R. fltirifics. 
Trypeta palposa I.oew. (Trypetidae.) April 20 and 22. Common. 

Reared adults from pupae collected with the pupae of C. ciiltn 

Wd. from interior of mature flower buds. 


Apis mellifica Linn. (Apiclae.) April i. An occasional bee in the 

flowers, but at no time have they been numerous. 
Agapostemon virescens Fab. (Halictidae.) April 20. Common on 


Bremus pennsylvanicus DeGeer. (Apidae.) April 1. Occasional. 
Camponotus pennsylvanicus DeGeer. (Formicidae.) April 20. A 

single winged specimen taken on leaf. 

Halictus ligatus Say. (Halictidae.) April 20. Occasional. 
Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr. (Formicidae.) Common at all times 

on plants along river. 

Megachile brevis Say. (Megachilidae.) Mar. 29. Occasional. 
Oxystoglossa sp ? (Halictidae.) April 20. Three specimens on 

Xylocopa micans LeP. (Xylocopidae.) April 1. Occasional. 

No doubt there are many more insect visitors and insect 
enemies of this plant than are listed in this paper for this local- 
ity, and the list would increase with the inclusion of more ter- 
ritory, but the author feels that this list may lead others to 
watch this plant more carefully. 

In concluding it is well to state that there are other animals 
who visit or live in the vicinity of this plant, c. g., under the 
decaying leaves at the base are usually to be found sow-bugs, 
millipedes, centipedes and snails. The snails are often numer- 
ous on the plants near the river. 

Notes on the Desmodium Leaf Miner, Pachyschelus 
laevigatus (Say) (Col. : Buprestidae). 

By HARRY B. WEISS and ERDMAN WEST. New Brunswick. 

New Jersey. 

This member of the Buprestidae which ranges from south- 
eastern Canada to Florida and west to Iowa is common 
throughout New Jersey and can be found from the last of 
May until the first week of July on and in the vicinity of 
Mciboinia canadcnsis (L.) (Desmodium canadcnse). Blatch- 
ley records the adults on the foliage of black gum and the 
flowers of black haw, milkweed, etc., and Chambers records it 
as mining Dcsmodhim. At Rutherford, New Jersey, we found 
it mining the leaves of Desmodium pendula. At Fairlawn. 
New Jersey, adults were numerous on Lcspcdcza capitata, and 

xxxiii, '22] 



at Boonton, New Jersey, mines were noted on Lespedcza bi- 
color, but it is not known definitely if they were the mines of 
laevigatus. At Monmouth Junction. New Jersey, several clumps 
of Meibomia canadcnsis growing along a railroad embankment 
were heavily infested by P. laevigatus (Say) and the following 
notes are the results of observations made for the most part at 
this place during 1921. 

Adults appear about the last week of May and first week of 
June and feed on the upper surfaces of the leaves, leaving 
nothing but the lower epidermis which becomes reddish and 
in the course of time somewhat ragged due to the tissue drying 
and breaking. Copulation takes place during the last half of 
June, and' by the first week of July small larvae can be found. 
The eggs are inserted in a little pocket made usually in the 
lower surface near the edge of the leaf. The subcircular, 
nearly flat, jelly-like egg is deposited under a thin layer of 
tissue. Both the tissue above and below the egg are pushed 
out slightly and this results in somewhat flat, oval-like blister 
or swelling which is visible on both leaf surfaces. The tissue 
over the egg on the lower leaf surface becomes dry and whitish, 
while the upper surface of the blister becomes somewhat red- 






The mine is started from the egg pocket and later extended 
in a somewhat irregular and linear manner. By the middle of 
July most of the larvae are nearly three-quarters grown and 
by the last of July many are full grown and the mines are com- 
pleted. On the upper leaf surface the mines appear as dry, 
brown, irregularly linear areas. A few are blotch-like. The 
number of mines in a leaf varies from one to three, but is 
usually only one. 

When the greenish larva is full grown it hollows out a cir- 
cular cavity at the end of the mine. Such cavities are about 
five or six millimeters in diameter. In this place it constructs 
a circular, somewhat flat, thin, tough, parchment-like cocoon 
about four millimeters in diameter. These cocoons push out 
the upper and lo\ver leaf tissues somewhat into comparatively 
large blister-like swellings. By the first week cf August all 
of the larvae are in these cocoons. At this time the tissue over 
the linear mines starts to break up and this, together with the 
feeding which took place earlier in the season, cause the leaves 
to turn entirely brown and start to curl up toward the midrib. 

After the larva enters its cocoon it shrinks longitudinally 
into a semiquiescent, compact, prepupal stage, in which it re- 
mains until the following spring, when it transforms to a pupa. 
The prepupal stage is long and lasts almost from the first of 
August until the following May. By the first week in Sep- 
tember the cocoon with the dried leaf tissue over it somewhat 
resembles a Dcsmodhun seed in color and shape. Later the 
leaves containing the cocoons and in fact all of the leaves fall 
to the ground and here the prepupa passes the winter. 

Egg. Width, 0.5 mm. Subcircular, flat, sides slightly convex ; 
chorion apparently smooth ; transparent when first laid, later becoming 
translucent and whitish. The egg resembles a flattened globule of 
water, but of thicker consistency. 

Larva. Length 6 to 7 mm. Width across middle of body about 
1.7 mm. Flattened, spindle-shaped, tapering both ways from about 
the middle, more acutely posteriorly; each segment slightly convex 
dorsally and ventrally ; body deeply notched, composed of thirteen 
well-defined segments; legs absent; ocelli absent; color light green, 
contents of alimentary canal sometimes showing as median dark green 
line ; first segment narrower than second ; first segment with well- 
defined, large, subquadrate plate on dorsal and ventral surfaces, dorsal 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 183 

plate apparently smooth, ventral plate bearing transverse rugosities ; 
head small, retracted into first segment; antennae three-jointed; labrum 
comparatively large, protruded ; mandibles short, strong, somewhat 
spoon-shaped, bifid at apex; maxillary palpi two-jointed; labium some- 
what protruded ; spiracles, one large one on each side of second seg- 
ment and a smaller one on each anterior dorso-lateral surface of seg- 
ments four to eleven. The embryonic larva appears to be more 
characteristically "buprestid" in shape. Viewed through the transparent 
nvering, the anterior third of the body is wide and flat and the 
remaining two-thirds narrow and tail-like, folded against anterior 
third. After hatching it becomes oval. 

Pupa. Length about 3 mm. Width about 1.6 mm. Color whitish; 
shape oval, like that of adult. Abdomen terminated by a pair of 
minute tubercles ; remainder of body apparently devoid of hairs or 

Adult. Pachyschclus lacrifiatus. This was described by Say in 
1836 (Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. vi, p. 164). The original description 
was recently published by Nicolay and Weiss in their review of the 
igenus Pachyschelus (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. xxviii, p. 140, 1920) 
;>nd need not be repeated here. 

On Anomalies in Wing Markings of Basilarchia 
astyanax Fab. (Lepid., Rhop. : Nymphalidae). 

By WARO NAKAHARA, New York City. 

Among some fifty specimens of Basilarchia astyancix Fab. 
(=- Limcnitis Ursula Godt.) collected by me at Elmhurst, Long 
Island (near New York City) during the early part of August, 
1921, two interesting aberrant specimens have been found. 
In one there is a complete submarginal row of red spots to the 
hindwing, upperside, exactly as in B. arthcmis Dru. The speci- 
men is a male with appearance entirely typical of astyana.v. 
excepting the character just mentioned. In the other, a female 
specimen, there are elongated conspicuous red patches, one in 
each interspace, on the underside of the hindwing. This speci- 
men appears typical of astyana.v, as far as the upperside is con- 
cerned. Needless to say that almost every intergradation has 
been found between the typical astyana.v and the two extremes 
here described. 

It is well known that in form proscrpina Kdw. of arthcmis 
the white bands are often completely obsolete, thus closely re- 
sembling ast \ana.\-. The only difference between the two spe- 
cies then consists of the presence in arthcmis and the absence 


m astyana.v of the red spots on the upperside of the hindwing. 
Therefore I would have referred the first specimen described 
above to R. arthcmis f. proscrpina Edw., if it were not -for the 
fact that the specimen was found in company with numerous 
examples of astyana.v and not of arthcmis. Besides, as far as 
I am aware, arthemis has not been found to occur in the vicin- 
ity of New York City. 

The occurrence of a proscrpina-like form within a popula- 
tion of astyana.v, which is not mixed with arthcmis, is rather 
interesting. This fact, coupled with the well-known variability 
of arthcmis itself and the geographical distribution of the two 
butterflies, seems to suggest that they represent two local races 
( sub-species) of a single species : B. arthemis arthcmis, the 
northern, and B. arthemis astyanax, the southern race. 

Another point that might be brought up in connection with 
the variability of the reddish markings in astyana.v is the ques- 
tion of mimicry in the genus Basilarchia. The well-known 
resemblance of B. ar chip pus to Danais (Anosia) plc.vippus, 
long believed to be a case of mimicry, has come in recent years 
to be looked upon with much skepticism. There has been no 
positive ground for the hypothesis of mimicry to begin with, 
and in the case of archippus especially it has been shown that 
in the ancestral form, B. arthcmis, which archippus is sup- 
posed to have sprung from, the reddish markings show no 
such wide variability as called for by the hypothesis of gradual 
change by natural selection. That astyana.v shows much varia- 
tion in its reddish markings would seem to open a path for the 
hypothesis, which, however, does not seem to meet the condi- 
tion. For the past three years, in the vicinity of New York 
City, archipp-us has been observed more commonly than plcx- 
ippus. The time of appearance, too, seems to be different in 
the two species, they being seldom seen flying at the same time. 
MoreO'ver, of the two Basilarchias occurring in this region, 
the "unprotected" astyana.v is by far commoner than the sup- 
posedly protected archippus, A question arises : Does archip- 
pus derive any benefit from its resemblance to plc.vippus? 
With these facts at hand, it might be well to consider if ar- 
chippus is so different in the markings from other congeneric 
forms as to require some special explanation. Is not Vanessa 
antiopa, for instance, different enough from other Vanessas 
to demand a special hypothesis to account for its unique color- 
ation ? 

It is not within the scope of this short note to go into this 
question any deeper. Suffice it to say that, while astyana.v 
shows wide range of variability in the reddish element of its 
wing markings, this fact by itself offers no argument for the 
supposed mimetic nature of the coloration of archippus. 



Collect Data First, Specimens Second. 

When this number of the NEWS reaches its readers the col- 
lecting season will already have been under way for some 
weeks. Indeed some kind of entomological collecting is pos- 
sible at almost all seasons of the year. It is, therefore, never 
too late to remind collectors that in most cases the data which 
they may obtain with their specimens (if they will) are more 
important and more valuable than the animals (insects) them- 
selves. To be sure, as an illustration of morphology or of a 
taxonomic unit of some sort, a specimen, unaccompanied by 
any data as to its habitat, its time of occurrence, its relations 
to its surroundings, has a certain value, but from any other 
viewpoint such a naked object is useless. All of the most in- 
teresting sides of entomology, of biology, are based upon the 
observations made in connection with the living thing and its 
surroundings, and the more completely these are recorded in 
connection with the specimens the better. 

Dr. A. G. Ruth ven, in his Report of the Director of The 
Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan, for the 
year ending June 30, 1921. makes a strong and interesting 
appeal for "Geography in Museums of Zoology," saying among 
other things : 

Specimens accompanied by geographic data are more valuable for 
taxonomic investigations than those without this information, . . such 
data arc indispensable for geographic studies, ... it is an anachronous 
practice to continue the piling up of records of a kind once thought to 
be adequate but now known to be inadequate for the purposes which 
they should serve. 



The University of Michigan- Williamson Expedition to Brazil. 

Mr. Jesse H. Williamson's letters from February 13 to March 1 
state that Captain Strohm and he were still at Porto Velho, Brazil 
(see the NEWS for April, page 104). There was much rain and the 
opinion was expressed that there would be no collecting along or near 
the big rivers till they dropped 30 or 40 feet. On March 1 they esti- 
mated their collections of insects as comprising 2000 specimens of 
Odonata of S3 species and a few ants, beetles, grass-hoppers, crane- 
flies and cicadas; also a few spiders. 

On March 5 they left Porto Velho by the Madeira-Mamore Railway 
for Abuna, 220 kilometers to the southwest, in the State of Matto 
Grosso. This place is given as Abunan on the National Geographic 
Society's map ; its official name is Presidente Marquez ; it likewise is 
on the Madeira River. At first there were only light showers here, 
but after a week heavy rains fell putting even the woods trails a foot 
or more under water. 

On March 15, Drs. Mann, Pierson and White of the Mulford Explor- 
ation arrived in Abuna, on their homeward way, and continued their 
journey to Porto Velho the next day. A "gab fest" between the two 
expeditions is reported. 

In spite of the unfavorable weather their Odonata numbered 2945 
specimens on March 14 and 3616 on March 26. 

On March 27 they continued up the railway to Villa Martinho, where 
there is no hotel as at Porto Velho and at Abuna, and found quarters 
in a restaurant. Villa Martinho is 93 kilometers from Abuna. In these 
river towns the railway is the only foot highway. 

A Request for Exchanges with Russia. 

The Permanent Bureau of Ail-Russian Entomo-Phytopathological 
Congresses, Liteyny, 37-39, Room 59, Petrograd, Russia, desires : 

1. To exchange printed matter (published since 1914) on ento- 
mology, phytopathology, mycology and zoology, with American Col- 
leagues, Scientific Societies, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Museums 
of Natural History, Periodicals, etc. 

2. To receive from American publishers catalogues and specimen 
numbers of various publications on the above mentioned subjects. 

3. To receive catalogues and price-lists from American firms dealing 
in various apparatus and chemicals used in combating the plant injurers. 

The above mentioned Permanent Bureau has supplied credentials to 
Mr. D. N. Borodin (who also represents the Bureau of Applied Botany 
of the Russian Agricultural Scientific Committee, Petrograd) to collect 
literature in this country and give all the necessary information t 
American Colleagues, concerning the entomological work conducted in 
Russia and to organize an exchange of literature. 

Air. Borodin will accept all packages of books, bulletins, etc., for 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 187 

Russia, if they will be addressed to him at No. 110 West 40th Street, 
Room 1603, New York City. 

[The Editors are aware that there has been difficulty in sending 
and receiving scientific papers to and from Russia, and will be glad 
if Mr. Borodin succeeds in reopening communication with that country.] 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology. Series P, 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

5 Psyche, Cambridge, Mass. 7 Annals of The Entomological 
Society of America, Columbus, Ohio. 8 The Entomologist ^ 
Monthly Magazine, London. 10 Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington. D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, London. 12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, 
N. H. 13 Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Claremont, Cal. 
15 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruns, \Yashington, D. C. 16 The 
Lepidopterist, Salem, Mass. 22 Bulletin of Entomological Re- 
search, London. 24 Annales de la Societe Entomologique de 
France. Paris. 28 Entomologisk Tidskrift, Uppsala. 39 The 
Florida Entomologist, Gainesville, Florida. 45 Zeitschrift fur 
wissenschaftlichc Insektenbiologie. Berlin. 50 Proceedings of the 
United States National Museum. 52 Zoologischer An/eiger, Lcip- 
s j c _ 62 Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 
New York. 68 Science, Garrison on the Hudson. X. Y 69- 
Comptcs Rendus, des seances de 1'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 
70 Journal of Morphology, Philadelphia. 72 The Annals of 
Applied Biology, London. 73 Proceedings of the I.innean 
Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 77 Compte^; Kendus 
des seances dc la Societe de Biologic, Paris. 80 Revu-.- 
Suisse de Zoologie, Geneve. 82 The Ohio Journal of Science. 
Columbus. Ohio. 85 The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Phila- 
delphia. 87 Arkiv for Zoologi, K. Svcnska Vetenskapsakademien, 
Stockholm. 88 Occasional Papers of the Mil-rum of Zool" 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher. 


Jena. 91 The Scientific Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 104 Zeitschrift 
fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Leipzig. 114 Entomologische 
Rundschau, Stuttgart. 115 Societas Entomologica, Stuttgart. 125 
Verhandlungen del zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
138 American Museum Novitates. 139 Bulletin of the Southern 
California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles. 140 Sitzungs- 
berichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. 

GENERAL. Borodin, D. N. The present status of entomology 
and entomologists in Russia. 12, xv, 172-6. Distant, W. L. 
Obituary notice. 8, Iviii, 66-67. Handschin, E. Zur nomenklatur- 
irage. 115, xxxvii, 9. Louisiana Entomological Society. [An ac- 
count of the society by T. E. Holloway]. 68, Iv, 436. Pierce, W. D. 
Lectures in applied entomology. Collection. Ser. 1, Pt. 1, No. 5. 
Schrottky, C. Soziale gewohnheiten bei solitaren insekten. 45, xxii, 
19-57. Thompson, Caroline B. Obituary notice. 72, ix, 81-82. 
Wahlgren, E. De europeiska polaroarnas insektfauna des samman- 
sattning och harkomst. 28, 1920, 1-23. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Baerg, W. J. Regarding 
the habits of tarantulas and the effects of their poison. 91, xiv, 482- 
89. Brown, M. Notes on the structure of an endoparasitic water- 
mite l.'irva occurring in frogs. (Washington Univ. Studies, ix, 291- 
308.) Bryk, F. Grundzuge der sphragidologie. 87, xi, No. 18. Car- 
penter & Pollard The presence of lateral spiracles in the larva 
of Hypoderma. (Proc. R. Irish Acad., xxxiv, B. 73-84.) Crampton, 
G. C. Evidences of relationship indicated by the venation of the 
fore wings of certain insects with especial reference to the Hemip- 
tera-Homoptera. 5, xxix, 23-41. v. Emden, F. Beitrag zur kenn- 
zeichnung der holometabolen (heteromophen) insektenlarven. 52, 
liv, 231-5. Fassl, A. H. Einige kritische bemerkungen zu J. Robers 
"Mimikry und verwandte erscheinungen bei schmetterlingen." 114, 
xxxix, 15-16. Gaschott, O. Zur phylogenie von Psithyrus. 52, liv, 
225-31. Genieys, P. Sur le determinisme des variations de la color- 
ation chez un Hymenoptere parasite. 77, Ixxxvi, 767-70. Heiker- 
tinger, F. Die wespenmimikry oder sphekoidie. 125, Ixx, 316-385. 
Heselhaus, F. Die hautdrusen der apiden und verwandter fornien. 
89, Ab. f. Anat., xliii, 369-464. Hess, W. N. Origin and develop- 
ment of the light-organs of Photurus pennsylvanica. 70, xxxvi, 245- 
77. Kreuscher, A.--Der fettkorper und die oenocyten von Dytiscns 
marginalis. 104, cxix, 247-84. Lienhart, R. Le mechanisme de la 
stridulations chez Cyrtaspis scutata. 24, xc, 156-60. Petrunkevitch, 
A. The circulatory system and segmentation in Arachnida. 70, 
xxxvi, 157-89. de Peyerimhoff, P. Etudes stir les larves des coleop- 
teres. I. 24, xc, 97-111. Reh, L. Die wespenmimikry der SesiVn. 
125, Ixx, 99-112. Roubaud, E. Sommeil d'hiver ccdant a I'liiver 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 180 

chez les larvcs et nymphes de Muscides. 69, clxxiv, 964-6. Van der 
Heyde, H, C. On the respiration of Dytiscus marginalis. 85, xxxv. 
335-52. Walker, E. M. The terminal structures of orthoptcroid 
insects: a phylogenetic study. Part 2. 7, xv. 1-88. Wolff, B. 
Schlammsinnesorgane (pelotakische organe) hti Limnobiinenlarven. 
(Jenaische Zeit. f. Naturw., Iviii, 77-144.) 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Ewing, H. A. Three new species of 
peculiar and injurious spider mites. 10, xxiv. 104-8. 

NEUROPTERA. Sjostedt, Y. Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der 
schwcdischen entomologischen reise der D. A. Roman in Amazonas. 
Odonata. 87, xi, No. 15. 

Watson, J. R. New Thysanoptera from Florida. XI. Another 
new thrips from cocoanuts from Cuba. 39, v, 65-6; 66-7. William- 
son, E. B. Notes on Celithemis with descriptions of two new spe- 
cies. 88, No. 108. 

ORTHOPTERA. Criddle, N. Manitoba grasshoppers. (Can. 
Field-Nat., xxxvi. 41-44, 66-S.) 

HEMIPTERA. Barber & Ellis Eggs of three Ccrcopidae. 5, 
:-:xix, 1-3. Drake, C. J. The genus Dicysta. (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
xiii, 269-73.) Mason, A. Life history studies of some Florida 
Aphids. 39, v, 53-9, 62-5. 

Barber, H. G. Two new species of Reduviidac from the U. S. 
10, xxiv, 103-4. Sanders & DeLong New species of Cicadellidae 
from the eastern and southern U. S. 10, xxiv, 93-102. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Caudell, A. N. Change of authorship of cer- 
tain Noctuids. 15, x, 112. 

Barnes & Lindsey A review of some generic names in the order 
Lepidoptera. 7, xv, 89-90. Cassino & Swett Two new species of 
Sericosema. Some new Geometrids. 16, iii, 151-55; 155-58. Wright, 
W. S. A new Lycaenid. 139, xxi, 19-20. 

DIPTERA. Crumb, S. E. A mosquito attractant. 68, Iv, 416-7. 
Alexander, C. P. The biology of the North American crane-flies. 
VI. The genus Cladura. 13, xiv. 1-6. Undescribcd species of Costa 
Rican flies belonging to the family Tipulidae in the U. S. Nat. Mus. 
50, Ix, Art. 25. Patton, W. S. Notes on the species of the genus 
Musra. 22, xii, 411-26. Pawan, J. L. The oviposition of .loblotia 
digitalis. 15, x, 63-5. Ping, C. The biology of Kphydra subopaca. 
(Cornell I'niv. Agr. Kxpt. Sta., Mem. 49.) Thompson, W. R. 
On the taxonomic value of larval cliaracters in tacliinid parasites. 
10, xxiv. 85-93. 

Dyar, H. G. The American Aedes of the scapularis group. Two 
mos(|uitoes new to the mountains of California. Illustrations of the 


male hypopygium of certain Sabethids. The mosquitoes of the 
Palacarctic and Ncarctic regions. The mosquitoes of the Glacier 
National Park, Montana. Mosquito notes. 15, x, 51-60; 60-61; 
01-62; 65-75; 80-8; 92-1). Garrett, C. B. D. Two new Blepharo- 
ceridae. A meristic variation. 15, x, 89-91; 91. Hine, J. S. De- 
scriptions of Alaskan diptera of the family Syrphidae. 82, xxii, 

COLEOPTERA. Aurivillius, C. Coleopterorum catalogus. Pars 
73: Cerambycidae Lamiinae I. Comstock, J. A. A giant palm-bor- 
ing beetle (Dinapate wrightii). 139, xxi, 5-17. Cros, A. Notes sur 
les larves primaires des Meloidae avcc indication de larves nouvelles. 
24, xc, 133-55. Hustache, A. Nouveaux Ceuthorrhynchini de 
l'Amerique du Sud. 24, xc, 112-32. Kleine, R. Wissenschaftliche 
crgebnisse der schwedischen entomologischen reise des A. Roman 
in Amazonas 1914-15. Brenthidae. 87, xiii, No. 12. Montet, G. 
Thynnides nouveau du Museum d'Histoire Nat. de Geneve. 80, xxix, 
177-226. Pic, M. Melanges exotico-entomologiques. Fasc. 35. 
[many So. American species described]. Sicard, Dr. Descriptions 
cK- varietes, especes et genres nouveaux appartenant a la famille des 
Coccinellides. 11, ix, 349-60. Watson, J. R. Some beetles new to 
Florida. 39, v. 67-8. Weise, J. Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der 
schwedischen entomologischen reise des A. Roman in Amazonas. 
Chrysomelidae. 87, xiv, No. 1. 

Frost, C. A. A new species of New England C. (Cantharis). 
5, xxix, 4-6. 

HYMENOPTERA. Cockerell, T. D. A. Descriptions and rec- 
ords of bees. XCIII. 11, ix, 360-7. Kahl, H. Notes on some 
species of Chalcidoidea in the Carnegie Museum. (Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., xiii, 265-8.) Ramme, W. Zur lebensweise von Pseu- 
dagenia. 140, 1920, 1:50-32. Roman, A. Schlupwespen aus Ama- 
zonien. 87, xi, No. 4. Ruschka, F. Chalcididenstudien. 125, Ixx, 

Brues, C. T. The Embolemid genus Pcdinomma in North Amer- 
ica. 5, xxix, 6-8. Cockerell, T. D. A. 'Bees in the collection of the 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 50, Ix, Art. 18. Bees of the genus Panurginus 
obtained by the American Museum Rocky Mountain expeditions. 
138, No. 36. Cushman, R. A. New species of ichneumon-flies with 
taxonomic notes. 50, Ix, Art. 21. Enderlein, G. Symphytologica 
!. Zur kenntnis der Oryssiden und Tenthrediniden. 140, 1919, 111- 
27. Gahan, A. B. A new hymcnopterous parasite upon adult 
beetles. 82, xxii, 140-2. Kinsey, A. C. New Pacific coast Cynipidae. 
62, xlvi, 279-95. Timberlake, P. H. A revision of the chalcid-flies 
of the encyrtid genus Chrysoplatycerus. 50, Ixi, Art. 2. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 191 

Doings of Societies. 

The American Entomological Society 

Meeting of June 6, 1921, at The Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. Twelve persons present, Dr. Skinner presiding. 

ODONATA. Dr. Calvert exhibited specimens of the true Gomphus 
dilatatus Rambur which has been found only in Georgia and Florida ; 
also specimens from Weaver, Perry County, Pennsylvania (by the late 
Erich Daecke) and other northern states, which have passed for dila- 
tatus but are specifically distinct and for which the name lineatifrons 
is proposed; also specimens of G. vastus Walsh which is the northern 
and smaller representative of the true dilatatus. The differences be- 
tween these three were briefly discussed. [The full statement appears 
in a paper which has since been published in the Transactions of the 
Society, xlvii, pp. 221-232. J He remarked that fast us is a smaller 
form than dilatatus and asked for discussion on this point. Mr. Rehn 
said that in birds and mammals southern forms were smaller, while in 
grasshoppers they were larger. Mr. Hebard spoke on possible influ- 
ence of richness of vegetation on size and remarked that the same 
influence is seen in ascending mountains. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dr. Skinner stated that in butterflies the southern 
forms were larger and that Papilio tunius in Alaska was but half the 
size of tHose in the southern states. He discussed the various forms of 
In nuts and whether they are species or not. 

Mr. Hebard remarked that two forms might be distinct in two local- 
ities and yet converge to the area where intermediates are found. 
When the opposite is true there is no change even though the specie? 
are quite similar. In such cases they change from one form to the 
other without overlapping. Mr. Rehn remarked that the area of inter- 
gradation is usually narrow and that forms do not gradually merge 
over extensive territories. 

Comments by Mr. Williams followed. Mr. Laurent noticed that 
Florida forms of Lepidoptera were usually larger. Dr. Skinner stated 
that there was plenty of food for tunius there, cherry and tulip poplar. 
ORTHOPTERA. Mr. Rehn exhibited specimens of the two species of 
Ilcm'uncrus and made some remarks on the family Hemimeridae, touch- 
ing on the structure, habits and distribution of the species and the 

history of our knowledge of these remarkable insects. DAVID HAR- 
ROWER, Recording Secretary. 

Meeting of October 26, 1921, at the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. Members present, 8 and one visitor, Dr. Skinner pre- 

LEPIDOPTERA. Mr. Davis presented a colony of cocoons of Apantclcs 
Itictt'icolor Yier., a parasite of the Gypsy and Brown Tail Moths in New 
England, and he spoke of the introduction of these parasites in 1914- 
1910, and the apparent success of various parasites introduced for these 


pests. Dr. Skinner spoke about his researches in the Hesperidae, par- 
ticularly his genitalic studies of that family, and exhibited outline 
sketches showing the various forms of these organs in a number of 

ORTHOPTERA. Mr. Hebard exhibited specimens of the Blattid genus 
Prosoplecia from the Philippine Islands which mimic species of the 
Coleopterous family Coccinellidae. He also spoke of the peculiar 
Orthopterous fauna of that part of the world. Mr. Rehn made a few 
remarks on the West Indian species of the Blattid genus Nyctibora, 
dwelling particularly upon the history of N. lactngata, which remained 
virtually unrecognized for over one hundred years after it was orig- 
inally described. The series of the genus from the collection was 

General discussion, especially by Messrs. Hebard and Rehn and 
Cresson as to the generic value of certain characters, followed. A point 
brought out in the discussion was that a generic character may not 
necessarily be present in all species of the genus. E. T. CRESSON, JR., 
Recording Secretary pro tern. 

Meeting of December 12, 1921, at the same place. Eight members 
and contributors and Mr. T. H. Prison, of Riverton, visitor, present, 
President Skinner presiding. 

The President gave an interesting reminiscence of his nearly forty 
years' connection with this Society as a member; of the meetings and 
their attendances, communications, and of the persons he knew and had 
been associated with during the early years. 

A letter from the Consulate General of Finland was read in which 
mention was made that Mr. B. W. Heikcl, Jardin Botanico, Asuncion. 
Paraguay, would like to correspond with any person wishing collections 
of Natural History specimens from Paraguay. 

Mr. Rehn moved that the thanks of the Society be extended to Dr. 
Robert G. LeConte for a gift of the letters of his father. Dr. John L. 

Mr. Rehn moved that the meetings during 1922 be held as follows : 
Fourth Thursdays of February, April and October, and on the second 
Monday of December. Adopted. 

The following officers and committees were elected to serve during 
1922: President, Henry Skinner, M.D., Sc.D. ; Vice-President, James A. 
G. Rehn ; Corresponding Secretary, Morgan Hebard ; Recording Sec- 
retary, Roswell C. Williams, Jr. ; Treasurer, Ezra T. Cresson. 

Publication Committee, James A. G. Rehn (Chairman and Editor), 
Ezra T. Cresson, Philip P. Calvert, Ph.D. 

Finance Committee, Morgan Hebard (Chairman), David M. Castle, 
M.D., James A. G. Rehn. 

Property Committee, Ezra. T. Cresson, Jr. (Librarian and Custodian"), 
Morgan Hebard and Philip Laurent. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recording 
Secretary pro tern. 


Fine perfect specimens of this grand rare species are offered ; also O. 
chimaera Zelotypia staceyi, superb rarity many others. Largest stock of 
exotic Coleoptera, rarities and unnamed series. Also the most important 
books on Entomology in stock. 

Janson & Sons, Naturalists & Booksellers 44, Great Russell St , London, W.C.I. 

|7/"\D QAI F A large collection of butterflies Papilios 

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14 Poplar Place, New Rochelle, N. Y 



Published quarterly. Containing- original articles on Kconotnic Hntomology < illustrated) Ann- 
ual Subscription in advance for Vol. xiii < 1922), 155. post free ; separate parts 53. each, 
free. Prices of back parts on application. 


Published monthly. Coot-lining reviews ot current work" on Economic Entomology throughout 
the world. Published in two series, "A" dealing with insect pests of cultivated plants, and 
"B" dealing with insects conveying disease or otherwise injurious to man and animals 
Annual Subscription in advance for Vol. x ( 1922), Series "A" ias.; Series " B" 6?. post free. 
Prices of back parts on application. 

Publication Office : 41 Queen's Gate, London, S. W. 7. 


North American and Mexican Phanaeus and Monilema. 
Will purchase or exchange. 


:JS.~4- West iStli Street, - Chicago, Illinois. 

Kian su Bureau of Entomok 
w ill collect Chinese insects in exchao 

for books or pamphlets on Entomology. Send libt with prices and 
tell us what you. want us to collect for you Addn 

C. W. WOODWOIM If, Director, Nanking, (^hiiui, or 
Ainerieiiii P. <>., Sh;i nuli;ii, ('hina. 


From Colombia, South America: 

Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

" devilliersi 

From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes Hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) : 
Arrnandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 56-58 West 23d Street 

JULY, 1922 


Vol. XXXIII No. 7 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D.. Editor Emeritus. 






Logan Square 

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Plate IX. 







JULY, 1922 

No. 7 


Mason Cryptothrips laureli, a New 

Tbrips from Florida (Thysatiop.) 193 

Williamson Indiana Somatochloras 
again (Odonata, Libellulidae). 200 

Alexander Undescribed Crane-flies 
from Argentina (Tipulidae, Dipt.). 
Part V 207 

Lindsey Notes on the Distribution and 
Synonymy of some Species of Ptero- 
phoridae I l.epid. ) 211 

Prison Further Biological and Syste- 
matic Notes Concerning Bremus 
kincaidii Ckll. and other closely 
related Species ( Hym., Bombidae) 214 

The University of Michigan-William- 
son Expedition to Brazil 216 

Editorial On Firing Shot 217 

Barnes and Benjamin Correction 217 

Howard A Braconid .Feeding bv In- 
direct Suction ( Hym. ) 218 

Khmgsu Bureau of Entomology 2iS 

Entomological Literature 219 

Review of Howard's translation of Boif- 

vier's The Psychic Life of Insects. . 222 
Review of the Report of the Proceed- 
ings of the Fourth Entomological 

Meeting held at Pusa 223 

Doings of Societies The American En- 
tomological Society 224 

Cryptothrips laureli, a New Thrips from Florida 


By ARTHUR C. MASON, Assistant Entomologist, Fruit Insect 

Investigations, Bureau of Entomology, United States 

Department of Agriculture. 1 

(Plate IX.) 


While making a survey of the native hay trees of the genus 
Tainala (Pcrsca) in the central part of -Florida for the purpose 
of discovering, if possible, the origin of the camphor thrips 
(Crvrtothrips florid cnsis \Yatson), a closely related species of 
t'rvptothrips was found. The camphor thrips has proven a 
^crious menace in the last few years 1o the newlv developing 
camphor industry in the State and has heen the subject of 
investigation by the l>ureau. Although first taken to he an 
introduced insect peculiar to camphor, later development- 
tended to point to the fact that it might he native on the hays 
and had taken to the camphors because of their close botanical 

Published with the permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 



relationship. This theory, 2 that the native bays were the nat- 
ural host for the camphor thrips, was held for some time. 
However, the results of this investigation have shown that the 
thrips on the bay, although identical in many respects with the 
camphor thrips, is a new species distinct from C. floridcnsis. 
The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to describe this new 
bay thrips and give its biological habits and other points of 
interest. 3 

Cryptothrips laureli n. sp. (Plate IX, A, B, C.) 

Close to C. floridensis Watson, but differs in the following charac- 
ters : general size, color and length of antennae ; relative shape and size 
of third antennal segment ; stronger spines on head, thorax and ab- 
domen ; number of doubled hairs on fringe of wings. Also in color 
and appearance of eggs, color of larvae, feeding habits, preferred host 
plants, general biological habits, such as length of instars, reproductive 
methods, etc. 

General color almost uniformly glossy black; tarsi dark brown; an- 
tennae dark brown to black with exception of segment three, which is 
clear yellow. 

Average measurements: Total length of insect, exclusive of antennae, 
2.7 mm. ; head, length .34 mm., width .25 mm. ; prothorax, length .23 
mm., width .44 mm. ; mesothorax, width .54 mm. ; abdomen, greatest 
width .57 mm. ; tube, length .25 mm. ; width at base .084 mm. 

Antennae: 1, 37.1 microns; 2, 58.8 microns; 3, 107.1 microns; 4, 
94.2 microns ; 5, 85.4 microns ; 6, 75.6 microns ; 7, 67.2 microns ; 8, 
36.8 microns; total length .56 mm. 

Head nearly one and one-half times as long as wide, cylindrical, 
sides almost straight and parallel ; one rather prominent spine back of 
each eye. Eyes dark brown, rather large and prominent, finely facetted, 
not pilose. Ocelli present, concolorous with eyes, inconspicuous. Mouth- 
cone blunt, reaching nearly across the pronotum. Antennae with eight 
segments, almost twice as long as head; first two segments heavy, third 
segment long and slender in proportion to the others ; segments one 
and two concolorous with the' head, segment three clear yellow, seg- 
ment four light brown at base and shading into darker brown toward 
the tip, remaining segments dark brown or black ; bristles and sense- 
cones thick. 

Prothorax short, slightly shorter than the width of the head, widest 

3 Watson, J. R. "The Native Host-Plant of the Camphor Thrips." 
In "Florida Buggist," Vol. ITT. No. 2, p. 25, 1919. 

3 The writer is jndcbted to Mr. W. W. Yothers, under whose direction 
this work was done, for many valuable suggestions in accomplishing it. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 195 

in center and narrowed toward each end ; two prominent spines on both 
the anterior and posterior lateral margins. Mesothorax very short with 
straight parallel sides, about one and one-fourth times as wide as the 
prothorax. One short spine on each lateral margin. Pterothorar 
slightly narrower than the abdomen, sides almost straight. Lefjs long; 
and slender except the fore femora ; tarsi dark brown but otherwise 
concolorous with the body, ll'inf/s transparent, rather short, about 
two-thirds of length of abdomen, very slight constriction, finely fringed 
with hairs and doubled for from 5 to 13 hairs, usually about 7 hairs. 
3 strong prominent spines at base of fore wings. 

Abdomen long, first three segments of nearly equal width and then 
tapers gradually to segments 7 and 8, which are rounded off to the 
tube. A pair of prominent spines on outer posterior angles of all 
abdominal segments which become longer toward the posterior end, 
the last two pairs being as long as the tube. Tube rather long and 
slender with a circle of stiff hairs at the end, 8 of which are nearly 
as long as the tube and the alternating 8 about half as long. 

Males are very much smaller but otherwise similar. Sometimes show 
reddish brown or purple pigment. Body length varies from 1.3 mm. 
to 2.2 mm. with an average of 1.7 for ten specimens. 

Described* from a large number of adults, eggs and larvae 
collected on bays of the genus Tamala. Type localities Daytona 
rind Orlando, Fla. 

EGG. The eggs (Plate IX, E.) average .46 mm. x .20 mm. in size, 
are light straw yellow to orange yellow, and become red during develop- 
ment of the embryo. The surface is sometimes smooth and sometimes 
covered with irregular scale-like patches; often one side of an egg 
will show these markings while the other side is smooth. 

The average time for development of eggs was 6.5 days (average 
of 30 eggs). When ready to hatch a lid-like cap splits off the anterior 
end of the egg, allowing the young larva to escape. The egg shell 
remains intact on the limb or buds, often for a long period. 

The preferred place for laying eggs seems to be among the bud scales 
on the new shoots. They are also found sometimes in the axils of the 
leaves or other sheltered places on the limb. 

LARVA. First Instar. When first hatched from the eggs the young 
larvae appear a light carmine red color. Total length, including an- 
tennae, about one millimeter, the legs and antennae very long in pro- 
portion to the rest of the body. The antennae black, but have 
a short colorless area at the end of each segment ; eyes small and red ; 
two black spots on the thorax so large as to occupy most of the dorsal 
surface and make the entire thorax appear black; legs and last two 
abdominal segments dirty white or gray. 

*Types deposited in the U. S. National Museum. 


The average; duration of the first instar for 18 individuals was 8.06 
days. It varied from 6 to 11 days. 

Second Instar. (Plate IX, D.) Color bright carmine red, the larvae 
being conspicuous on the trees by their brilliant color. The color 
pigment solid throughout the body and not broken into blotches. Head, 
antennae, legs and last two abdominal segments clear glossy black. 
Also two large black spots on the thorax and two rectangular black 
markings reaching about half way around the center of the third seg- 
ment from end of abdomen. The body, including legs and antennae, is 
covered with a number of black hairs or spines. 

The larvae are not very active and when moving about often carry 
the tip of the abdomen curled upward and forward in a characteristic 
manner. The length of this instar varied from 6 to 13 days with an 
average of 7.9 days. 

Third Instar. (Prepupa). Same clear red color as in preceding 
stages, although the color pigment is somewhat broken into blotches, 
particularly in head and thorax and near tip of abdomen. Head 
whitish and almost colorless except for a few blotches of red color 
in the center ; eyes small and red ; antennae short, stout and colorless. 
Wing pads very short and colorless ; legs and last two abdominal seg- 
ments also colorless. A few whitish hairs cover the body. 

The larvae in this stage are very inactive. The instar is of short 
duration, lasting only 2 or 3 days, with an average of 2.4 days. 

Pupa. This stage is the same color as the preceding and appears 
similar except for the length of the antennae and wing pads. The 
antennae are now longer and folded back along the sides of the head. 
Wing pads reach to the 4th or 5th abdominal segment. The eyes 
appear somewhat larger and brown in color. 

The pupae are very quiescent and usually remain in, secluded places. 
The stage lasts for 4 to 6 days with an average of 4.5 days. 


The natural host plants of this insect include all of the 
bay trees of the genus Tanmla ( family Lauraceae). There is 
in the State another entirely unrelated group of trees called 
hays, belonging to the genus Magnolia of the family Mag- 
noliaceae. These, of course, have no relation to tlie laurels 
and are not concerned in this discussion. Although known to 
occur only in Florida, it is probable that the bay thrips extends 
over the entire range of its host plants which includes all of 
the southeastern states.' All four species of T a mala have been 
found infested. The writer has collected C. laurcli from three 
of these bays and Watson reports finding it on the fourth, 

xxxiii, '22 j ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 197 

Tamala borbonia, or red bay, near Gainesville. The shore hay, 
T. lift oral is, is a very common tree along the sand ridges on 
the beach near Daytona and in nearly all cases harbors the 
thrips. In the so-called oak scrub, in central Florida, is a bay 
known as T. Jut in His, or scrub bay, and the thrips were taken 
from it between Orange City and Lake Monroe. Probably 
the most common bay of the State is the swamp bay, T. 
pubesccns, which lives around the margin of lakes and along 
streams and in swampy ground over most of the State. The 
bay thrips is common on this species in the vicinity of Orlando 
and is reported by Watson as being found on them near Frost- 
proof, Florida, and other points on the central ridge of the 
State. The red bay lives in the higher hammock lands and, 
as stated above, is also a host of the bay thrips. 

The bay thrips also will live on camphor (Cainphora 
i amphora}, but it is somewhat doubtful if it will establish 
itself permanently there. Several generations have been bred 
on camphor trees under observation at the laboratory, but no 
instances have been found where bay thrips have colonized 
themselves on camphor trees naturally. Camphor trees grow- 
ing close to bay trees infested with thrips were uninjured. The 
preferred hosts certainly are the bays. Of the four species of 
Tamala no preference has been observed. 

The length of time required from egg to adult as determined 
from the average of 50 individuals was 28.3 days. As stated 
above the egg stage lasted for 6.5 days. The total time for 
the larval and pupal stages together was 21.8 days as an 
average. Since there is a preoviposition stage of several days. 
the period for the maximum generations would be in execs-, 
of 30 days. The life of the adult thrip often lasts about 60 
days in confinement but in some cases has exceeded this. There 
is also a postoviposition stage lasting usually for se\eral days 
] -receding death. The bay thrips are not very prolific in number 
of eggs laid. Ten adults laid an average of 1.06 eggs per day 
over a period of about 2 months. The greatest number laid 
on any one day was 4. Many days were passed without any 
eggs being laid. 


The above data were obtained during August and September 
when the weather was warm. Of course, the various stages 
would be much longer during the cooler weather. During these 
experiments the temperatures at the laboratory in Orlando, 
Florida, were as follows : 

For August the daily maximums ranged from 90" F. ID 100" F. 
with a mean of 94 F. ; the daily minimums 65 F. to 75 J F. with a 
mean of 71.2 F. ; mean temperature for month 82.6 F. ; greatest 
daily range 29 F. ; precipitation 4.13 inches. For September the daily 
maximums ranged from 91 F. to 103 F. with mean of 95.9 F. ; 
the daily minimums 67 F. to 73" F. with mean of 69.6 F. ; mean tem- 
perature for month 82.8 F. ; greatest daily range 32* F. ; precipitation 
1.93 inches. 

Contrary to the sex ratio of many species of thrips, the per- 
centage of males for this species seems to be relatively high, 
often as many as 50% of those captured being males. The 
same phenomenon has been observed among those bred in jars 
in the laboratory, a large number being males. The adults of 
both sexes have a habit of congregating together and copulation 
has frequently been seen to occur in the breeding jars. In 
fact it is very doubtful if this thrips will breed partheno- 
genetically. In a large number of experiments the adults reared 
in jars would die without laying eggs when they were not mated 
with males. 

All stages of the thrips are found around the terminal bud 
and on the new shoots. The young larvae on hatching feed on 
the newly unfolding leaves, causing brown and dead spots to 
appear. The later stages of the larvae, as well as the pupae 
and adults, also feed on the new growth. When very numerous 
on a tree they will sometimes kill the buds, but ordinarily no 
damage is done. Although small areas are killed on the nc\v 
leaves, the leaves later outgrow this injury. The thrips do 
not cause lesions or other injury to the bark, and no instances 
have been observed where trees, or even limbs on a tree, have 
been killed. This, of course, would be expected of a native 
insect on its natural host. 

The adult thrips are always active and usually walk about 
on the stems and leaves with a rapid motion. They have a 
characteristic habit of carrying the tip of the abdomen curved 

xxxiii, '22 1 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 199 

upward and forward. Although possessed of fully developed 
wings, they have seldom been seen to fly and then only for short 
distances. When disturbed they will run rapidly around the 
stem or to some place of hiding. They are often found close 
down in the axils of newly opening leaves. 

These insects possess the .ability to puncture the skin. The 
writer while working with them has often felt a very per- 
ceptible stinging sensation from their bite on the back of the 
hand, neck or other place where the skin is tender. 


One of the factors limiting the increase in numbers of the 
bay thrips is that it is preyed upon by other insects. At least 
two of these enemies have been found, one an internal hymen- 
opterous parasite and the other a predaceous Anthocorid. 

The first of these is Tctrastichns .?/>., 5 apparently an uride-- 
scribed species, and a representative of a genus not known 
before from Thysanoptera in this country. Internal parasites 
of thrips while very rare, have been reported in a few cases. 
Parasitized specimens of this thrips were collected on bay trees 
in September, 1921, and the adults bred from them in the 
laboratory. The eggs are laid by the adults in the bodies of 
the larval stages of the thrips. After a few days the thrips 
dies and the body becomes dried and swollen. About a week 
later the small wasp-like parasite emerges from a hole cut 
through the body \vall on the dorsal surface near the end of 
the abdomen. 

The second of these is Anthocoris sp.? a small predaceous 
insect, which was found sucking the juices from the larval and 
pupal stages of the thrips. While perhaps not so important a 
factor in control as the internal parasite, still these Anthocorids 
will destroy a large number of thrips. These two insects 
undoubtedly are largely responsible for keeping the thrips from 
increasing and doing a large amount of injury to the bay trees. 


Cryptothrips laurcli n. sp. A. Head and prothorax. B. Antenna 
enlarged. C. Tip of abdomen showing tube and hairs. D. Second 
stage larva. E. Egg. 

5 Determined by A. B. Gahan of the Bureau of Entomology. 
6 Determined by W. L. McAtec, of the Bun-au of Entomology. 


Indiana Somatochloras Again (Odonata, Libellulidae). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

Eighty-five years ago, in 1837, Calvin C. Deam, aged six 
years, came to Wells County, Indiana, with his parents. Here 
they found only a few white people in a few small cleared 
areas in the practically continuous forest, two small prairies, 
the largest about seventy or eighty acres, being the only natural 
openings in the woodland which covered the land to the water's 
edge along the Wabash River. The forest was heavily under- 
brushed with prickley ash, spicewood, pawpaw and dogwood. 
The small streams of later years were then practically long 
swamps with short connecting streams. Here the timber was 
not so heavy, being principally ash, and the underbrush was 
not so thick, but the water was all shaded and log-dammed 
at frequent intervals. Creek beds as I knew them thirty years 
ago as a boy did not appear till the fallen logs were dragged 
out and the released waters made the channels. The Wabash 
was also log-jammed and full of deep holes. Its breadth 
permitted the sun to reach the water, which was deep and 
clear even in low stages when it almost ceased to flow. The 
boulders, now numerously exposed, were then all covered with 
but one exception. Even in the highest stages the water was 
only slightly roiled, never getting a muddy yellow as in these 
later days, though it frequently got out of its banks into the 
surrounding woodland. The prairie of seventy or eighty acres 
got dry enough in the summers to cut with scythes, but not 
dry enough for wagons, and the hay was pulled out with grape 
vines and horses. There were two Indian camps, one of thirty 
to forty Indians just below the mouth of Johns Creek (named 
for John Bennett) and one of twenty-five to thirty Indians 
just above the mouth of Bills Creek (named for William 

Calvin Deam has lived to see the day when the original 
forest has gone from Wells County as certainly and com- 
pletely as has the Indian. He has seen the ruination of the 
Wabash and the complete destruction of many of its tributaries. 
The modern dredge has laid its unsightly gashes in every 

xxxiii, '22} ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 201 

direction through the land, the old water level is forever low- 
ered, and the primitive conditions are gone never to return. 
Study and discussion may devise methods of improving the 
Wabash, but it will he an artificial Wabash, not a restored 
Wabash, on whose banks no Indians will camp, from whose 
waters no doe and her fawns will drink, through whose forest > 
no wild turkey hen will lead her brood. 

And as Calvin Beam has told me of the deer that used to 
come in the heat of the day to the cool recesses of the Vanemon 
Swamp (known then as Bay's Swamp for William May, who 
owned it), so I would tell a little of the Somatochloras which 
still survive, but which are going, which may be gone before 
another year has passed. 

In Entomological News of .April, 1912. I recorded the 
captures of Somatochloras in Indiana up to that date, and 
described Flat Creek in Wells County where two species had 
been found. Since then the Simmers sisters' woods, through 
which Flat Creek flows, has been cut over, exposing the Creek 
more to the sun, and weeds and mud have replaced the feu- 
gravelly spots which formerly existed. I took another male 
of charadraca there on July 4, 19 13, but failed to find it after 
that date until during the summer of 1921, when another single 
male was taken on July 6. On July 10, 1914, a female of 
Uncarts was taken on the same creek and on July 9 and 13, 
1919, four males and a female of the same species were col- 
lected. The female was ovipositing by striking her abdomen 
on the fine gravel at the water's edge of a shallow ripple. Since 
then this sandy ripple has become mud-co\ r ered and weed- 
grown, and we failed to find lincaris on the creek in 1921. 

North of Wells County, in Allen County, is a small tributary 
of Little River, named the Aboite River, which, a few miles 
above its mouth, flows for about a quarter of a mile through 
a bit of woodland known as Devil's Hollow, though there is 
nothing in the long pools and gentle ripples to 'suggest the 
name. Aboite River is in reality only a shallow creek aver- 
aging possibly ten feet in width. At the upper end of Devil's 
Hollow is a small right-hand tributary of cold clear spring 
water (lowing through a thick second growth. This small 


stream is about a foot and a half wide and pursues a very 
tortuous course at the foot of a low bluff or ridge. On July 
6, 1919, we collected at several points on the Aboite above 
Devil's Hollow and at Devil's Hollow. About noon, on the 
small tributary described above, we saw a Somatochlora hover- 
ing over a small pool. It was captured and proved to be 
tcnebrosa. A few minutes later a second one was seen and 
captured over another small pool. Several trips back and forth 
over the course of the stream failed to reveal any more, and on 
several subsequent visits we have never been able to find a 
Somatochlora on the Aboite or its tributary. 

One of these fruitless visits was made on July 3, 1921. 
Leaving the Aboite about the middle of the afternoon. Arch 
Cook, Jesse Williamson and myself started south for the old 
collecting ground on Flat Creek. Some detours were necessary 
and as a result we discovered a good looking creek one mile 
west and about half a mile south of Zanesville. This is Davis 
Creek and our road crossed it along the east edge of a bit of 
unpastured second growth woods, known as Shoups woods, 
through which the creek flows in a westerly direction. Leaving 
the road and following the creek into the woods we found a 
fine little stream three to eight feet wide, flowing mostly over 
gravel, with many gentle ripples and frequent pools, some of 
the latter almost waist deep. We had not gone far when a 
Somatochlora was seen and, collecting from about three to 
four p. m., we succeeded in taking two males of linearis. 
Below the Shoup woods, Davis Creek flows through some 
brushy unpastured blue grass fields, through two small, second 
growth, unpastured woods, then into a pastured woods where 
it is fouled and trampled, and finally, just before its mouth in 
Eight Mile Creek, it passes through a pastured field. Through 
the Shoup woods westward to the pastured woods just above 
its mouth it is more or less shaded and its banks and ripples 
are not ruined by live stock, as is the case in the pastured 
woods. East of the Shoup woods, in its upper courses, it 
passes through hot, sunny fields, a mere mud trough in a 
ruined landscape. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 203 

About five a. m. the next day, I again visited the creek \vith 
a party studying birds. But little time could be spared looking- 
for Somatochloras, but I saw a female of lincaris ovipositing;, 
captured a male each of lincaris and charadraca, and saw 
several more of both species. 

On July 5, Arch Cook and I went again to the creek, reach- 
ing it about 4 p. m. We caught one male each of charadraea 
and lincaris. The last specimen seen was flying the creek at 
6.30 p. m. That night we slept in the J. M. Settlemeyer barn 
and were at the creek early the next day. The morning was 
cloudy or hazy, and seemed rather unfavorable, but we saw 
our first Somatochlora before 5 a. m. and we caught six more 
males of lincaris and another charadraca, and returning home, 
we stopped at Flat Creek and caught a male charadraca. 

Our success encouraged us to enlarge our party, and the 
night of July 7, Rev. D. C. Truesdale, Arch Cook, Jesse 
Williamson and I slept in the Settlemeyer barn again. Sun up 
the next day found us at the creek but the morning was hazy 
and between six and seven o'clock a heavy thundershower 
drove us, with only four or five lincaris in our bottles, to the 
shelter of the tight floored road bridge over the creek. Here 
we cooked and ate our breakfast. By this time the storm was 
over and the sun came out brightly. We all returned to col- 
lecting, and before 9 a. m., when another thunder storm again 
drove us to shelter, we brought our total catch for the morning 
up to thirteen males and one female of lincaris and two males 
of charadraca. From July 3, when we first saw the creek, to 
July 8, the water had fallen about eight inches and had ceased 
to flow above ground, though there was doubtless a continued 
flow through the gravel which forms the stream bed. Davis 
Creek is one of the very few undredged creeks in Wells County, 
but Eight Mile Creek, of which it is an a affluent, has been 
deeply dredged and into its lowered basin the water in Davis 
Creek is readily drained through the underlying sand and -ravel. 
With this catch before us, we planned a killing for the next 
Sunday, July 10. Eli Captain, master catcher of Macromias, 
was enlisted and Saturday night he. Arch Cook, Jesse William- 
son and I spent another night at Scttlemeyer's barn. Sunday 



[July, '22 

morning came clear and cloudless and we were at the Creek 
before 4.30 a. m. At 4.45 a. m. the only female of charadraea 
any of us ever saw was seen ovipositing, and two of us, suffer- 
ing from Somatochlora fever, in turn missed fair strokes at her. 
But that morning Somatochloras were very rare, and though the 
lour of us collected diligently until after 10 a. m., a later 
hour than we had found it possible to remain on other days, 
we got a total of only three males and one female of lincaris 
and two males of charadraea. Possibly the following record 
of temperatures, and possibly the lower humidity of the morn- 
ing of July 10, will explain the relative scarcity of individuals 
on that date. As the minimum temperature each day was from 
4 to 6 a. m., no other tabulation of early morning temperatures 
is given. The temperatures are from a registering thermometer 
at The Wells County Bank at Bluffton. Probably at Davis 
Creek the minimums fell slightly lower, but the record is accur- 
ate enough for our purpose. If temperature is not the cause 
of the difference in the activity of these dragonflies, I can offer 
no other suggestion. It is an unfortunate fact that after twenty 
years I am still unable to predict a good day for Macromias 
on the Wabash River. 

Date, 1921 



At 6 



from about 
5-9 a.m. 

Saturday, July 2.. . 

95 5 P.m. 
95 2 p.m. 

63 5-6 a. in. 
73 5 a.m. 

8 4 <a 

Monday, July 4 

96 3 p.m. 

74 5 a.m. 




Tuesday, July 5 

98 4-5 p m. 

74 5 a m. 


Wednesday, July 6. 

99 4 p.m. 

75 4 a.m. 




Thursday, July 7... 
Friday July 8 

100 45 p.m. 
93 3 p.m. 

76 5 6 a.m 
77 3-6 a.m. 




Saturday, July 9.. . 

87 4 p.m. 

69 5-6 a.m. 


Sunday, July 10 . . . 

86 2 p.m. 

68 4-6 n.m. 




* Temperatuie, Fahrenheit scale. 

During our collecting trips, we had several opportunities 
to observe females of linearis ovipositing. This always took 
place in fine gravel and sand at or near the water's edge where 
the water was very shallow, usually at a ripple. The females 

y \\iii. '22 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 205 

flew back and forth a few inches above- the ground, frequently 
striking with the end of their abdomens. In no case did they 
alight. The spots selected were a few days later merely damp 
sand more or less distant from the water which had ceased 
to flow. The single female of charadraca seen ovipositing was 
flying back and forth tapping her abdomen on a damp clay 
surface at the edge of the creek and about a foot above the 
water. Occasionally a Somatochlora will fly along, striking the 
water with its abdomen and rarely throwing itself into the 
water, but in every case where positive observation was pos- 
sible these individuals were males. The males at the creek 
spend their time beating back and forth, at an elevation of 
two or three feet, over the sandy spots where the females 
oviposit. Having examined one of these spots they may fly 
away a short distance to return at once, or, more probably, they 
fly swiftly up or down the creek to another similar ovipositing 
site. They frequently leave the creek and disappear upward 
among the trees. The males of llnearis were never observed 
fighting, but on two occasions two males of charadraca were 
observed to fly at each other and fall to the ground in a rough 
and tumble scrimmage. In flying the creek, males of charadraca 
habitually fly at a lower level than males of lincaris. 

At three different times, at sunny openings among the trees 
over or near the creek, three to five Somatochloras, apparently 
both species, were seen hawking lazily back and forth at an 
elevation of twenty to thirty feet. These I think were certainly 
recently emerged individuals. I made several efforts, both in 
the mornings and afternoons, to locate Somatochloras in adja- 
cent fields, pastures and brush lots, examining a considerable 
number of likely-looking habitats, but I never saw a Soma- 
tochlora in these places. Kven during early imaginal life they 
do not seem to wander from the bit of woods wlu-rr thry live 
as larvae. Observations Arch Cook and I made in Tennessee 
indicate- tlii^ is not true of tcncbrosa which we- found living 
along roads and over fields at the edges of woods. 

On July 27, Arch Cook, Jesse \Yilliamson and I paid the 
final visit, of the seasori to the creek, when.' we arrived about 
5 a. in. after slevping in Sc-ttlemeyer's barn. \Ye found the 


water level greatly lowered and in the entire Shoup woods 
there were only four small pools remaining. The fine gravel 
or sand ripples where females of linear is had been observed 
ovipositing were now many of them entirely dry, in one case 
at least to a distance of two inches below the surface. The 
clay flat where charadraca was ovipositing seventeen days 
before was dry and hard, and, like the sand and gravel bars, 
far from any water. Mr. Settlemeyer told us that these small 
streams usually begin to flow again in September. 

At 5.30 a. m. a female of llncaris was observed ovipositing 
by tapping the abdomen in almost dry sand in a low stretch 
in the creek bed. She scattered her eggs at intervals over an 
area about four to six feet wide and twenty to thirty feet long. 
She was captured and represented the day's catch, though half 
an hour later a male was seen, but he was hurrying down the 
dry creek bed. No other specimens were seen. The imaginal 
life of the two species, llncaris and charadraca in northern 
Indiana, is thus about thirty days or a little more, including 
the last few days of June and practically the entire month of 
July. Their period of ovipositing coincides with the time of 
rapidly falling water level in the creek, thus exposing suc- 
cessive clay banks and fine gravel bars on which the eggs are 
placed while the surface is moist, thus insuring the distribution 
of eggs over practically the entire creek bed. Oviposition was 
observed only where the forest, a heavy second growth mostly 
of white elm, lay on both creek banks. Somatochloras were 
not observed where one bank was cleared and the other wooded. 

Associated with the two Somatochloras were a very few 
Boycria vinosa, less than half a dozen being seen, and many 
Caloptcry.v maculata. No other dragonflies were on the 
wooded parts of the creek. Perhaps the most obvious differ- 
ence to be noticed in collecting dragonflies in Indiana and in 
the American tropics, is the great di (Terence in the amount of 
odonate life on small woodland streams. On Davis Creek, for 
example, there are only two dragonflies besides the two Soma- 
tochloras, and these two are widely distributed, though with 
pretty definite habitat preferences, while the two Somatochloras 
alone seem to be confined entirely to the creek. I can call 10 


mind half a dozen little streams in the tropics, similar in si/.e 
and general character to Davis Creek, and at once I recall a 
dozen species which made the ripples flash with color, or which 
sat motionless on dead twig tips on the darkest stretches of the 
creeks, giving life and vivacity to a somber forest. No such 
wealth of odonate life exists on Davis Creek where individuals 
are as rare as species, except for occasional assemblages of 
Caloptcry.v niacitlata. Frequently at sunrise individuals of this 
species were seen resting inertly on leaves with all four wings 
spread flat. 

Undescribed Crane-flies from Argentina (Tipulidae, 

Dipt.) Part V. 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Urbana, Illinois. 

The types of the novelties described in this paper are pre- 
served in the collection of the writer through the great kind- 
ness of Dr. Bruch and Senor Weiser, to whom my thanks are 

Dicranomyia omissivena sp. n. 

General coloration whitish yellow ; antcnnal flagellum brown ; wings 
whitish subhyaline, veins pale; Sc long, cell 1st M2 open by the 
atrophy of the outer deflection of Af3. 

$ . 'Length 4.2 mm. ; wing 5.4 mm. 9 . Length 4.8 mm. ; wing 
6 mm. Rostrum and palpi pale. Antennae with the scapal segments 
pale yellow, the flagellum gradually darkening into brown. Head pale 

Mesonotum pale whitish yellow without darker markings. Pleura 
whitish yellow with slight green reflexions. Halteres pale whitish 
yellow. Legs pale whitish yellow with only the terminal tarsal seg 
ments dark brown. 

Wings whitish subhyaline; veins pale. Venation: Sc long, Scl ending- 
opposite or just beyond midlength of Rs, Sc2 at tip of Sc\ ; Rs about 
twice the deflection of A'4+5; cell l.v/ .1/2 open by the atrophy of the 
outer deflection of .1/3; petiole of cell 2nd M2 shorter than the cell; 
K-isal deflection of Cu} close to the fork of .!/. 

Abdomen whitish, the segments with greenish reflexions. 

Habitat : 'Argentina. llolotyfc. S, (Juehrada Knmriillu, 
Ttu-unian, altitude 1600 meters, October 1(>. 1'PO ( V. Weiser), 

c, 9. rarutoptityl'cs. 3 6$. 


Geranomyia (Geranomyia) gaudens sp. n. 

General coloration of the thorax gray; halteres yellowish at base, 
the knohs brown ; wings subhyaline, handsomely spotted and clouded 
with brown and gray, this including a series of four brown subcostal 
spots; Sc long, cell 1st i\I2 closed; basal deflection of Cnl before the 
fork of M. 

$. Length (excluding rostrum) 8.6 mm.; wing 10.5 mm. 9. 
Length (excluding rostrum) 7.5-8 mm.; wing 8.8-9 mm.; rostrum 
4.5-4.7 mm. 

Rostrum elongate, the paraglossae beyond the palpi partly lost ; 
when entire, the rostrum would extend to at least one-third the length 
of the abdomen, dark brown, the palpi concolorous. Antennae dark 
brown, the flagellum broken. Front and anterior part of the vertex 
with a golden-yellow pollen; remainder of vertex dark brown, the 
broad median area and a narrow border adjoining the eyes more 

Pronotum gray, the lateral margins obscure yellow. Mesonotal prae- 
scutum dark gray with three lighter gray stripes, the median one of 
which is bisected anteriorly by a line of the ground color; scutum 
light gray, the lobes dark gray; scutellum reddish, gray pruinose : 
postnotum gray. Pleura brown, gray pruinose ; dorso-pleural membrane 
obscure huffy-yellow. Halteres white, the knobs dark brown, the base 
of the stem yellowish. 

Legs with the coxae yellow, the outer face infuscated. this including 
nearly the basal half of the fore coxae, a large area on the middle 
coxae and a slight cloud on the posterior coxae ; trochanters yellow ; 
remainder of legs broken except the basal half of the posterior femora 
which are testaceous. 

Wings subhyaline, handsomely spotted and clouded with brown and 
gray; stigma brown; a series of four dark brown areas in the sub- 
costal cell, the third at the origin of Rs, the last at 5V2; cord and outer 
end of cell 1st M2 seamed with brown ; conspicuous gray clouds in eel! 
R beneath the brown subcostal spots, before the ends of the outer 
radial cells, at the ends of both anal veins and in the anal angle of the 
wing ; veins pale, brown in the darkened areas. Venation : Sc long, 
Scl ending about opposite midlength of Rs, Sc2 at tip of Scl ; a super- 
numerary crossvein in cell 5Y; Rs long, angulated and slightly spurred 
at origin; r more than its length from the tip of R\: r-m obliterated 
by contact of the long deflection of R4 + 5 on ,1/1+2; in only about 
one-third to one-fourth of the outer deflection of Af 3 ; basal deflection 
of C'A at about one-third its length before the fork of M. 

Abdomen dark brown, the pleural appendages of the hypopygium ob- 
scure orange. 

Habitat: Argentina. Holotypc, $, San Pedro de Colalao, 
Tucumun, altitude 2500 meters, January 28, 1921 (V. Weiser). 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 209 

Allot\pc, 9 , Caspinchango, Catamarca, altitude 2500 meters, 
March 28, 1921 (V. Weiser). Paralyse, 9, with the allotype, 
March 2, 1921. 

The female is entirely similar to the male. The femora are 
yellow with a conspicuous, dark brown, suhterminal ring. 

Rhabdomastix (Sacandaga) complicata sp. n. 

General coloration dark brownish gray ; wings tinged with hrown. 
the extreme base paler in both sexes ; m short or obliterated ; male 
hypopygium with the outer pleural appendage bifid at apex, the lower 
arm bearing two long, chitinized teeth. 

$ . Length about 3.6 mm ; wing about 3.2 mm. 9 . Length 3.5-4 
mm. ; wing 3.6-4.2 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi brownish black. Antennae with the scapal seg- 
ments brownish black; flagellum slightly paler brown; flagellar seg- 
ments subglobular. Head dark brownish gray with a sparse bloom. 

Mesonotum dark brownish gray, the usual three praescutal stripes a 
little darker hrown but very poorly defined. Pleura brownish gray. 
Halteres light yellow. Legs black, the femoral bases in some cases a 
little paler, in other cases the femora nearly uniform throughout. 

Wings with a brownish tinge, the extreme base paler, this including 
the cells proximad of arculus ; veins brown. Venation : 5Y1 ending 
about opposite two-fifths the length of Rs, Sc2 near midlcngth of the 
distance between the origin of Rs and the tip of Scl ; r a short distance 
beyond the fork of M; cell 1st M2 closed; m short to lacking, cell 
2nd M2 in some cases being short-petiolate ; basal deflection of Cul 
a short distance beyond the fork of M. 

Abdomen dark brownish black. Male hypopygium generally similar 
to that in R. basnHs, but the outer pleural appendage much more com- 
plex, appearing as a narrow arm that is expanded apically and here 
deeply bifid, the lower branch being chitinized and deeply notched 
apically, the outer edge of this notch produced into two long, blackened 
teeth, the margins of the notch feebly denticulate ; inner pleural ap- 
pendage much longer and stouter than in basalts, only a little shorter 
than the outer pleural appendage. The digitiform lobe on the inner 
face of each pleurite is stouter than in basalts. Ovipositor with the 
valves horn-colored. 

Habitat: Argentina. Holotypc, $, Masao, Catamarca, alti- 
tude 2500 meters, February 10, 1921 (V. Weiser). Allotype, 
9 , Caspinchango, Catamarca, altitude 2500 meters, February 
23, 1921 (V. Weiser). l\iratopt\pcs, 5 9 's. 

Rhabdomastix complicata is allied to R. basalts Alex. (Ar- 
gentina), but is readily told by' the darker coloration, the al- 
most uniform wings in both sexes and the complex male hypo- 

210 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS f Jllly, '22 

Tipula amoenicornis sp. n. 

General coloration dull yellow ; antennae elongate, bicolorous, the 
basal enlargement of the segments dark brown, the remainder yellow : 
wings with a strong yellowish brown tinge, cells C and Sc more sat- 
urated ; abdomen reddish orange with a conspicuous black subterminal 

$ .- Length 12.5 mm. ; wing 12.3 mm. Frontal prolongation of the 
head brownish yellow, the palpi concolorous, with the terminal seg- 
ments darker. Antennae elongate, if bent backward extending to 
beyond the base of the abdomen; scapal segments obscure yellow; 
flagellar segments bicolorous, obscure yellow, the basal enlargement of 
each segment dark brown except at the extreme base; terminal flagel- 
lar segments broken. Head obscure brownish yellow. 

Mesonotum dull brownish yellow without markings, the posterior 
sclerites more testaceous. Pleura yellowish testaceous. Halteres pale, 
the knobs faintly darker. Legs with the coxae and trochanters light 
yellow ; remainder of the legs pale yellowish brown, only the tarsi 
passing into dark brown. 

Wings with a strong yellowish brown tinge, the base and cells C 
and Sc more saturated ; stigma small, oval, brown ; a conspicuous oblit- 
erative area before the stigma, reappearing across the base of cell 1st 
M2 ; veins dark brown. Venation : Rs short, arcuated beyond mid- 
length ; cell 2nd Rl very small; parallel-sided; tip of R2 preserved; 
cell A/1 about twice the length of its petiole; cell 1st .1/2 narrowed 
distally, ;;; being about two-thirds the basal deflection of A/1 +2; m-cu 

Abdomen conspicuous reddish orange ; conspicuous black areas on 
lateral margins of tergites two, three and four ; a conspicuous black 
ring including all of segment seven and all of eight except the broad 
posterior margin of the eighth sternite. Male hypopygium with all 
the sclerites separate, the ninth pleurite large. Caudal margin of the 
ninth tergite with a shallow V-shaped notch, the mesal margins of the 
lobes densely hairy ; ventro-median portion of the tergite at the apex 
of the notch produced into a pendulous, bilobed appendage that is 
densely hairy. Pleural appendage flattened, the apex narrowly mar- 
gined with black, at the base on the outer face a conspicuous blackened 
lobe that is microscopically spinulose. Ninth sternite extensive, the 
median portion filled with membrane, at the caudal margin of which 
hangs a very conspicuous, median, elongate, slender, hairy lobe that is 
split at the apex into two small, digitiform appendages. Eighth sternite 

Habitat : Argentina. Holotypc, <3 , San Pedro de Colalao, 
Tucuman, altitude 2500 meters, January 27, 1921 (V. Weiser). 


Notes on the Distribution and Synonymy of Some 
Species of Pterophoridae (Lepid.) 

By A. W. LINDSEY, M.S.. Ph.D., Sioux City, Iowa. 

Four months have elapsed between the publication of the 
Pterophoridae of America, North of Mexico and the writing 
of this paper, yet in that short time a number of interesting 
data have been, added to our knowledge of this family. These 
data have been derived from three sources, viz., some notes on 
synonymy very kindly communicated by Mr. Edward Meyrick, 
a considerable number of specimens from British Columbia 
submitted by Mr. E. H. P>lackmore for identification, and two 
specimens yet a remarkable catch which were the only 
Pterophoridae secured by the writer after his removal to Sioux 
City in the fall of 1921. 

Mr. Meyrick's notes are placed at the end of the paper. 
Credit for them is due entirely to their author, who states in a 
letter of October 27, 1921, that they are to be published in 
The Entomologist. They are included here by his permission, 
in order that they may be more readily available to lepidop- 
terists on this side of the Atlantic, and are quoted without 
change, aside from a few omissions, and without criticism. 
The writer would suggest, however, that it can do no harm 
and may do some good if anyone with both exotic and indi- 
genous material will check these conclusions, especially by an 
examination of the male genitalia. While it is certain that the 
utility of these structures is limited, they are frequently con- 

For the successful use of genitalia in classification the fol- 
lowing rules are a useful guide : 

1. Study complete genitalia, not merely the valves. 

2. Genitalia are subject to variation, in form within the spe- 
cies. A striking example is that of Hcspcria tesscllata Scud., 
including occidentalis Skinner. 

3. Conspicuous differences between the genitalia of speci- 
mens or series indicate that they belong to different species. 
If only slight differences exist they may indicate specific dis- 
tinctness, but in such cases it is necessary to prove by the exam- 


ination of series from various localities that the differences 
are constant. 

4. Distinct species may possess genitalia indistinguishable 
from each other. Example: Oidaematophorus homodactyhis 
Wlk. and O. clliottii Fern. 

TRICHOPTILUS PYGMAEUS Wlsm. A single fragmentary specimen from 
Wellington, British Columbia, June 30, seems to belong here. 

PLATYPTILIA TESSERADACTYLA Linn. One $ , Princeton, British Colum- 
bia, June 20, confirms the occurrence of this species in British 
Columbia. A second specimen from Vernon, B. C, sent in by Mr. 
Blackmore, is much browner than any other North American 
specimen seen by the writer. It is quite like European specimens. 

STENOPTIUA MENGELI Fern. One specimen from Mt. McLean, British 
Columbia, 5000 ft., Aug. This specimen is much paler than the 
Greenland type series, and even paler than the single Colorado 
specimen mentioned in the Rci'ision, due to the paler gray shade 
and the more extensive pale over-scaling on the inner part of the 
primaries. The costal lobe has an evident dark dash and the dot 
at the base of the cleft is conspicuous. This specimen extends 
the known range of the species remarkably, and strengthens the 
writer's belief, as expressed in the Revision, that it may prove to 
be circumpolar. 

OIDAEMATOPHORUS occiDENTALis Wlsm. Two specimens. Vavenby, 
July 25, and Fort Steele, both British Columbia, August 15. 

O. MATHEWIANUS Zell. Specimens from Kaslo, Mt. McLean and 
Lillooet, British Columbia, Aug., are much whiter than California!! 
specimens, with no discernible brownish shades. 

O. GRISESCENS Wlsm. Kaslo, British Columbia, August. 

O. FIELDI Wright. Two rather faded specimens from Atlin, British 
Columbia, appear to belong here. They check by both genitalia 
and superficial characters, excepting the rather dull brown color, 
and only the remarkable extension of range suggests any uncer- 

O. PHOERUS B. & L. Another British Columbia specimen taken at 
Kaslo, June 22, 1910, confirms the occurrence of the species this 
far north. 

O. FISHII Fern. One 9, Sioux City, Iowa, Sept. 3, 1921. An excellent 
specimen which seems referable only to this species, but it is as 
dark as California males. With the possible Manitoba record 
mentioned in the Rci'ision, it suggests that the species may b^ 
found to range well to the north, becoming darker in higher lati- 

O. IOBATES B. & L. One 9, Sioux City, Iowa, Sept., 1921. This speci- 
men extends the range of the species quite unexpectedly, but it is 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 213 

so nearly normal and perfect as to leave no doubt of its identity. 
The record is quite in keeping with others made in this region. 

O. HELLIANTHI Wlsm. One $ , South Fork Kaslo Creek, British Co- 
lumbia, August 10, 1903. This may be the same specimen listed 
with doubt by Dr. Dyar (Proc. U. S. N. M., xxvii, 924, 1904). 

O. BALANOTES Meyrick. Mr. F. H. Benjamin sent specimens to the 
museum at Decatur which were reared at Landon, Mississippi, 
Aug. 7, 1921, from larvae boring in the stems of "Myreca" 
(Myrlcaf). No doubt either Mr. Benjamin or Mr. L. E. Miles, 
who reared the specimens, will be able to furnish an account of the 
life history later. 

Mr. Mey rick's remarks on synonymy are as follows : 

"Platyftilia crcnulata is a synonym of brachymorpha Meyr. 
(Africa, S. Asia, Ceylon, Hawaii) ; quite certain, your figure 
is very characteristic. 

"PlatyptUia inannarodactyla Dyar is a synonym of fnsci- 
cornis Zell., common in South America and Hawaii ; I have 
many specimens from Hawaii, Peru, etc., and there is no ques- 
tion about it. Also I note that one of Walsingham's figures of 
cosnwdactyla (Pter. Cal. Oreg., pi. ii, 4) (not the other two) 
is certainly this species, the different position of the scaletuft 
of hindwings and other characteristics being accurately given. 

"Ptcrophorus (Oidaematoplwrus} linns is a synonym of 
licnigianns Zell. (Europe, Africa, India, Ceylon, S. America) ; 
I am very familiar with this species, which is common in 
India and Africa, and there is no doubt about it. 

"Orneodes (Alncita] montana is in my opinion ... a syno- 
nym of hiirbneri Wall. (Europe, throughout Africa, and 
Kashmir)." Mr. Meyrick also adds a discussion of the char- 
acters which lead him to the last conclusion. 

Quite in keeping with the writer's private views, Mr. Mey- 
rick expresses the belief that PlatyptUia shastac and frac/ilis 
Wlsm. are synonyms of albida Wlsm. It may be added that 
Mr. Meyrick's knowledge of marmarodactyla Dyar and mon- 
tana Ckll. is based in part upon authentic specimens sent from 
the museum at Decatur, part of the material used in the prep- 
aration of the Revision. The remaining synonymies are ap- 
parently deduced In mi the descriptions and figures included in 
the Revision. 


Further Biological and Systematic Notes Concerning 

Bremus kincaidii Ckll. and Other Closely Related 

Species (Hym., Bombidae). 

By THEODORE H. PRISON, Urbana, Illinois. 

In a recent article on the Hymenopterous Insects of the 
Family Brcmidac from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, published 
in Volume XII, Number 14, Fourth Series, Proceedings of 
the California Academy of Sciences, I list a queen and a 
worker of Brcmns (Bonibus) kincaidii (Ckll.) from St. Paul 
Island. Because of the rareness of this species in collections 
and our lack of biological data concerning the same, it seems 
advisable to record in addition five adults and two pupae. These 
specimens were sent me for study too late for the data to be 
included in the article just cited. Two of the five adults are 
queens, two are workers and one is a male, all collected on St. 
Paul Island on August 10, 1920, by Dr. G. Dallas Hanna. The 
two queen pupae were collected on the same date and at the 
same locality as the adults. 

The presence O'f the male and two queen pupae, in the lot 
of bumblebees last received from the Pribilof Islands, enables 
me to extend somewhat my previous biological remarks about 
this species. One of the queens collected on August 10 is in 
perfect condition, indicating that she was produced the same 
season as collected. That August 10 is not too early a date 
at which to expect the new queens of this species is evidenced 
by the fact that the two queen pupae taken on this date are 
in an advanced stage of development, and further that a male 
was captured at the same time. There is every reason to 
believe that in the far northern latitudes, as well as in the 
more temperate regions of North America, the males do not 
hibernate during the winter as do the impregnated queens. 
The time of appearance of the sexes is usually well correlated, 
though it is true the males often show a tendency to appear in 
advance of the new queens. The early production of males 
and queens and the formation of small-sized colonies were noted 
in my paper as phenomena to be expected in the life-histories 
of bumblebees, which inhabit far northern latitudes. Friese, 
in Fauna Arctica, 1902, V. 2, p. 490, has advanced the idea 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 215 

that in the cold regions B, kirbyellus (Curtis) and B. liypcr- 
borcus (Schonherr) in some instances apparently produce only 
queens and males, a condition characteristic of solitary bees. 

B re ni us kincaidii is also interesting from a systematic stand- 
point, as it belongs to a boreal group of bumblebees (Kirbyellus 
Group Franklin) which presents many classificatory difficulties. 
Franklin has suggested that this species may eventually prove 
to be a "color variant or subspecies of strcnuiis or polaris." 
Through the kindness of Mr. E. T. Cresson, Jr., the writer 
has had the privilege of comparing Brcmns kincaidii with the 
type specimens of Brcmns strcniius (Cress.) and a series of 
Brcmns polaris (Curtis) contained in the collection of the 
American Entomological Society at Philadelphia. 

As a result of this study I am forced to the conviction that 
B. kincaidii, B. strcnuus and B. polaris are distinct species. 
An examination of the genitalia of B. kincaidii bears out the 
close relationship existing between all three species, particularly 
its affinity with B. polaris. The inner spatha of B. kincaidii 
has the general shape of the same structure in B. polaris as 
delineated by Sladen (1919) and Franklin (1913). In the 
specimen of B. kincaidii before me, the lateral margins of 
the triangular-shaped apex of this structure are much straighter 
than in B. polaris. In this last-named species, the lateral 
margins of the triangular-shaped apex are inclined to be more 
or less curved inward. The setae occurring on the inner spatha 
are also more restricted to the tip and lateral margins of the 
apex in B. kincaidii than in B. polaris. In B. polaris these 
setae are more evenly distributed over the entire tip of the 
triangular-shaped apex. Furthermore, in B. kincaidii the setae 
do not extend to the two parallel, longitudinal lines or more 
strongly chitinized areas, as is the case in B. polaris. The 
claspers of B. polaris and B. kincaidii are almost identical. The 
male of B. kincaidii collected by Dr. Hanna has the apical dorsal 
abdominal segments predominantly black, whereas in B. polaris 
these segments are normally ferruginous or have a large amount 
of light-colored hairs. B. kincaidii is also less robust than B. 
polaris, judging by the spc-cimens I have studied. 

An examination of the genitalia of the al'otype male of B. 


strcnitus proves this species to be distinct from both B. polaris 
and B. kincaidii. Unfortunately museum pests have injured 
the internal abdominal structures of this male, but enough of 
the gen.italia and inner spatha remain to establish the validity 
of the species. The apex of the inner spatha of B. strenuns 
does not end in a conspicuous triangular projection. Instead 
it is somewhat blunt and trilobed, the central lobe being larger 
than either of the two lateral lobes. In some respects the 
inner spatha is similar in outline to Sladen's figure of the inner 
spatha of B. neoborciis (Sladen), a species recently described 
from Bernard Harbour, Northwest Territories, in the Report 
<>i the Canadian Arctic Expedition. In this latter species, how- 
ever, the lateral angles of the apex of the inner spatha are 
sharply pointed and the extreme apex or middle portion is 
blunt and slightly curved inward. 

The shape of the inner spatha of B. kincaidii distinctly sep- 
arates it from B. hyperboreus and B. kirbycllits, the only other 
described American species of the Kirbyellus Group not already 
discussed in the systematic portion of this paper. 

The University of Michigan- Williamson Expedition to Brazil. 

The expedition remained at Villa Martinho (see this volume of the 
NEWS, page 186) until April 9, when they went by launch upstream to 
Villa Bella, Bolivia, on the point of land at the junction of the Beni 
and Mamore rivers to form the Madeira, and thence four hours up the 
Rio Beni to Cashuela Espcranza. This little town of 200 to 300 people 
is in the Provincia de Vaca Diez, Bolivia, at the falls of the Rio Beni. 
It is the headquarters of Suarez Brothers, the rubber kings of the dis- 
trict, and due to their wealth the town has a good hotel, ice plant, elec- 
tric light plant, etc. ; it is built on granite rocks on the right bank of the 
river. The falls were about 7 feet high at the time of the party's visit; 
they are said to be 15 feet high when the stream is at low water. On 
April 12 it was noted that the Beni had fallen about 7 teet liom tlm 
year's high water mark. 

At Villa Martinho on March 31, it is recorded that "little gnats, sand 
Hies and other pestiferous insects abounded." Wasps, bees and spiders 
were abundant in the woods at Cashuela Esperanza on April 12 and 
following days. From the latter place collections were made also along 
the Yata river trail. On April 15, Mr. J. H. Williamson was taken 
with malaria, wherefore he went down stream to Candelaria where is a 
hospital in which he recovered in about ten days. Returning to Porto 
Velho collecting was resumed on April 25. Both at Villa Martinho and 
at Cashuela Esperanza there was much rain. On April 25 their Odonata 
were estimated at 50'.)S specimens of 128 species. (From Mr. Jesse 
H. Williamson's letters and "log.") 



On Firing Shot. 

One of the most interesting addresses, presidential or other- 
wise, which we have read for a long while is that entitled The 
Factor of Safety in Research, by the President of the Michigan 
Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, published in Science 
lor May 12, 1922. Those who enjoyed it, as we did, will 
recall that a thesis maintained was : 

The training- of young investigators on a diet of insignificant prob- 
lems is not inevitably fatal and may even be beneficial. 

[Again:! The principle of this method is one which has been widely 
adopted in other affairs of life and has been found good. Firing a 
whole cartridge full of shot in order that one ball may bring down 
the game is a recognized principle of the huntsman. Is the remaining 
shot wasted ? It is. Is the system which uses cartridges of shot, most 
of which is wasted, an uneconomical one? Any hunter will tell you 
it is not. The bullets of a machine gun are mostly wasted, but the 
system as a whole insures hitting the mark. 

But if we have been trained on this method and we do not 
presume to suggest a better that is no reason why we should 
be content with thereafter wasting many shot in our marks- 
manship. There are those who take up one little problem after 
another, as such chance their way, without apparently looking 
into the future to form an opinion whether such chance re- 
search will ever lead to the solution of some larger question 
of pure or applied knowledge. It is surely better for each one 
to consider the possibility of his mastering some broader 
problem and of directing his continued efforts thereto through 
the years which may be his for research. 

On the Types of Gnamptonychia ventralis, B. & L., a Correction 

(Lepid., Arctiidae). 

In the original description of Gnamptonychia ventralts, B. & !_,., IS^i, 
Entomological News, xxxii, 297, instead of "two paratypcs 9," read 

"two paralypes $ ." 




Notes and Ne^vs. 



A Braconid Feeding by Indirect Suction (Hym.). 

Many notes have been published during the last few years on the 
feeding of parasitic Hymenoptera at the puncture hole made by the 
ovipositor ; but B. Trouvelot, in the C. R. Soc. de Biologic, December 
3, 1921, has published a note which brings in a new feature. The 
American Braconid, Habrobracon johansenni Vier., has been sent over 
to France by the Bureau of Entomology for the purpose of securing 1 
its establishment there, since it is a parasite of the potato tuber moth. 
It lays its egg in the larva of this moth after the latter has made its 
cocoon, and this cocoon is naturally considerably larger than the larva ; 
therefore, when the parasite lays its egg by thrusting its ovipositor 
through the silken cocoon it is not able to feed at the puncture. 
Trouvelot finds that when the Habrobracon, standing on the silken 
cocoon, has thrust its ovipositor through the skin of the caterpillar it 
secretes from the extremity of its abdomen a mucilaginous tube, which 
hardens; then, after the ovipositor is withdrawn, the Braconid sucks 
the juices of its host through this tube. 

My attention to this interesting communication was drawn by a note 
which Doctor Feytaud has published in the Rci'uc dc Zooloyic Agricolc 
et Appliquce (Bordeaux, January, 1922, p. 18). Doctor Feytaud adds 
that J. L- IJchtenstein has noticed a similar procedure with Habrocytus 
cionicida, a Chalcidid parasite of Clonus thapsi. 

A similar habit will surely be found among the parasitic Hymen- 
optera in this! country, and the object in sending this note to Entomo- 
logical Neil's is to ask its readers to watch for such cases.- L. O. 

The Kiangsu Bureau of Entomology. 

The Bureau of Entomology, Kiangsu Province, National Southeastern 
University, College of Agriculture, Nanking, China, has been organ- 
ized with the following staff : Charles William Woodworth, Director 
and Chief Entomologist; Goey Park Jung- and C. Francis Wu, Ento- 
mologists; H. S. Chang, Entomologist and Curator; Huan-cjuang En, 
Secretary and Editor ; Fo-ching Woo, Tsong-ling Tsou, Chi-yeu Wang, 
We-i Young, Laboratory Assistants ; M. S. Chang, Pai-han Wang, 

The Bureau is fitting up a houseboat 48x11 as a floating laboratory for 
its field investigations. It will provide living quarters for four Ento- 
mologists and four sailors. The canals in this province will make it 
possible to take this laboratory within easy walking distance of every 
farm. There will be a motor boat to tow and tend the houseboat. 

The Bureau has undertaken the control of the flies and mosquitoes 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 21 ( ) 

in co-operation with the city health^ department which contributes the 
funds and the services of twenty police olhccrs. Seventeen stiulents of 
the Southeastern University also lake part in the campaign. 

The Bureau has just begun the publication ol a semi-monthly Bulle- 
tin which will be devoted largely to recording the distribution and 
injuries done by insect pests in China and each number will contain one 
or more articles on some phase of Economic Entomology. 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
1 1. 1111.1, iny. Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Einto- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, Guelph, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 8 The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 
10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, D. C. 
11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 16 The 
Lepidopterist, Salem, Mass. 20 Bulletin de la Societe Entomolo- 
gique de France, Paris. 21 The Entomologist's Record, London. 
33 Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Brussels. 
36 Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 42 En- 
tomologiske Meddelelser udgivne af Entomologisk Forening, Kjo- 
benhavn. 50 Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 
67 Le Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 68 Science, Garrison on the 
Hudson, N. Y. 71 Novitates Zoologicae, Tring, England. 89 
Zoologische Jahrbucher, Jena. 90 The American Naturalist, Lan- 
caster, Pa. 91 The Scientific Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 95 Annales 
des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, Zoolog'ie. 98 Annals of Tropical 
Medicine and Parasitology, Liverpool. 102 Broteria. Re-vista 
Lusco Brazileira. Serie Zoologica, Braga. Ill Archiv fur Natur- 
gcschichte, Berlin. 

GENERAL. Bainbrigge Fletcher, T. Setting without boards. 
(Proc. Fourth Ent. Meet. 1'usa, 334-5.) Felt, E. P. Bugs and 
antennae. 68, Iv, ,V2S-:i(). Harmer, S. F. Experiments on the fading 
of museum specimens. (Museum Jour. London, xxi, 205-22.) Hew- 
lett, F. M. -Tlie practical application of insect psychology. (Proc. 


Fourth Ent. Meet., Pusa, 368-80.) Merle, R. Animaux veninieux 
et venins. (La Nature, 1, 225-9.) O'Donoghue, C. H. A prelim- 
inary survey of the biota of a sand spit in Lake Winnipeg. (Cana- 
dian Field-Nat., xxxv, 121-31.) Sladen, F. W. L. Obituary. 8, 
Iviii, 111-13. Tavares, J. S. Cecidologia Brazileira as restantes fanii- 
lias. 102, Zool., xx, 5-48. Wheeler, W. M. Social life among in- 
sects. 91, xiv, 497-524. Note In 36, 1921, Part 5, there are a 
number of articles on the behavior of several orders of insects which 
may prove of interest. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Donisthorpe, H. On some 
abnormalities in ants. 21, xxxiv, 81-5. Forbes, W. T. M. Fugitive 
net-veining in the cicada. 90, Ivi, 191-2. Goffer je, M. Uber den 
einfluss verschiedener salze auf die entwicklungsdauer von Culex 
pipiens, und auf das verhalten dcr Culex-larven wahrend der sub- 
mersion. 89, xxxix, Abt. f. Zool. 195-300. Hayes, W. P. The ex- 
ternal morphology of Lachnosterna crassissima. (Trans. Amer. 
Microsc. Soc., xli, 1-28.) Hewlett, F. M. Protective movements 
and range of vision in platypezid flies. (Pro. Fourth Ent. Meet., 
Pusa, 279-86.) Lutz & Richtmyer The reaction of Drosophila to 
ultraviolet. .68, Iv, 519. Sparck, R. Beitrage zur kenntnis der 
Chironomiden-metamorphose, I-IV. 42, xiv, 32-48 (cont.) Stumper, 
R. Le venin des fourmis en particulier 1'acide formique. 95, v, 
105-12. Welch, P. S. The respiratory mechanism in certain aquatic 
lepidoptera. (Trans. Amer. Microscop. Soc., xli, 29-50.) 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Chamberlin, R. V. A new Lithobiid of 
the genus Paobius. 4, liv, 47-8. 

NEUROPTERA. Banks, N. South Am. Glenurus and some 
other Myrmeleonidae. 4, liv, 58-60. Holland, W. J. Calopteryx 
maculata, an interesting photograph. 10, xxiv, 117-8. 

ORTHOPTERA. Caudell, A. N. Report on Orthoptera and 
Dermaptera collected by the Barbados-Antigua expedition from the 
University of Iowa in 1918. (LIniv. Iowa Studies, x, 19-14.) Cor- 
kins, C. L. Notes on the migration of Melanoplus atlanis in north- 
ern North Dakota in 1920. 4, liv, 1-4. 

HEMIPTERA. Champion, G. C. Miridae (Capsidae) common 
to Britain and N. America. 8, Iviii, 109. Hussey, R. F. Notes on 
Neottiglossa trilineata. (Pentatomidae.) 5, xxix, 85-8. Morrison & 
Morrison A redescription of the type species of the genera of Coc- 
cidae based on species originally described by Maskell. 50, Ix, Art. 
12. Muir, F. On the genus Elidiptera (Homoptcra). 4, liv. 61. 
The Scutelleroidea of the Douglas Lake region. (LIniv. Iowa 
Studies, x, 45-65.) Stoner, D. Report on the Scutelleroidea col- 
lected by the Barbados-Antigua expedition from the University of 
Iowa in 1918. (Univ. Iowa Studies, x, 3-17.) 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 221 

LEPIDOPTERA. Blackmore, E. H. The Pterophoridac of 
British Columbia. (Kept. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist., Victoria, 1921, 
34-45.) Dyar, H. G. The family position of Platyprepia and other 
notes. 4, liv, 20-1. Jordan, K. On an organ peculiar to the females 
of some genera of Ludiinae, a subfamily of Saturniidae. A mono- 
graph of the Saturnian subfamily Ludiinae. 71, xxix, 247-8; 249-326. 
Prout, L. B. New and little-known Geometridae. 71, xxix, 327-63. 
Rothschild, L. A preliminary list of the Arctiinae of Para, Brazil, 
and a few from other localities. 11, ix, 457-94. 

Cassino & Swett New Geometrids. 16, iii, 159-66. McDunnough, 
J. Undescribed L. in the Canadian Nat. Collection. A further note 
on the genus Platyprepia. 4, liv, 34-47; 66. 

DIPTERA. Chapais, J. C. Moustiques, brulots, siimtlies. 67, 
xlviii, 221-4. Frey, R. Studien uber den ban des mindes der nie- 
deren diptera schizophora nebst bemerkungen uber die systematik 
dieser dipterengruppe. (Acta Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennica, xlviii, 
No. 3, 246 pp., 1921.) Johnson, C. W. Notes on distribution and 
habits of some of the bird-flies, Hippoboscidae. 5, xxix, 79-85. 
Melander, A. L. Microsania, a genus of the Platypezidae. 5, xxix, 
43-48. Newstead, R. A new species of Phlebotomus from Trinidad. 
98, xvi, 47-50. Tothill, J. D. Note on types of Ernestia. (Tachini- 
dae.) 4, liv, 48. Walter, E. Beitrage zur kenntnis dcr larven von 
Hypoderma und Gastrus. 89, xlv, Abt. f. Syst., 587-608. 

Aldrich, J. M. Two-winged flies of the genera Dolichopus and 
Hydrophorus .collected in Alaska, with new species of Dolichopus 
from North America and Hawaii. 50, Ixi, Art. 25. Curran, C. H. 
New species of Canadian Syrphidae. II. New species of the syr- 
,)hid genus Chilosia from Canada. 4, liv, 14-19; 19-20. Greene, C. T. 
Synopsis of the North American flies of the genus Tachytrechus. 
50, Ix, Art. 17. 

"~COLEOPTERA. Brethes, J. Notas coleopterologicas. (Revista 
Facult. Agron., La Plata, xiv, 163-9.) Fisher, W. S. Notes on 
Agrilus lateralis. 10, xxiv, 124-5. Fleutiaux, E. Description d'un 
genre nouveau et d'un cspece nouvelle de Melasidae. 20, 1922, 7:2. 
Kleine, R. Die geographische verbreitung der Brenthidae. Ill, 
1921, A, 10, :',9-132. d'Orchymont, A. Le genre Tropisternus. II. 
(Hydrophilidae.) 33, 1922, 11-18. Sloane, T. G. On the number of 
joints in the antennae of Haliplidac and Patissidae. 36, 1921, 590-1. 
Strand, E. Lepidopterorum catalogus. Pars 26: Arcliidae: Litho- 
siinae. Weiss, H. B. A summary of the food-habits of North 
American coleoptera. 90, Ivi, 159-65. Wickham, H. F.-- -Weevils 
of the genus Apion injurious to beans in Mexico. 10, xxiv. 118-22. 

Blatchley, W. S. Some new and rare C. from southwestern 
Florida. 4, liv, 9-1! (cont.). Calder, E. E. Xew Cicindelas of the 
fulgida group. 4, liv, 62. Hippisley, W. W. Notes on northern 


Br. Columbian coleoptera. 4, liv, fi.3-6. Liljeblad, E. A revision of 
the N. A. species of Mordella related to M. melaena. 4, liv, 51-5S. 

HYMENOPTERA. Caudell, A. N. A diving wasp. 10, xxiv, 
125-6. Crawley, W. C. Formicidae. A new species and variety. 
21, xxxiv, 85-6. Cushman, R. A. The identity of Habrobracon bre- 
vicornis. 10, xxiv, 122-3. Donisthorpe, H. Mimicry of ants by 
other arthropods. 36, 1<)21, 307-11. The subfamilies of Formicidae. 
36, 1921, xl-xlvii. Friese, H. Eine neue gattung der Urbienen: 
Brachyglossa n. g. (Apidae). Eine neue bienengattung aus Sudanie- 
rika: Rhinetula (Apidae). 89, xlv, Abt. f. Syst., 577-80; 581-8(1. 
Hill, C. C. A preliminary account of two Serphoid (Proctotrypoid) 
parasites of the hessian fly. 10, xxiv, 109-17. Middleton, W. De- 
scription of some N. American sawfly larvae. 50, Ixi, Art. 21. Tay- 
lor, L. H. Notes on the biology of certain wasps of the genus Ancis- 
trocerus. 5, xxix, 48-65. 

Cushman, R. A. On the Ashmead manuscript species of Ichneu- 
monidae of Mrs. Slosson's Mount Washington lists. 50, Ixi, Art. 8. 
Gahan, A. B. Descriptions of miscellaneous new reared parasitic H. 
50, Ixi, Art. 24. 

O. HOWARD. Illustrated, New York, The Century Co., 1922. 12 mo. 
pp. xvii, 377. 16 figs., $2.00. It is very fitting that this volume by the 
Vice President of the Academy of Agriculture of France should be 
translated by a Member of the same academy and that the latter in 
his preface should sketch the chief biological activities of the author 
and the interest which the present work aroused in the translator. 
Dr. Howard writes that it is "a broad summary of an interesting field 
in which much work has been done by many men of many nations, but 
which is as yet almost unexplored. It has interested me enormously, 
and I feel sure that it will have the same interest, not only for students 
of some one restricted field of biology, but also for all nature-lovers, 
especially those to whom the constant question 'why' occurs." 

Many of us who knew this work in the original French, before the 
publication of Dr. Howard's translation, owed our introduction to it 
to Dr. W. M. Wheeler's review in Science for November 13, 1920, 
pages 443-446. In view of the existence of that review and its recent 
appearance it is not necessary to give here more than the merest out- 
line of its contents. 

After a brief Introduction the original is divided into a Fundamental 
and a Special Part, but although the former appears as a heading 
in the translation (page 1), the latter must be sought on page 196. The 
Fundamental Part embraces the first nine chapters : I. Directive Action 
of Light, Phototropism ; II. The Differential External Stimuli and 
the Tropisms which they provoke. III. Vital Rhythms and Organic 
Memory. IV. Differential Sensitiveness. V. Differential Sensitiveness, 

xxxiii, '22 j ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 22,^ 

Species Memory and Simulation of Death. VI. Individual or Asso- 
ciative Memory. VII. Spontaneous Modifications of Habits. VIII. 
Evolution of Instincts. IX. Comparative Psychology. History of the 
Pompilids. The Special Part comprises the following five chapters : 
X. Insects and Flowers. XI. The Faculty of Orientation. XII. The 
Faculty of Orientation [in] Terrestrial Articulates. XIII. The Divi- 
sion of [the] Sexes [in] the Nest-Making Hymenoptera. XIV. The 
Social Life of the Articulates and a Conclusion, containing, among 
other topics, that interesting comparison between the structural bases 
of the psychic life of Vertebrates and Insects respectively which is 
largely due to Bergson. 

We confess that we can not always extract the same meaning from 
the original as the translator has done. We would have written "wake- 
fulness," instead of "age," in the last line of page 168. On page 328 
we would have preferred "polygynous" and "polygyny" to "polygenous" 
and "polygeny," and would have substituted "which the workers some 
times produce" for the second line of page 345. On page 342, "Bonnier" 
should be "Bugnion." 

The translation is improved, in comparison with the original, by the 
fuller references to the places of publication of the literature quoted 
in the foot notes and by the addition of an index of more than twelve 
pages, even though some entries, c. g., trophobiosis, page 334, may have 
been omitted therefrom. 

That Dr. Howard's translation will add greatly to the available' litera- 
ture in English on this entrancing subject is evident and we wish to be 
among the first to appreciate his labors and to offer him our thanks. 

Held at Pusa on the 7th to 12th February, 1921. Edited by T. BAIN- 
HRIGCE FLETCHER, R. N., etc., Imperial Entomologist. Calcutta Super- 
intendent Government Printing, India, 1921. Price Rs. 7 As. 8. 8vo. 
pp. xli, 401, pis. Ivii. - The Proceedings of this Fourth meeting 

occupy one volume as compared with three for those of the Third 
meeting (see the NEWS. vol. xxxii, pp. 221-222). The names of 42 
members and 2 visitors are given as having taken part. Fifty papers 
and reports are included, grouped as dealing with Crop Pests (21), 
Forest Entomology (1), Medical and Veterinary Entomology (8), 
Household and Store Pests (1). Lac C2), Life-histories and Bionomics 
(9), Collection and Preservation (1), Systematic Entomology (2). 
Publications (1), Miscellaneous (4). As we remarked last year also. 
some of these articles will be useful to economic entomologists of 
other lands as well as to those working in India. Certain other papers 
on mosquitoes and means of checking them, on Colcoptera in the human 
intestine (R. Senior White and K. Sen.) ; on the proportion of the 
female forms of Papilio polytcs (by Prof. E. B. Poulton), the ovi- 


position of Gynacantha (T. B. Fletcher), on life histories of Culicoides 
oxystoma, of Gracilaria soyella and its parasite, Asympicsiella india, of 
Stauropus alternates and of two species of Celyphidae ; Gynandromor- 
phism of Mcgachilc bicolor, etc., will appeal to a wide circle of extra- 
Indian students. Mr. T. B. Fletcher contributes an English translation of 
Dr. Johann Gerhard Koenig's rare paper on South Indian Termites from 
the fourth volume of the Beschaftigungen dcr Bcrlinischen Gcsdlsclwft 
Natwforschenden Frcunde (1779), preceded by a biographical note on 
the author, a pupil of Linneaus, who lived in India from about 1767 
to his death there on June 26, 1785. Mr. Fletcher regards Koenig's 
paper as equally fundamental to the study of termites, from the his- 
torical standpoint, as the celebrated account by Smeathman. Mr. 
Fletcher also has a suggestion on setting insects without boards (shown 
on plate Ivi). Mr. T. V. Rama Krishna Ayyar furnishes a check list 
of Coccidae of the Indian Region and a list of parasitic Hymenoptera 
of economic importance from South India. A suggestive paper, ad- 
dressed chiefly to the economic entomologist, is by the late F. M. Hew- 
lett, The Practical Application of Insect Psychology, in which he 
pleads for the intensive study of the stimuli which determine the feed- 
ing, pairing and choice of a suitable nidus for the young of injurious 
insects, with the view of using these stimuli to provoke reactions of 
such species leading to their own destruction. P. P. CALVERT. 

The American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of February 23, 1922, in the hall of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Dr. Skinner presided ; six members and con- 
tributors to the Entomological Section of the Academy were present. 

Mr. Cresson, of the Property Committee, reported the following 
accessions to the Library: Zeitschrift des Oesterreichischen Entomolo- 
gen Vereins, Wicn, Jahr. 11 (1917) VI (1921) ; Konowia, Wien, Band 
I (1922) No. 1-2; and to the Cabinet, seven named Hymenoptera from 
the Hawaiian Islands by Dr. D. M. Castle. 

LF.PIDOPTERA. Dr. Skinner exhibited a series of Ncniiivix 
ridingsi and dionysHS from Colorado and South Utah respectively, llieit 
specific identity and distribution being the subject of a paper to be soon 
published by him (see the NEWS, xxxiii, page 74). 

ORTHOPTERA. Mr. Rehn spoke of a similar case in the Orllioptera, 
Acrochorcutcs carlinianus carlinianus, the Great Plains and Great Basin 
forms joining with intergrades through the Wyoming plains. 

There followed a general discussion of variation in insects due to 
climatic and topographic conditions in the western United Stales. 

COLEOPTERA. Mr. Homig exhibited larvae, cells and imagoes of Lasio- 
derma serricornc in mustard dust in the original tin container which ln 
had had for four years. 

R. C. WILLIAMS, JR., Recording Secretary. 


Fine perfect specimens of this grand rare species are offered ; also O. 
chimaera Zelotypia staceyi, superb rarity many others. Largest stock of 
exotic Coleoptera, rarities and unnamed series. Also the most important 
books on Entomology in stock. 

Janson & Sons, Natnralists & Booksellers 44, Great Russell St., London.W.C.I. 

pV"\D Q AI p* A large collection of butterflies Papilios 

only from all parts of the world. All 
mounted and classified in three large cabinets. 


14 Poplar Place, New Rochelle, N. Y. 



Published quarterly. Containing original articles on Economic Entomology (illustrated). Ann- 
ual Subscription in advance for Vol. xiii ( 1922), 155. post free ; separate parts 55. each, post 
free. Prices of back parts on application. 


Published monthly. Containing reviews of current works on Economic Entomology throughout 
the world. Published in two series, "A" dealing with insect pests of cultivated plants, and 
"B" dealing with insects conveying disease or otherwise injurious to man and animals 
Annual Subscription in advance for Vol. x (1922), Series "A" 125.; Series "B" 6s. post free. 
Prices of back parts on application. 

Publication Office : 41 Queen's Gate, London, S. W. 7. 


North American and Mexican Phanaeus and Monilerna. 
Will purchase or exchange. 

3854 West 26th Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

The Kiangsu Bureau of Entomology 
will collect Chinese insects in exchange 
for books or pamphlets on Entomology. Send list with prices and 
tell us what you want us to collect for you. Address 

C. W. WOODWORTH, Director, Nanking, China, or 
American P. O., Shanghai, China. 


From Colombia, South America : 

Morpho eypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 


From Venezuela : From New Guinea 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 2000 Coleoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus : Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) : 
Arrnandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 56-58 West 23d Street 

OCTOBER, 1922 


Vol. XXXIII No. 8 

i "34-" 93 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 





Logan Square 

Entered at the Philadelphia, Pa., Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage prescribed for in Section 1103, 

Act of October 3, 1917, authorized January 15, 1921. 


published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the 
Entomological Section of The Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, and The American Entomological Society. 




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communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt of the NEWS or of 
reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be addressed to Entomo- 
logical News, 1900 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

All complaints regarding non-receipt of issues of the NEWS should be 
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MANUSCRIPTS. Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. 
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OCTOBER, 1922 

No. 8 


Mason A Collecting Adventure Near 

Home ( Coleop. ) 225 

McDunnough Synonymic Notes on 
Lepidoptera 228 

Brimley Additional Data on North 
Carolina Tabanidae, Bombyliidae 
and Tachinidae ( Diptera ) 230 

French Catocala ulalume a Distinct 
Species ( Lepid., Noctuidae) 233 

Bro\ver Preparatory Stages of Cato- 
cala ulalume Str., with larva of C. 
lacrvmosa for Comparison (Lepid., 
Noctuidae) 234 

Kirk Biological Notes on Elateridae 

and Melasidae ( Col. ) 236 

Change of Address 240 

Foundation of a Brazilian Entomolo- 
gical Society 240 

Cuvier's Magnifying Glass 240 

Editorial The Need of Greater Preci- 
sion in Taxonomic Literature 241 

Mason Additions to the Coleoptera in 
The Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia 241 

Aldrich Mr. E. A. Schwarz, Honor- 
ary Ph . D 242 

The University of Michigan-William- 
son Expedition to Brazil 242 

Hebard The Stridulation of a North 
American Noctuid, Heliocheilus 
paradoxus Grote (Lep.) 244 

Hutchison The Muiford Biological 
Exploration of the Amazon Basin. 
Bulletin No. 9 245 

Kellogg The Exchange of Scientific 
Literature with Russia 24s 

Entomological Literature 246 

Review of Oberthu'r's Etudes de Lepi- 
dopterologie Comparee 251 

Review of Weiss's Professor Benedict 
Jaeger 252 

Review of Schmidt and Schenkling's 
Nomenclator Coleopterologicus... . 252 

Review of Stoner and Caudell in Uni- 
versity of Iowa Studies 253 

Review of Fletcher's Report of the Im- 
perial Entomologist, 1920-21 254 

Obituaries William Lucas Distant, 
George Alexander James Rothney, 
Arthur W. Bacot. Henry Rowland- 
Brown, Hans Fruhstorfer, Dr. Otto 
Taschenberg, Louis Bedel 254 

A Collecting Adventure Near Home (Coleop.). 

By FRANK R. MASON, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Early June, 1921, found Mr. Alan S. Nicolay, of Brooklyn, 
New York, and myself scouring' the subalpine region of the 
White Mountains, Xew Hampshire, in search of Coleoptera, 
especially the rarer forms of Cychrini. However most species 
of this group arc rare and require rather careful hunting. 

\Vc confined our efforts largely to the higher slopes of Mount 
Madison, Carter's Dome and up through Tuckennan's Ravine 
to the summit of Mount Washington ((>2S8 ft.). All these 
points are accessible from Glen House, Xew Hampshire, which 
is the center of the wildest remaining section of the White 
Mountain region, far enough removed from tin cans and lunch 
boxes and the blare of auto horns to occasionally see a wild-cat 
slink along the trail and often raise a covey of grouse in the 

denser thickets. 



Nomaretits bilobns Say, probably one of the rarest beetles 
in eastern North America and frequently confused in collec- 
tions with the more common fissicoUis Lee. and cavicollis Lee. 
from the Central States, was taken on Mount Madison at about 
forty-five hundred feet in heavy timber just below the lichened 
rocks, and two other specimens at a bit lower elevation in 
Tuckerman's Ravine under rotted bark. One specimen of the 
leonardi Harr. form of Scaphinotus vidmis Dej. found its way 
into our perfumed tin traps in the valley floor, the bait consist- 
ing of molasses and assafoetida, a most sickening solution, 
which I should think any self-respecting Cychrns would avoid. 
A dead mouse added to the brew sometimes makes it even more 
effective. Sphaerodcrns canadensis Chd. and Iccontci Dej. were 
more abundant companions of the others. 

Under the big summit rocks on Mount Washington we took 
in fair numbers Carabus chamissonis Fisch. var. groenlandicus 
Dej.; this is a species from The Labrador. Snow was found 
at the head-wall of Tuckerman's Ravine and, when marooned 
on the summit that night, the temperature dropped to twenty 
degrees ; and all this in June east of the Rockies was quite a 
surprise. The next morning the sprightly CicindelcC longilabris 
Say escorted us down the very easy wagon road. We took 
Pterostichus (Cryobius^hudsonicus Lee. and Pat rebus scptcn- 
trionis Dej. (a Palaearctic species) at six thousand feet and 
lower down Pterostichus ( Lyperophenis} pnnctatissimus 
Rand., as well as the commoner Pterostichus honestus Say, 
luczoti Dej., coracinus Newm., relict us Newm., etc., and when 
within five hundred yards of Glen House a single specimen of 
Pogonocherus fascicuJatiis Deg. (a Greenland longicorn) and 
Xylotrcchus aiinosus Say dropped into the sweep-net. 

Along the banks of the Peabody River (West Branch) I 
found Platidius rugicollis Rand., not common in collections, 
also many other less interesting Carabidae as Ncbria suturalis 
Lee., Pristodactyla advcna Lee., Trcchus chalybeus Dej., Lori- 
cera cocrulcscens L., Bembidion nitens Lee. and scopulinuiu. 

Pselaphidae and Scydniaenidae were very scarce, persistent 
sifting only secured three species; these families seem to dwin- 

xxxiii, '22 j ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 227 

die as one goes north. I think this is also true of the western 
part of the continent. 

On the bare, wind-swept rocks of Carter's Dome we took 
various good Elaterids : Lcptnroidcs dcnticornis Kby., Ludius 
spinosiis Lee., vireiis Schrank, triundtilatus Rand., etc. This 
type of collecting is much like picking berries, you scramble 
over the rocks and gather in the crop, with always those superb 
glimpses of tumbled mountains below you. But atmospheric 
conditions must be just right, bright sunshine and not too 
strong a breeze. Some days we found no insects on the 

Carter's Notch near the little lake yielded some interesting 
things: Scotodcs americanus Horn, Phryganophilus collaris 
Lee. ( n rare Melandryid), Schizotits ccri'icalis Xewm. and 
Pcdihts cvanipcnnis Bland., sunning themselves on fallen tim- 
ber. Some skinned poplar logs attracted Gaurotcs abdominalis 
Bland.. Anthnphilax attcnitatus Hald. and other longicorns. 
DicJiclony.r subvittata Lee., together with numerous Buprestids 
and Elaterids were beaten from oak, spruce and pine. In vain 
I searched near the type locality for Cicindela ancocisconensis 
Harr. ; I think we were too early. Clerids were few, probably 
for the same reason. 

The above is by no means a complete list of species, only 
the more striking captures being noted, a large number of 
other boreal ( 'oleoptera having been taken. Tn the valley the 
fauna was typically New England and general run; practically 
all the rarer species were found between three thousand and 
fifty-five hundred feet elevation. 

This tract of the \Yhite Mountains is a most interesting 
region, a lovely sylvan country of running mountain streams 
clear and cold, where the Pipes of Pan will wlvstle to you all 
day long and \\irh peaks high above timber-line to add a certain 
grandeur to it all. not often found among our eastern hills. The 
collecting, to be sure, is not bi/nrre and exotic like the tropics, 
neither are you subjected to the excessive discomforts of those 
hot countries. One great advantage, these mountains are almost 
in our back gardens; a trip of but fifteen hours by rail brings 
you to their very gateway. So 1 say to all entomologists, "why 
not go !" 


Synonymic Notes on Lepidoptera. 

By J. McDuNNoucH, Entomological Branch, Ottawa. 

In Entomological News, xxxii, p. 253, Drs. Barnes and 
Lindsey gave a few synonymic notes based on figures of some 
of Boisduval and Guenee's types published by Mr. C. Ober- 
thiir in Volume XXVII of his Etudes de Lepidopterologic 

Through the kindness of Dr. H. Skinner I have been able to 
examine a copy of the plates of this work and note a few 
additional changes in synonymy. 

Plate Dili, figs. 4193, 4194, Chdonia dons Bdv. According 
to the original descriptions Fig. 4194 agrees with doris and 
Fig. 4193 with ncrca Bdv. The species is, however, not arge 
Dru. as at present listed, but michabo Grt, and Boisduval's 
names will take priority. Typical doris has the lines and 
bands on primaries suffused with pink, whilst ncrca represents 
the white banded form. 

We have in the Canadian National Collection specimens 
from Calgary, Alberta, and Aweme, Manitoba, that agree well 
with ncrea, whilst specimens from Southern British Columbia 
approach closer to doris. .Michabo Grt., described from Ne- 
braska, falls to ncrca; mine a Sloss., described from, New 
Hampshire, is more intensely colored than doris and the name 
for the present may be held for the Atlantic Coast race. The 
synonymy will stand : 

doris Bdv. 

form nerea Bdv. 
michabo Grt. 
a. mine a Sloss. 

PI. DV, fig. 4217, Acronycta clarcsccns Gn. The species 
was described from specimens in the Guenee, Boisduval and 
Doubleday collections, the latter type being in the British 
Museum. According to the type figured by Mr. Oberthiir and 
to which we believe the name should be restricted, clarescens 
is evidently the same species as pruni Harris, but not the spe- 
cies figured by Hampson (Cat. Lep. Phal., Brit. Mus., VIII, 
80, PI. CXXIV, fig. 29) which belongs in the inclara group, 
showing no dark shade line between anal angle and t. p. line. 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 229 

The synonymy given by Hampson will hold, with the addition 
of smithi Butl. 

Plate DVI, fig. 4228, Macaria contcmptata Gn. This species 
must certainly be removed from the synonymy of granitata Gn. 
The figure represents a species quite different from the usual 
conception of granitata, but one that is unknown to me in 

Plate DVII, figs. 4237, 4238, Ypsipctes pluviata Gn. An 
examination of the excellent figures shows that not only are the 
two sexes not conspecific, but also that neither of them repre- 
sents the conception of the species as given in my Hydrioincna 
revision (1917, Barnes & McDunnough, Contributions, IV, 
(1), 24). Under the circumstances I propose restricting the 
name to the male type (Fig. 4238), which is apparently a 
rather worn specimen of what was listed in the revision as 
frigidata Wlk. ; the pale spot near the anal angle, the general 
trend of the lines and the dark hind wings all indicate this spe- 
cies ; an examination of the genitalia should easily verify this 
reference. With pluviata Gn. taking priority over frigidata 
Wlk. the name divisaria Wlk. may be used for the pluviata of 
the revision. The female (Fig. 4237) appears to belong to 
rcnnnciata Wlk., although somewhat smaller than usual. 

Plate DVII, fig. 4240, Corcnria dcfcnsaria Gn. I do not see 
how it is possible to consider this figure as correctly repre- 
senting the type of defensaria. Guenee's description was 
drawn up from a single male and he notes that the pectinations 
of the antennae are more robust than in convallaria Gn. ; in 
Oberthiir's figure the antennae show no signs of pectinations, 
being thread-like, and the specimen figured looks extremely 
like a female. Furthermore the remainder of the description 
does not fit the figure at all well, which, as a matter of fact, 
represents a specimen of Pcrizoma polygrammata Hist, or one 
of its close allies. Until further evidence can be produced it 
would be well to make no change in the present conception of 
dcfcnsaria; as pointed out by Mr. Swett, it is not a -form of 
convallaria, as given in the 1917 Check List, but a good spe- 


Additional Data on North Carolina Tabanidae, Bom- 
byliidae and Tachinidae (Diptera). 

By C. S. BRIMLEY, Division of Entomology, N. C. Dept. of 

Agriculture, N. C. 

The present paper is supplementary to those previously pub- 
lished in the NEWS as follows : on Tabanidae, vol. xv, pp. 270- 
275 (1904) and xix, pp. 168-173 (1908) ; on Bombyliidae, vol. 
xxxii, pp. 170-172 (1921) ; on Tachinidae, vol. xxxiii, pp. 20-26 



CHRYSOPS BISTELLATUS Daecke. Lake Ellis, not uncommon on road 
between Havelock and the lake, in late May, 1908, F. Sherman and 

CHRYSOPS CUCLUX Whitney. Raleigh, late April, 1912, CSB. 

CHRYSOPS DORSOVITTATUS Hine. Lake Ellis, two in late May, 1908, 
Southern Pines, May, 1908, Manee ; White Lake, late May, 1909 and 
early June, 1915, FS. 

CHRYSOPS HINEI Daecke. Boardman, September 21, 1915, R. W. 
Leiby, Fair Bluff, September 25, 1920, T. B. Mitchell. 

CHRYSOPS INDUS O.S. Linville Falls, early June, 1920, one, FS. 

CHRYSOPS punicus O.S. The specimens from Havelock (Lake EHis) 
formerly referred to cursim seem to belong here, while the Raleigh 
cursim seem to be actually that species. 

CHRYSOPS SEPARATUS Hine. A male was taken by me at Raleigh, 
April 20, 1921. 

TABANUS CYMATOPHORUS O.S. Southern Pines, A. H. Manee. 

TABANUS ENDYMION O.S. White Lake, early June, 1914, FS. 

TABANUS SULCIFRONS Macq. Rocky Mount, mid September, 1911, 
four, Z. P. Metcalf. 

TABANUS TENER O.S. White Lake, late May, 1909, one, FS. 

(All the preceding are new to our state list except C. separatus). 

(Species new to the state list are marked with a * star). 

ANTHRAX ALTERNATA Say. Dillard-Highlands road, July 11, 1921. 
T. B. Mitchell. 

ANTHRAX CEYX Loew. Marion, July 8, 1921, three, TBA1. 

*ANTHRAX FAUNUS Fab. Raleigh, mid August 1914, C. L. Metcalf; 
late July 1912, July 22, 1921. 

*ANTH-RAX NIGRIPENNIS Cole. All the Raleigh specimens previously 
referred by me to halcyon (Ent. News, XXXII, 171) belong to this 
species as well as five others taken in mid and late June, 1921. \i</ri- 
pcnnis is not only darker-winged than halcyon, but also differs in vena- 
tion (at least in our North Carolina specimens) as follows, in halcyon 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 2 31 

the third posterior cell is bisected on a level with the distal end of the 
discal cell and the stump which projects into the distal portion of that 
cell arises from the discal cell, while in ni</rifcnnis that cell is bisected 
by a crossvein which is oblique to the discal cell and closes the proximal 
part of the third posterior cell not far from the wing margin, the 
stump arises from that crossvein and not from the discal cell. In both 
(vv.r and halcyon the first antennal joint is red, the second and third 
black, while in nigripcnnis the first and second are red, the third only 
black. Cey.r and nigripcnnis fly in early or mid summer, halcyon in 

ANTHRAX HALCYON Say. Aberdeen October 3, 1921, TBM. 
*ANTHRAX DISPAR Coq. Southern Pines, August 6, 1921, TBM. 
ANTHRAX HYPOMELAS Macq. Dillard-Highlands road, July 11, 1921, 

*ANTHRAX LATERALIS var. arcnicola Johnson. Southern Pines, late 
June, 1909, CSB., Dillard-Highlands road, July 11, 1921, TBM. 

BOMBYI.IUS SUBVARIUS Johnson. The single specimen from White 
Lake referred by me to this species (Ent. News, XXXII, 171) appears 
to be B. fraiiditlciitits and not this species, hence subvariits is thereby 
eliminated from the state list. 

*BOMBYLIUS FRAUDULENTUS Johnson. Raleigh, late May, CSB, June 
14, 16, 1921, on flowers of Ceanothus. also the White Lake specimen 
mentioned above. 

*BOMBYLIUS MEXICANUS Wied. Raleigh, late April to late May, 
common, Southern Pines, April, 1907, FS ; Hendersonville, June, 1907, 
FS; Blowing Rock, June 25, 1902, FS, Andrews, mid May, 1908, FS. 
All these formerly referred to B. ranus under a misapprehension. 

BOMBYI.IUS VARIUS Fabr. All our previous records (Ent. News, 
XXXII, 171) belong to B. mexicanus, except that from Charlotte, 
which is of a badly rubbed specimen of azalcae. The species, how- 
ever, still remains on our list as I collected one at Fayetteville, in 
early June, 1921. 

EXOPROSOPA DF.CORA Loew. Old Fort, late October. 1920, FS. 
*GKRON SUBAURATUS Loew. One taken at Raleigh, June 18, 1921, 
CSB. Although I took numerous other Gerons during the summer 
they were all scnilis. 

*OxconocKKA I.KUCOPROCTA Wied. "North Carolina," Aldrich's Cata- 
logue of North American Diptera, page 239. 

SPOGOSTYLUM CEPHUS Fabr. Marion, July 8, 1921, TBM. 
TOXOPHORA LEUCOPYGA Wied. Goldsboro. July 26, 1921, TBM. 


(Records of my own collecting are without initials). 
A. Species not previously recorded. 
AI.OPHORA AENF.OVENTRIS Will. Raleigh, May 17, 1921, TBM. 

iif.'ir HI vi HI. \ Coq. Raleigh. April 2, 1906. 


CELATORIA DIABROTICAE Shimer, Raleigh, August 16, 1921. 

DORYPHOROPHAGA DORYPHORAE Riley. Terra Ceia, August 24, 1919, 

EPIGRYMIA POLITA Td. Raleigh, May 17, 1921. 

EXORISTA FUTILIS O.S. Raleigh, late April, mid June. 

FRONTINA ARCHIPPIVORA Will. Raleigh, mid April, 1920, M. R. Smith. 

GAEDIOPSIS FACIALIS Coq. Raleigh, September 8, 13, 21, 1921. 

HOUGHIA SETIPENNIS Coq. Raleigh. July 22, 1921. 

JURINELLA AMBIGUA Macq. Linville, August 19, 1921, TBM. 

LESKIA THECATA Coq. Raleigh, September 8, 13, 21, 1921. 

MASICERA MYOIDEA Desv. Raleigh, August 16, 29, October 17, 20, 

OCYPTERA DOSIADES Walker. Raleigh, mid June, mid August and mid 
September, 1921, thirteen specimens; Goldsboro, July 28, 1921, one, TBM. 

OESTROPHASIA SIGNIFERA V. d. W. Raleigh, May 23, 1921, one in 

PARAPLAGIA SPINOSULA Bigot. Raleigh, April 21, 1921; Fayetteville, 
early June, 1921. 

PHORANTHA CALYPTRATA Coq. Raleigh, May 14, 1921. 

PLECTOPS MELISSOPODIS Coq. Raleigh, June 25, October 4, 1921. 

PSEUDATRACTOCERA NEOMEXiCANA Td. Balsam, mid September, 1908, 

PYRAUSTOMYIA PENITALIS Coq. Fayetteville, late May, 1920, early 
June, 1921 ; Raleigh, June 1, 11, 1921. 

SIPHOCLYTIA ROBERTSONI Td. September, 1921, one. 

SIPHOPLAGIA SIMILIS Td. November 9, 1920, also the specimens pre- 
viously attributed to S. anomala. 

THRYPTOCERA FLAVIPES Coq. Raleigh, June 18, August 16, 1921, 

B. Additional Records of some species. 

CHAETOGAEDIA CREBRA V. d. W. Raleigh, November 5, 1921. 
EUTHERA TENTATRIX Loew. Raleigh, October 17, 1921. 
MASIPHYA BRASILIANA BB. Raleigh, late June, 1920. 
OCYPTERA ARGENTEA Td. Raleigh, late July, 1912, September 13, 192] 
SIPHONA GENICULATA DeG. Raleigh, July 5, 1921, lour. 
SIPHOPHYTO FLORIDENSIS Td. (Epigrymia floridcnsis). Raleigh, mid 
July, mid May, mid August, three ; Fayetteville, late May, 1920, one 

C. Notes and Corrections to my list in Entomological News, Janu- 
ary, 1922. 

DINF.RA FUTILIS Smith. Is a Dexiid. 

MYIOPHASIA AENEA Wied. Of the specimens referred by me to this 
form most of those from Raleigh, and those from Gibson, run to 
Enyomma globosa by Townsend's key, while some of those from 
Raleigh and the specimens from Elrod, Fayetteville, and Charlotte 
run to Phasioclista mctallica. 1 mention this without prejudice to any 
of the names quoted. 

NEOPHYTO SETOSA Coq. One from Raleigh has the apical cell open 
and appears to be this, but two others although very similar from 
Raleigh, August 23, 1921, and Spruce (Sunburst) late May, 1912, have 
the apical cell long petiolate, and may be Phytodcs hirculus Coq. 

SIPHOPLAGIA ANOMALA Td. All our specimens appear to be S. similis 


Catocala ulalume a Distinct Species (Lepid., 

By G. H. FRENCH, Herrin, Illinois. 

In his number for September, 1877, of Lcpidoptera Rho- 
paloccrcs and Hctcroccres, Mr. Herman Strecker described 
Catocala ulalituie, on page 132. We know that Mr. Strecker's 
descriptions were not of much account as far as using them 
1;\ some one else for future identification of specimens, and 
yet a few expressions in this description may serve to help us 
in the recognition of, and separation of, this species from the 
specimens of the variable species C. lacrymosa where it has 
been placed for a number of years. 

In the description he compares C. ulalume with C. dcsperata 
(now C. vidita) in color, and says that the brown shade beyond 
the t. p. line of C. dcsperata is absent in C. ulalume. In all of 
the forms of C. lacrymosa this brown shade is present. Another 
characteristic of C. lacrymosa is that near the posterior margin 
of the primaries is a prominent white shade inside the t. a. and 
outside the t. p. lines. This is absent in both C. dejecta and 
C. ulalume. The ground color of C. dejecta is a little lighter 
bluish gray than that of C. ulahnne, and there are other mark- 
ings that separate them. 

Both C. ulalume and C. dejecta used to be found in the hills 
of Union County, Illinois, and specimens of each were sent to 
Mr. Strecker for identification soon after his description of the 
two species, but my specimens of both have been destroyed. 
Of late the species, or rather both of them, have been found 
in the hills of Green County, southwestern Missouri, by my 
friend, Mr. A. E. Brower. Two specimens of C. ulalume were 
compared with the types in the Strecker collection in the Field 
Museum, Chicago, by Mr. W. J. Gerhard and pronounced 

The species has a clear bluish color over the whole wing 
except the whitish shade beyond the t. p. line that is without 
any brown. In the Barnes book, Fig. n. Plate 2, the whole 
wing is suffused with brown. I do not know what that figure 
represents. The subreniform is open in C. ulalmnc but is 

234 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | ( )ct., '22 

closed in the forms of C. lacrymosa. The hind wings are black 

with white fringes, but the black at the ends of the veins of C. 

ulalnvne and dejecta are not as prominent as in C. lacrymosa. 

During the last season my friend, Mr. Brower, has bred C. 

lacrymosa and C. ulalume from the eggs, and he says the larvae 

are different, but I will let him tell that story. From the above 

J think that C. ulalume is entitled to specific rank. 

Preparatory Stages of Catocala ulalume Str., with 

Larva of C. lacrymosa for Comparison 

(Lepid., Noctuidae). 

By A. E. BROWER, Willard, Missouri. 

Catocala ulalume Strecker. 

Egg. Diameter, .04 inch; height, .03; subspherical in shape, the base 
flattened, not saucer-shaped, the sides with 25 longitudinal ribs that 
reach the micropyle, with alternate shorter ones, the space between these 
with transverse shallower lines, as usual; color gray. 

Larva. Stage I. Head brown ; the newly hatched larva yellowish 
white, becoming grayish white later. 

Stage II. Head light gray, marked with darker stripes ; body dark 
gray, with subdorsal and two lateral darker lines. 

Stage III. Head light gray, marked with brownish gray lines, a 
heavy black stripe extending upward from the palpi, apices with dark 
gray brown stripes ; body light gray, with broken irregular subdorsal 
and spiracular lines. 

Stage IV. Head light gray, with longitudinal slaty gray lines, promi- 
nent gray brown stripe across apices extending over the front, a heavy 
black stripe from corner of mouth extending outward and angled up- 
ward ; body light gray with irregular broken subdorsal and spiracular 
lines, and with a black shade on the juncture of the fifth and sixth 
abdominal segments. 

Stage V. Head large, rounded, larger than the next segment, light 
gray in color with longitudinal slaty gray lines ; a prominent gray brown 
stripe across the apex of each lobe extending over the iroiii, a promi- 
nent black stripe extends outward from the mouth and is sharply 
angled upward, abruptly terminating about half-way up the face; body 
whitish gray, with irregular broken subdorsal and spiracular lines, the 
subdorsal present only as quite prominent markings about the tubercles, 
a faint centrodorsal line present, a shade over the juncture of the fifth 
and sixth abdominal segments, less prominent on the fourth, fifth and 
eighth. The tubercles are fairly prominent, enlarged on the eighth 
abdominal segment, reddish brown in color. Filaments of fringes 
small, white. 

XXXl'ii, '22] K.NTo.MOUHllCAI. .\K\VS 

In comparison with the larva of C. lacr\mosa the larva of 
this species is much lighter in color, the lines are less contin- 
uous and without the dorsal chain of patches. The tubercles 
are brighter and more prominent on the eighth abdominal seg- 
ment. The head appears to be comparatively larger with a 
somewhat different black stripe. In general the larva of C. 
ulalumc greatly resembles the larva of C. insolabilis but is much 
lighter in color, while the larva of C. lacrymosa is much like 
the larva of C. neogama. 

I have reared larvae from the ova laid by four females of 
C. itla! u me and find the larvae as well as the moths quite 
constant. Mr. French has pointed out the differences between 
the imagines of C. ulalume and C. lacrymosa. If C. ulalumc 
were a variety of C. lacrymosa, intergrades would be found. 
I have taken intergrades to all varieties of C. lacrymosa but 
none connecting C. lacrymosa with C. ulalumc. The flight and 
habits of C. ulalumc and C. lacrymosa in the woods are quite 
different. If C. ulalumc were a variety of C. lacr \nnosa it 
would be found throughout the range of the latter, but such 
does not seem to be the case, as C. ulalumc seems to be found 
only in the Southern and border United States. It is reported 
as scarce or rare at St. Louis. Mr. E. A. Dodge kindly 
allowed me to examine a single worn specimen from Louisiana, 
Missouri. Mr. E. J. Erb tells me that some years ago he 
collected several specimens of C. ulalumc in Western Virginia. 
Messrs. Erb and Doll compared specimens that I collected here 
near Willard, Greene County, Missouri, with a cotype of C. 
ulalumc in the Brooklyn Museum. Mr. Doll also kindly sent 
a specimen to Giicago where Mr. Gerhard compared it with 
Strecker's types of C. ulalumc in the Field Museum. 

Catocala lacrymosa Guen. 

Egg. This has been described by Barnes and McDonnough in a 
recent Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 

Larva. Stage I. Head blackish brown; body grayish white. 

Stage II. Head brownish black; body light grayish white; li^ht 
dorsal stripe, laterally reddish brown with two or three faint lateral 

Stage III. Head smoky black apically, face grayish; body dull black 
with a lighter geminate dorsal and three lateral lines. 

236 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS j < >Ct., '22 

Stage IV. Head dark gray with longitudinal black stripes, heavy 
black stripe crossing the apex of each lobe, continued by a light stripe 
to corner of the mouth ; body dark gray, a geminate dorsal stripe and 
three lighter lateral lines. 

Stage V. Head gray, heavily striped with black, a little paler apical- 
ly. Body gray, with subdorsal and spiracular Hues of small black 
spots ; two faint centrodorsal and three darker lateral lines. 

Stage VI. Head light gray, longitudinally lined with dark gray 
brown stripes, prominent darker brownish stripe on the apex of each 
lobe extending just over the front; a heavy black stripe extending out- 
ward from the jaws, after a short distance apparently merging into the 
lines of the face; body gray with centrodorsal, subdorsal and two 
lateral darker lines, the subdorsal being most prominent; dorsum with 
pale oval or diamond-shaped patches; the posterior portion of the fifth 
and the anterior of the sixth abdominal segments darker. Fringes 
pinkish white. 

The larvae vary somewhat in shade of color but on the whole 
are quite constant. A single larva from ova laid by variety 
panlina produced var. panllna. The larva was quite similar 
to the larvae of the normal lacrymosa. 

The food plant of both C. uhihiinc and C. lacrymosa is 

Biological Notes on Elateridae and Melasidae (Col..) 

By H. B. KIRK, Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of 
Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

The following miscellaneous biological notes on insects of 
the families Elateridae and Melasidae have been assembled 
from field observations, rearings and collections by the author 
over a number of years, and from notes and specimens in the 
collection of the Bureau of Plant Industry by others, to whom 
due credit is given in the text. 

Little is known of the habits of the adults of these two fam- 
ilies, although they may be collected on foliage, flowers, trees 
and on the ground, sometimes 'beneath stones. 

Larvae of some of the species are predaceous. This is par- 
ticularly true of the species of Adelocera, Chalcolepidius, Alans 
and Hemirhipus, which are decidedly beneficial. Certain spe- 
cies of other genera attack living plant tissue, roots, tubers, etc., 
and are destructive. Those attacking dead or decaying wood 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 237 

tissue are of no special economic importance. Larvae of the 
predaceous forms, although confined to either deciduous trees 
or conifers in nature, will in captivity feed on any woodboring 
larvae, and will attain at maturity their natural characteristics 
and markings. 

Many species transform in July and August, and remain in 
their pupal cells until April or May of the following year. Dur- 
ing this time adults with the cast larval skins may be found 
together, thus furnishing a means of connecting the adults with 
the larvae. Adults also hibernate beneath bark, in crevices 
and in abandoned cells of various insects, and are sometimes 
attracted to light. 

While the family Elateridae has not been considered as con- 
taining any particularly beneficial species, a more thorough 
study of the younger immature larval stages will no doubt 
reveal as many equally important predaceous species as those 
of the family Clcridac. 


ADELOCFRA IMPRESSICOLLIS Say. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, VII-15; 
Rockville, Pennsylvania, XII-12. Rare. Hibernating in decayed cavity 
in living tree. 

A. RORUI.ENTA Lee. El Paso County, Colorado, VI-14, VII-12. A. B. 

A. BREVICORNIS Lee. State College, Pennsylvania, V-25 : Charter 
Oak. Pennsylvania, V-21 ; J. N. Knull. Wales. Maine. VI-23; C. A. 
Frost. Rare. 

A. OBTKCTA Say. Pennsylvania. VI, VII. Franklin, Xew Hampshire, 
IX-18, larva and adult found in gallery of woodborer in apple twig. 
F. C. Craighead. 

A. PROFUSA Cand. Cornwall, Connecticut, VII-15, K. F. Chamber- 
lain; Cranebrook, British Columbia, VTI-8, C. B. Garrctt ; Oregon, VI fi- 
ll, adults taken in Yellow Pine, W. D. Edmonston. 

A. MARMORATA Fab. Rockville, I1I-3; Hummelstown, IV-20, Kirk 
and Knull : and Harrisburg, April, June, July ; all in Pennsylvania. 
Larvae of this species found feeding on Rostrychid larvae ( Trichodcsma 
t/ihlhtsa) in Gum tree (\yssa sykuticn). 

A. nisi OIIIKA Web. All localities in Pennsylvania. Common beneath 
bark of dead Pine. 

V AVITA Say. Hummelstown, 1 1 1-2*7, VII-7, Kirk and Knull. and 
State College, V, both Pennsylvania. A number "t" adults reared from 
larvae collected beneath bark of dyin. uid dead hickory trees. These 
trees were heavily infested with wuodboring larvae which were the 


hosts of A. avita. Have taken a number of adults on these trees at 
night during June and July. 

A. AURORATA Say. State College, Pennsylvania, 1-9, from beneath the 
bark of dead Pitch Pine (Finns rigida), ). N. Knull ; Pittsburgh. Penn- 
sylvania, June. 

LACON ILLIMIS Horn. Common at Tucson, Arizona. J. H. Shive. 
AI.AUS LUSCIOSUS Hope. Arizona. Larva reared by feeding it with 
various woodboring larvae. 

A. ZUNIANUS Casey. Adults, larvae and pupae cut from Cerambycid 
galleries in fallen sycamore tree. East Catalina Mountains, Arizona, 
June 20, M. Christman. 

A. oct'LATUS Lee. One of our most common species. Adults and 
larvae may be found in decaying logs and stumps infested by various 
woodborers upon which they are predaceous. Very small larvae of this 
species were observed feeding upon the larvae of Agrilus bilineatiis in 
chestnut, also a more mature larva of A. oculatus found feeding on 
larvae of Buprcstis ntfipes in Liriodcndron stump, and also on larvae of 
Chalcophorclla campcstris in dead beech ( Fagns anicricana) trunk. 
Have found larvae, about one-half grown, emerging from exit holes of 
a Cerambycid and Tretnc.r sf>. in hickory trees, where they crawl about 
on the trunk and re-enter other burrows in s_earch of woodboring larvae. 
This species occurs only upon deciduous trees according to our notes. 
Ai. MYOPS Fab. Occurs 'only in pine. Adults and larvae taken around 
Harrisburg, Pa., in pine trees and stumps infested with woodboring 
larvae. At Falls Church, Virginia, have taken hundreds of adults and 
larvae in yellow pine stumps infested with Ascmnm moestum. 

A. MEI.ANOPS Lee. Adults and larvae found commonly in stumps in- 
fested with Chalcophora anguUcollis. Larvae predaceous on various 
woodboring larvae in dead coniferous trees. Oregon, VIII-8, adults, 
pupae and larvae in galleries in dead Douglas fir, W. D. Edmonston ; 
El Paso County, Colorado, 11-20, A. B. Champlain. 

CHALCOLEPIDIUS VIRIDIPILIS Say. Rockville, Pennsylvania, VIII-8, 
collected at sour sap on oak tree in the evening, Daecke and Kirk ; Balti- 
more, Maryland, July 30, V. A. E. Daecke. 

C. SMARAGDINTTS Lee. Reared from larvae taken from woodborer 
gallery in dead wood. Tucson, Arizona, VII-14, J. W. Shive; VIII-6, 
G. Hof er ; Sabino Canyon, Arizona, VII-5, W. D. Edmonston. 
C. BEHRENSI Cand. Tucson, Arizona, VII-31, J. W. Shive. 
ATHOUS CUCULLATUS Say. Larva collected in dead log where it was 
feeding on woodboring larva. Adult reared. 

Lunius HIEROGLYPHICUS Say. Adults collected feeding on small in- 
sects on foliage, Knull and Champlain. 

HEMICREPIDIUS MEMNONIUS Hbst. Rockville, Pennsylvania, VII-24, 

under stones. 

H. BILOBATUS Say. Harrisburg, Pa., VI 11-27, taken on hickory trees 

at night. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 239 

PARALLELOSTETHUS ATTENUATUS Say. Common in rotten logs, feeding 
on decaying moist wood tissue. Common in vicinity of Harrisburg, 
Pa.. July and August. 

Genus EI.ATER. Larvae of this genus feed on decaying wood tissue. 
Adults frequent flowers. 

EI.ATER vmosus Lee. Adults and larvae with RIatcr sayi I-QC. in 
decayed hole in living Ccltis occidentaHs, November 12. It is likely that 
these two forms may be the same species. Kirk and Champlain. 

MEGAPENTHES LI M BALIS Hbst. Male of this species taken in coitu 
with black female that answers the description of M. granulosns. Falls 
Church, Virginia, VII-16, F. C. Craighead. 

Genus MF.LANOTUS. Adults of local species hibernate in numbers in 
old logs beneath bark and in old galleries of woodboring insects, many 
being found in a single gallery. 

PITYOBIUS ANGUINUS Lee. Grand Lake, Presque Isle County, Michi- 
gan, VII-2, R. J. Sim; Endeavor, Pennsylvania, VI 1-30, adult taken on 
fresh cut white pine log by J. N. Knull. 

Genus LIMONIUS. Adults taken around Harrisburg, Pa., fly early 
in the spring and are found commonly on flowers. 


MELASIS PECTINICORNIS Melsh. Reared from dead birch (Bctula 
Icnta) and beech (Fac/us aincricana), J. N. Knull and A. B. Champlain. 

ISORHIPIS RUFICORNIS Say. Reared from dead chestnut, black birch, 
beech, linden and maple. 

DELTOMETOPUS AMOENICORNIS Say. North East, Pennsylvania, VII- 
22, J. N. Knull ; Tyrone, VII-26, J. G. Sanders ; Jeanette, Klages ; Har- 
risburg, VI-29, A. B. Champlain; and Landisburg, VI-30; all in Penn- 
sylvania. Falls Church, Virginia, VI-24. 

DROMAEOLUS CYLINDRICOLLIS Say. Hummelstown, reared from dead 
Platainis occldentaUs, J. N. Knull; Ohio Pyle, VIT-20, T. L. Guyton ; 
Jeanette, VII, Klages: Clarks Valley. Dauphin County; all in Pennsyl- 
vania. Reared from dead standing Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) , A. B. 

D. STRIATUS Lee. Falls Church, Virginia, VII-31 ; Hummelstown, 
Pennsylvania, VII-17. Reared from dead chestnut stick. 

FORXAX RADIUS Melsh. Harrishurg, Pa. Larva very plentiful in 
dead, decaying hickory. Adults on hickory trees at night, very active, 
crawling about and mating. 

F. ORCHESIDKS N'ewn. Harrisburg and Inglenook, Pennsylvania, larvae 
from decaying logs of willow and Rciula nic/ra in swamps. The adults 
of this and other species in the genus are active only at night, and may 
be found mating, ovipositing and running over dead, decaying trees or 
logs at this time. During the daytime they crawl into cracks and 
crevices, when- they remain concealed and inactive. The eggs of F. 
iKV/ are placed in the cracks and crevices of dec-lying trees, 
stumps or logs, the wood of which is usually very soft and contains 


considerable moisture. The larvae insinuate their way through the soft 
wood tissue, the gallery apparently closing up after their passage, and 
when ready for pupation they work their way to the sapwood, where 
cells are constructed. The cell is formed by the actions of the larva, 
and by an accumulation of soft particles rubbed loose. The pupal dura- 
tion is about two weeks. The adults emerge during June, and vary 
greatly in size. The spring or clicking operation is developed in this 
species to some extent. They are able to spring slightly and click when 
held in the hand by the abdomen. Observation by Champlain, Knull and 

MICORRHAGUS HUMERALis Say. New Cumberland, VI-28, Kirk and 

NEMATODES ATROPUS Say. Harrisburg, Pa., 1-28, VII-9, and reared 
IV-14 from dead hickory stumps. Adults taken at night on dead hickory 
trees. Kirk and Champlain. 

N. PENETRANS Lee. Harrisburg, Pa., VII-4, Kirk and Champlain. 

SCHIZOPHILUS SUBRUFUS Rand. Very rare. Taken at night on hickory 
tree at Harrisburg, Kirk and Champlain (this specimen in collection of 
U. S. National Museum). East Falls Church, Virginia, III-6. Knull. 

Change of Address. 

Dr. Charles P. Alexander has removed from Urbana, Illinois, to 
Fernald Hall, Mass. Agricultural College, Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Foundation of a Brazilian Entomological Society. 

Professor Benedicto Raymundo has written to The American Ento- 
mological Society, announcing the foundation, on February 2, 1922, of 
the Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, of which he is President. The 
Society is located at 15 Rua lo de Marc,o, Rio de Janeiro'. We wish 
it prosperity and a long life. 

Cuvier's Magnifying Glass. 

At the meeting of the Entomological Society of France, January 11, 
1922, Dr. E. Gobert presented to the Society the magnifying glass 
(loupe) belonging to Cuvier and gave its origin in the following terms: 
This glass belonged to Cuvier, died in 1832. Dying, he left it to 
Audouin, who died in 1841. Audouin confided it to Leon Dufour, cele- 
brated entomologist of St. Sever (Landes). This latter dying, left it 
to E. Perris, his favorite pupil. E. Perris, in his turn, confided it to 
me as his pupil and friend. If the Society accepts it, I shall be glad to 
offer it as a souvenir and in the name of the three entomologists of 
The Landes. 

This glass will be preserved as a precious relic in the archives ol llir 
Society. (Bull. Soc. Eut. France, 1922, no. 1, p. 6). 



The Need of Greater Precision in Taxonomic Literature. 

It is no unusual experience, in reading taxonomic keys, de- 
scriptions of species and of genera and similar gems of litera- 
ture, to meet with expressions intended to be diagnostic but so 
v.-u'-ue and indefinite as to give no true idea of the part de- 
seribed. Adjectives like "large," "small." "broader," "nar- 
rower." are frequently employed without any data being given 
to indicate the size intended. It does require some additional 
time and labor on the part of an author to specify how many 
millimeters these descriptive terms mean, or to state the dimen- 
sions of the structure concerned in terms of the length or width 
of some nearby part, or of the distance between some adjoin- 
ing organs. Of course it does. But no one in these days has 
any right to work in taxonomy, or in any other branch of 
science, unless he is willing and ready to express precisely what 
the differences between objects compared really are. It is a 
reproach to us that so much of taxonomic literature is in so 
hazy a condition. 

AYhen one reads in a recent, otherwise valuable manual, on 
one of the largest orders of North American insects, the alter- 

tive rubrics of a key as "Marginal vein short" and "Mar- 
eiral vein long" without further elucidation, he may, with 
righteous indignation, exclaim justlv, "f/rw long, O Lord, how 
long?" ^ 

Additions to the Coleoptera in The Academy of Natural Sciences of 


Three hundred rind seven specimens of Coleoptera have been added 

to the collections from The Hebard- Academy Expedition of 19; 

include Mich interesting species as ('irimicla longilabris Say. var. oslari 

' var. montana Lee. (from the <ummits ot" the Sandia Alts.. 

New Mi co HlrOO-lKino ft.). Pasimachus obsoletus Lee., Platynus 

tcxana Lee., Chlaenius chaudoiri Horn, Helluomorpha ic.raim Lee., 

Icirihts mercurius Wickh., .'.cum texana Crotch, and Gnathospasta 

iiihiicticn I lorn. This is quite a remarl ible sho\\iim in view of the tact 

that the collecting was primarily for Orthoptrra and during the latter 

th< , nmcr when Coleoptera are not SO abundant. FRANK 

Al A SO 


Notes and. Ne\vs. 



Mr. E. A. Schwarz, Honorary Ph.D. 

The University of Maryland, at its commencement exercises on June 
10, conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy upon Eugene 
Amandus Schwarz, honorary custodian of Coleoptera in the U. S. 
National Museum. Mr. Schwarz began work as a beetle specialist for 
the Division of Entomology under the Commissioner of Agriculture in 
1878. His forty-four years of official scientific activity to the present 
have been continuously devoted to the building up of a great collection 
and to the assistance of other workers, both taxonomic and economic. 
As dean of entomologists in Washington and senior coleopterist in 
active service in North America, permanent president of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Washington (of which he never misses a meeting), 
and honorary fellow of the Entomological Society of America, "Mr. 
Schwarz is held in high and universal esteem by the entomological 
fraternity of the country, who would unanimously second his nomina- 
tion to the honor now bestowed. J. M. ALDRICH, U. S. National 
Museum, Washington, D. C. 

The University of Michigan- Williamson Expedition to Brazil. 

Our previous notice (this volume, page 216) of this expedition left 
it at Porto Velho, Amazonas, Brazil, where it remained until May 30, 
1922. On April 30 it was noted of the Odonata : "Both species and 
individuals seem less numerous than when we were here before [i. c., 
Jan. 21 March 5, 1922]. Certain species are no longer seen, but no 
new ones appear to have taken their place ;" on the other hand, "some 
things like Lais, Chalcopteryx, etc., are much more common now." 
[May 9]. Considerable collecting was done on the city water supply 
creek, at this time 12 15 feet wide and 2 5 feet deep. In the last 
week of April it rained "every day and sometimes practically all day. 
We managed to put up one box of bugs, however." Nevertheless the 
second of May "was the record catch for the trip, 269 specimens to put 
up last night."* "Had a lively battle with a bunch of pestiferous little 
ants to-night (May 3). First discovered them in the collecting kit 
making way with the day's catch ; then found they were in the drier 
getting after yesterday's stuff." 

On May 9 it was noted: "Rainfall is now much less larger creeks 
are wadable but there are too many cloudy days." On May 10 Mr. 
J. H. Williamson had a return of the malarial fever. On May 12 and 
14 Mr. Strohm collected at San Antonio, Matto Grosso, Brazil, as 
single day trips from Porto Velho. 

On May 30 the Expedition left Porto Velho on a strainer of the 

*But cf. Manaos, June 17, "Last night we papered 280 dragonflies." 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 243 

Amazon River Steam Navigation Co. for Manaos ; proceeding down the 
Madeira River, many stops were made, at some of which (Humayta, 
Manicore, Borha) a little collecting was done. On the Madeira below 
I '.< irba and on the Amazon, which was entered on June 3, the "waters 
overflowed banks, cacao groves, banana fields, etc. Native huts hall 
submerged and cattle kept on rafts." 

One June 4 Manaos was reached. "Rio Negro is now [at] highest 
stage ever recorded, being 2y 2 inches higher than in 1909, the former 
high water mark. Back water appears in the streets in places and the 
river is still rising." On June 21 Mr. Williamson wrote : "Rio Negro 
stays at same high level. Frequent rains keep the swamps and creeks 
in the hills well tilled much better collecting than when rains cease 
and they go down a foot or two." During this month collecting was 
done at Manaos itself and between the city and Flores, to which a 
street car runs. "Real original growth forest was seen for first time 
to-day [June 18]. Near the road except where under present culti- 
vation was the usual second growth, so common around Manaos, but 
beyond this, the original forest began in lines plainly marked where 
clearing had ceased. [This was about 7 miles beyond Flores.] In the 
bottom or swamp lands between the hills there probably has been little 
or no clearing and no big trees ever grew." On June 17 the total catch 
of dragonflies was estimated at 7697 specimens and 157 species. 

In the beginning of July a "friage" or cold wave, temperature 74" 
F., was experienced, lasting seven days. On July 2, taking steamship, 
the expedition proceeded from Manaos up the Rio Negro, which is split 
into many channels and full of long, wooded islands, the latter, like 
the river banks, being completely flooded, only the tops of trees visible. 
On July 6 Santa Isabel was reached without having seen any favorable 
collecting grounds on the way. At this place, 423 miles from Manaos, 
indications of a different Odonate fauna were obtained. The return 
to Manaos began July 8 and on July 11 "many teneral Diasialops and 
four other species of teneral Libellulines were caught by ourselves and 
fellow passengers," while "large numbers of Tholymis came out from 
hore at sunset, but only caught two as they flew over the boat." 
Manaos was reached near midnight July 12. 

"It is indeed fortunate that we made Porto Velho our chief objective 
on the trip instead of any of the so-called towns along the Negro. There 
is nothing worthy the name of village above Manaos. Xo place have 
we seen collecting ground for one real day's work, let alone a monthly 
stop which would be necessary here. Haven't seen a creek all the way 
up; there may be -<>nie but the flooded country lias them well con- 
cealed. I imagine one would have to travel several hundred miles above 
Santa Isabel by launrli and caiun- before reaching .^ond collecting s| 
and tV MI }} would prartieally have to camp out to work them" ( Julv 
11, 1922). 

From July 13 to 22 some further collecting was done in the vicinity 


of Manaos, bringing the estimated total of specimens and species of 
Odonata up to 8315 and 162 respectively. There was much cloudy 
weather and frequent showers. On July 21 "we collected Agrionines in 
Mr. Russell's house. They were quite numerous flying about, nosing 
along walls, furniture, etc., and resting on everything in sight from 
picture cords to the centre of a bed. Though we have caught some of 
this species in the house heretofore, they were never so numerous as 
to-day. Some were netted, many were caught by hand." 

On July 22 the expedition took steamer from Manaos for Para. The 
Rio Negro had fallen only \ l / 2 feet since its new high water mark and 
the Amazon was still flooding the country to Para, which was reached 
on July 29. 

Expectations were that the Expedition would leave Manaos about 
August 1 for Para, leave Para about September 3 for Rio, arriving 
there September 17. (From Mr. Jesse H. Williamson's "log" and 

The Stridulation of a North American Noctuid, Heliocheilus 
paradoxus Grote (Lep.). 

On the night of August 16th, 1921. while at Amarillo, Texas, an 
effort was made to secure species of Tettigoniidae by listening for their 
stridulation and then locating the singers with the aid of a hand flash- 
lamp. A wide grassy plain was visited, but it was soon evident that 
search would be unproductive. Only a few specimens had been heard 
and these at widely separated spots. 

While standing in the knee-high grasses all was silent, when suddenly 
a faint stridulation became audible. Again and again this sound was 
approached, but nothing could be located. Finally, when undoubtedly 
close to a singer, a small huffy moth was seen to be hovering in the 
shaft of our light, just above the weeds and grasses, holding itself over 
the same spot by flying against the brisk breeze that was blowing. Sud- 
denly it flew away and the sound ceased. The singer was in fact a 
moth and not one of the smaller katydids, as had been supposed. 

After this, several specimens were easily secured by following up 
the sound they produced, all acting just as the first individual had done. 
The stridulation was like "the ticking of a loud watch, but much faster 
and easily audible to good ears at a distance of twenty feet." When 
alarmed a singer would fly away noiselessly and at great speed. 

The species has been, identified by Dr. Henry Skinner as Heliocheilus 
paradoxus Grote. 1 Stridulating organs for the Agaristidae and Noc- 
tuidae have been discussed by Dr. Jordan in 1921,- but we know of noth- 
ing in the literature bearing on the stridulation of the present insect or 
other North American Noctukls. The species is huffy and not strik- 
ingly marked. Toward the costal margin of the fore-wings, the highly 
specialized Stridulating area is found. MORGAN HEBAKU. 

1 Described from Colorado, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1'hila., IV, p. 32'). pi. J, 
figs. 3 ($), 4 (9), 5 (9, reverse), (1865). 

2 Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., V, p. xxxiii. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOMH.K AI. NKVYS 245 

Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin 
News Bulletin No. 9. 

The following letter from Dr. \Y. deC. Ravenel, Administrative 
Assistant to the Secretary in charge of the U. S. National Museum, 
was recently received by Mr. Milton Campbell, President of the H. K. 
Mulford Company : 

"I now take pleasure in advising you that a large amount of addi- 
tional material collected by Dr. William M. Mann, while a member of 
your Exploration Expedition, has been turned over to the collections, 
comprising insects, mammals, shells, crustaceans and textiles. All of 
the material is recorded as a gift in the name of the Mulford Biological 
Exploration of the Amazon Basin, and 1 would repeat my assurances 
of our appreciation of the generous interest which has been manifested 
in the national collections." 

In reply to the communications from Dr. Ravenel, Mr. Campbell, 
President of the H. K. Mulford Company, thanked him for the gen- 
erous expressions of appreciation and said, "It is a pleasure indeed to 
present these collections to the Smithsonian Institution in view of the 
splendid work the Institution is doing and its importance to the 
country." R. H. HUTCHISON, Secretary. Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Exchange of Scientific Literature with Russia. 

Apropos of the note on this subject published in the NEWS for June 
of this year, page 186, we reprint the following from Science for July 
14, 1922, page 45 : 

"The officers of the Russian Entomo-Phytopathological Congress sent 
a request some months ago to American scientific societies and investi- 
gators to send to Rus.sia literature on entomological and phytopathologi- 
cal matters. 

"In connection with this request the Russians promised to send Russian 
scientific literature in exchange. Certain difficulties, however, have 
been found to exist, principal among which is a regulation by the Soviet 
', \eniment, made about two months ai-o, which prohibits the sending 
out of literature from Russia without a special permit. This permit 
seems very difficult to get. The Russian scientific men, therefore, who 
have received American scientific literature in response to their request, 
feel much embarrassed by their inability to respond by sending Russian 
literature here, and I have promised to make known, in this way, the 
facts which have prevented their promised sending of Russian literature 
to those Americans who have kindly sent scientific papers to them.- 

In this connection we may caM attention also to the arrangements 
which have been made for sending scientific works to Russia, described 
at lenet'n in Science for June 22. } t >22. pa^cs nn7-o68. 

24f> ENTOMOLOGICAL NF.WS [Oct., '22 

mo logical Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied Kn- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology. see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B, 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, Guelph, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 6 Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 
8 The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 9 The Ento- 
mologist, London. 10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural His- 
tory, London. 12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, 
N. H. 13 Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Claremont, Cal. 
19 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 20 Bulletin 
de la Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 21 The Entomol- 
ogist's Record, London. 22 Bulletin of Entomological Research, 
London. 29 Annual Report of the Entomological Society of On- 
tario, Toronto, Canada. 34 Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique 
de Belgique, Brussels. 46 Contributions to the Natural History of 
the Lepidoptera of North America. Ed. by Wm. Barnes. 48 
Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 49 Entomologische Mitteilungen, 
Berlin-Dahlem. 50 Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum. 64 Parasitology, London. 68 Science, Garrison-on-the- 
Hudson, N. Y. 76 Nature, London. 77 Comptcs Rendus des 
Seances de la Societe de Biologic, Paris. 86 ,The Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Microscopical Science, London. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher, 
Jena. 90 The American Naturalist, Lancaster, Pa. 91 The Sci- 
entific Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 92 Archives de Zoologie Experi- 
mentale et Generale, Paris. 98 Annals of Tropical Medicine_ and 
Parasitology, Liverpool. 99 Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 100 Biological Bulletin of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 106 Anales de la 
Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 109 Annales Histo- 
rico-Naturales Musei Nationals Hungarici, Budapest. 110 Natur- 
wissenschaftliche Wochenschrift, Jena. Ill Archiv fur Naturge- 
schichte, Berlin. 118 Die Naturwissenschaften, Berlin. 119 Pro- 
ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U. S. A.. 
Washington, D. C. 124 Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique 
d'Egypte, Cairo. 127 Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Orga- 
nismen, Berlin. 128 'Zeitschrift fur Induktive Abstammungs- und 
Vererbungslehre, Leipzig. 141 Internationale Entomologische Zeit- 
?cbrift, Guben, Germany. 142 Notulac Entomologicae, Helsing- 
fors, Finland. 

GENERAL. Griddle, N. The entomological record, 1920. 29, 
li, 72-90. Felt, E. P. The possibility of exterminating insects 91, 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL \K\VS 247 

xv, 35-41. Hayes, W. P. Method of procedure in insect life his- 
tory investigations. 4, liv, 73-7. Hoffmann, A. Entomologen- 
addressbuch. Annuaire des entomologistes. (Wien, 1921, 434 pp., 
Yerlag Adolf Hoffmann.) Hoffmann, F. Deutsche insektennamen 
in Brasilien. 124, ii, 65-6. Horn, W. Et meminisse et vaticinari 
liceat. Ueber oxenstjerna und entomologische museologie. 49, xi, 
42-3. Howard, L. O. A side line in the importation of insect 
parasites of injurious insects from one country to another. 119, 
viii, 133-39. Lochhead, W. Inter-relations in nature. 29, li, 53-60. 
Nuttall, G. H. F. The Molteno institute for research in parasitol- 
ogy. University of Cambridge, with an account of how it came to 
be founded. 64, xiv. 97-126. Rau, P. Ecological and behavior 
notes on Missouri insects. (Trans. Ac. Sc., St. Louis, xxiv, No. 7.) 
Rowland-Brown, H. Obituary. 9, 1922, 121 -3. Williamson, E. B. 
Keys in systematic work. 68, Iv, 703. 

horen der insekten (Bienen). 118, 1922, 602-3. Betts, A. D. The 
Spiracular muscles in hymenoptera aculeata. 76, cix, 813-4. Bon- 
nier, G. Double sex-linked lethals in Drosophila melanogaster. 
(Act. Zoologica, Stockholm, 1922, 135-52.) Brecher, L. Die pup- 
penfarbungen des kohlweisslings, Pieris brassicae. Die puppen- 
farbungen der Vanessiden (Vanessa io, V. urticae, Pyrameis cardui, 
P. atalanta). 127, 1, 41-78; 209-308. Breitenbecher, J. K. Somatic 
mutations and elytral mosaics of Bruchus. 100, xliii, 10-22. Bug- 
nion, E. The growth of the antennae and cerci of the cockroach. 
The growth of the antennae of Empusa egena. 124, 1921, 56-66; 
118-32. Cholodkovsky, N. Sur les glandes colleteriques de 1'ap- 
pareil genital feminin des lepidopteres. Contribution a la connais- 
sance des glandes salivaires des dipteres. (Bui. Ac. Sci. Russie 
(6), 1918, 1351-56.) Cole, W. H. Note on the relation between the 
photic stimulus and the rate of locomotion in Drosophila. 68, Iv, 
678-9. Crampton, G. C. The derivation of certain types of head 
capsule in insects from crustacean prototypes. 10, xxiv, 153-57. 
Dewitz, J. \Vcitere mitteilungen ueber die entstehung der farbe 
gewisser schmetterlingkokons . . . . 89, Ab. f. Zool., xxxviii, 365-101. 
Federici, E. Lo stomaco della larva di Anopheles claviger, r la 
dualita dellc cellule mesointestinali degli insetti. (Atti R. Ac. Na/. 
Liiu-ei, xxxi, 264-68, 394-97.) Frisch, K. v. Ueber den sitz des 
geruchsinnes bei insecten. 89, Ab. f. Zool., xxxviii, 149-516. Genieys, 
p. Sur le determinisme des variations de la coloration chez tin 
hymenoptere parasite. 77, Ixxxvi, 1080-83. Goldschmidt & Machida 

-Ueber zwei eigenartige gynandromorphe drs schwammspinners 
Lymantria dispar. 128, xxviii. 2 19-258. Gowen & Gowen Com- 
plete linkage in Drosophila melanogaster. 90, Ivi, 286-8. Grandi, G. 

Studio morfologico e biologico della Blastophaga psenes. (An. 
R. Sc. Sup. Agric., Portici, xvi, 33-144.) Haviland, M. D. On the 
post-embryonic development of certain chalcids, hyperparasites of 
aphids. 86, Ixvi, :;:M-38. Hollande, A. C. La cellule pericardiale 
des insectes. (Arch. Anat. Microsr.. 1'aris, xviii, 85-307.) Horst, 
A. Zur kenntnis der biologic und morphologic einiger Elateriden 

248 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | < )ct., '22 

und ihrer larven. Ill, 1022, A. 1, 1-87. Hovasse, R. Differences 
de proprietes histochiiniques entre 1'heterochromosome et les autres 
chromosomes de domesticus. 77, Ixxxvii, 316. Hyde, R. R. 

A high fecundity record for Drosophila melanogaster. (Proc. 
Indiana Ac. Sc., 1921, 259-60.) Ives, H. E. The fire-fly as an 
illuminant. (Jour. Frankl. Inst., Phila., cxciv, 213-30.) Lancefield 
& Metz The sex-linked group of mutant characters in Drosophila 
willistoni, 90, Ivi, 211-41. Macfie, J. W. S. On the genital armature 
of the female mosquito. 98, xvi, 157-88. Martini, E. Ueber den 
bau der ausseren mannlichen geschlechtsorgane bei den stech- 
mucken. Ill, 1922, A. 1, 134-42. Morgan, L. V. Non-criss-cross 
inheritance in Drosophila melanogaster. 100, xlii, 267-74. Mueller, 
A. Ueber den bau des penis der tachinarier und seinen wert fur 
die aufstellung des stammbaumes und die artdiagnose. Ill, 1922, 
A, 2, 45-166. Muller, M. Rhyphus und Mycetobia mit besonderer 
berucksichtigung des larvalen clarmes. Ill, 1922, A, 2, 1-44. 
Mutschler, O. Der farbensinn der biene. 110, xxi, 349-50. Paw- 
lowsky, E. On the anatomy of Phymateus hildebrandti (Orthop- 
tera, Phymateidae) in connection with the peculiarities of its der- 
mal secretion. (Sc. Res. Zool. Exped. Br. E. Africa & Uganda, bv 
Dogicl & Sokolow, Petrograd, i, No. 3.) Payne & Denny A 
gynandromorph in Drosophila melanogaster. 90, Ivi, 383-4. Przi- 
bram, H. Verpuppung kopfloser raupen von tagfaltern. 127, 1. 
2():'.-s. Snodgrass, R. E. Mandible substitutes in the Dolichopo- 
didae. 10, xxiv, 148-52. Stumper, R. L'influence de la temperature 
sur 1'activite des fourmis. 77, Ixxxvii, 9-10. Thienemann & Zavrel 

Die metamorphose der Tanypinen. (Arc. f. Hydrobiol. u. Plankt.. 
Stuttgart, Suppl. Bd., ii, 566-654.) Thomson, A. L. Notes on the 
regeneration of the fore-limb in various genera of Mantidac. 127, 
1, 192-202. Titschack, E. Beitrage zu einer monographic der 
kleidermotte, Tineola biselliella. (Zeit. f. Tech. Biol., Leipzig, x, 
1-168.) Wheeler, W. M. Social life among the insects. 91, xv. 
68-88. Whiting, P. W. Heredity in the honey-bee. (Jour, of 
Heredity, Washington, D. C., xiii, 3-7.) Zeleny, C. The effect of 
selection for eye facet number in the white bar-eye race of Droso- 
phila melanogaster. (Genetics, vii, 1-115.) 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Chamberlin, R. V. Notes on West Indian 
millipeds. 50, Ixi, Art. 10. Further studies on North American 
Lithobiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass., Ivii, 2.">9-:iS2. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Ahlberg, O. Thysanoptera from Juan 
Fernandez and Easter Island. (Nat. Hist. J. Fern. & East. Tsl., iii, 
Zool., 271-76.) Clemens, W. A. A parthenogenetic mayfly (Ann- 
letus ludens). 4, liv, 77-8. Snyder, T. E. New termites from 
Hawaii, Central and South America, and the Antilles. 50, Ixi. Art. 211. 

xxxiii, '22\ ENTOMOLOGICAL \I-:\VS 249 

ORTHOPTERA. Davis, W. T. Notes on katydids. 6, xxx, 
73-4. Griffini, A. Sopra due Gryllacris del Museo di Budapest. 
109, xii (1914), 249-60. 

Cabrera, J. Descripcion de dos nuevas especies Cubanas de 
orthoptcros del genero Eurycotis. (Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat.. 
"F. Poey," iv, 94-5.) 

HEMIPTERA. Funkhouser, W. D. New records and species 
of South American Membracidae. 6, xxx, 1-35. Gowanlock, J. N. 
-The periodical cicada. 68, Ivi, 144. Hussey, R. F. A biblio- 
graphical notice on the Reduviid genus Triatoma. 5, xxix, 109-2!!. 

Bergroth, E. The American species of Ploeariola. 142, ii, 49-51 
(cont.). Davis, W. T.-i-An annotated list of the cicadas of Virginia 
with description of a new species. 6, xxx, 36-52. Penny, D. D. A 
catalogue of the California Aleyrodidae and the descriptions of four 
new species. 13, xiv, 21-36. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Aurivillius, Prout & Meyrick Lepidoptercn 
vom Juan Fernandez und der Oster-Insel. (Nat. Hist. Juan Fern. 
& Easter Isl., iii, Zool., 255-70.) Chamberlin, W. J. A new lepi- 
dopterous enemy of yellow pine in Oregon. 6, xxx, 69-71. Colle- 
nette, C. L. Protective devices by lycaenid butterflies against the 
attacks of lizards and birds. (Str. Branch R. Asiatic Soc., Jour. 
No. 85, 2110-4.) Forbes, W. T. M. The position of the Dioptidae. 
Stridulation in another family of Lepidoptera. Haploa and Calli- 
morpha. 6, xxx, 71; 72. Le Cerf, F. Description d'Hesperides 
nouveaux. 99, 1922, 162-5. Meyrick, E. New microlepidoptera of 
the German entomological institute. 49, xi, 44-7. Niepelt, W. 
/\vei neue formen sudamerikanischer tagfalter. 141, xvi, 67. Ober- 
thur, C. A propos de la synonymic de certains Hesperia et Lycae- 
nidac americains. 20, 1922, 124-7. Etudes de lepidopterologie com- 
paree. Fasc. xix, part 1-2. Pearson, G. B. California in October 
and December. 21, xxxiv, 113-14. Pruffer, J. Verzeichnis der 
schmctterlinge aus Peru. . . . (Discip. Biol. Arch. Soc. Sci. Varsa- 
vienisi, i, 1-14.) Schaus, W. New species of Pyralidae of the sub- 
family Crambinae from tropical America. 10, xxiv, 127-45. 

Barnes & Benjamin Xotes on Automeres. Revision of Grotella. 
Notes on Cucullianac. Notes on Drepana. New genera and species. 
46, v, 1-50. Braun, A. F. Microlepidoptera: Notes and new spe- 
cies. 4, liv, 90-4. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. (Jndescribed crane-flies in the 
Paris national museum (IV). 99, 192:2, 73-5. Bequaert, J. Tin- 
North American species of Cryptolurili i (Pseudopyrellia), (Antho- 
myiidae). 5, xxix, 89-91. Bezzi, M. Note sur la presence en Algerie 
du Sphynuvphala lu-arseiana, de I'lnile it sur la synonynik- de ce 
diptere. 99, L922, 69-72. Bischoff, W.- Zur kenntnis der Hlepharo- 


ceriden. 89, xlvi, Abt. f. Syst., 61-120. Brethes, J. (See under 
Hymenoptera). Cockerell, T. D. A. The dipterous family Ble- 
phariceridae. 9, 1922, 135. Dyar, H. G. The mosquitoes of the 
United States. 50, Ixii, Art. 1. Edwards, F. W. Mosquito Notes. 
22, xiii, 75-] 02. Evans, A. M. Notes on the Culicidae in Vene- 
zuela, with descriptions of new species. 98, xvi, 213-22. Ferris & 
Cole A contribution to the knowledge of the Hippoboscidae. 64, 
xiv, 178-205. Kertesz, K. Vorarbeiten zu einer monographic der 
Notacanthen. 109, xii (1914), 449-557. Leathers, A. L. Ecological 
study of aquatic midges and some related insects with special refer- 
ence to feeding habits. (Bui. Bur. Fish., Washington, xxxvii. Doc. 
No. 915.) Malloch, J. R. An unusual taxonomic character in Syr- 
phidae. 19, xvii, 42. Marshall, J. F. The -destruction of mosquito 
larvae in salt or brackish water. 68, cix, 746-7. Thienemann, A. 
Pelopia und Tanypus. Bemerkungen zur nomenklatur der Meigen'- 
schen Chironomidengattungen. (Arc. f. Hydrobiol. u. Plankt., Stutt- 
gart, Suppl. Bel., ii, 555-65.) 

Aldrich, J. M. A itew genus of two-winged fly with mandible like 
labella. 10, xxiv, 145-8. Curfan, C. H. New and little known 
Canadian Syrphidae. 4, liv, 94-6. Johnson, C. W. New genera 
and species of Diptera. (Oc. Pap. Boston Soc. N. H., v, 21-6.) 
Van Duzee, M. C. Three new species of Parasynthormon with a 
table of species (Dolichopodidae). 4, liv, 88-90. 

COLEOPTERA. Cameron, M. Descriptions of new species of 
Staphylinidae from the West Indies. 11, ix, 633-52. Chamberlin, 
W. J. A review of the genus Poecilonota as found in America, 
north of Mexico, with descriptions of new species (Buprestidae). 
6, xxx, 52-66. Champion, G. C. The synonymy and distribution 
of Pantomorus godmani, a cosmopolitan weevil attacking roses, 
greenhouse plants, etc. 8, Iviii, 161-2. Frost, C. A. Occurrence of 
Agrilus coeruleus in America. 4, liv, 96. Garnett, R. T. Notes sur 
le Dinapate wrightii. 20, 1922, 119-21. Heller, K. M. Springende 
blutenkelche, verursacht durch ein neues Apion. 49, xi, 52-4. Hus- 
tache, A. Synonymic et dispersion de Pantomorus godmani. 20, 
1922, 100-1. Jeannel, R. Silphide Leptininae ct morphologic com- 
paree du Leptinus testaceus et du Platypsyllus castoris. 92, Ix, 
557-92. Kleine, R. Studien uber die Nemocephalini. Ill, 1922, A, 
1, 143-51. Knaus, W. Notes on a rare Buprestis. 6, xxx, 66-68. 
McCulloch, J. W. Longevity of the larval stage of the cadelle. 12, 
xv, 240-3. Marshall, G. A. K. Some injurious Neotropical weevils. 
22, xiii, 59-74. Pic, M. Coleopteres Malacodermes nouveaux des 
collection du museum. 99, 1922, 157-61. Portevin, M. G. Note 
sur quelques Silphides et Liodides de la collection Grouvelle. 99, 
1921, 535-38. van Emden, F. Die fuhler der Halipliden. 49, xi, 
50-1. Walker, J. J. An American Scarabaeid in dried fruit. 8, 


Iviii, 102. Weiss, H. B. -Nuic>. on the pulfball beetle, Caenocaru 
oculata. 5, xxix, 92-4. 

Knull, J. N. Annotated list of the Buprestidae of Pennsylvania. 
4, liv. ; ( .-si). Weise, J. Ueber einige amerikanische und austr liische 
nach Sudfrankreich eingefuhrte Coccinelliden. 48, xxxix, 104. 

HYMENOPTERA. Brethes, J. Himenopteros y Dipteros de 
varias procedencias. 106, xciii, 119-46. Champlain, A. B. Record* 
of hymenopterous parasites in Pennsylvania. 5, xxix, 93-100. Davis 
& Bequaert An annotated list of the ants of Staten Island and Long 
Island, N. Y. 19, xvii, 1-25. Donisthorpe, H. The colony found- 
ing of Acanthomyops (Dendrolasius) fnliginosus. 100, xlii, 173-84. 
Emery, C. L'ouverture cloacale des formicinae ouvrieres et fe- 
nu-lles. 34, iv, 62-5. Herbst, P. Zur biologic cler gattung Chili- 
cola. 49, xi, 63-8. Mann, W. H. Ants from Honduras and Guate- 
mala. 50, Ixi, Art. 13. Mercet, R. G.- El genero Azotus (Calci- 
didos). (Bol. R. Soc. Espanola de Hist. Nat., Madrid, xxii, 196- .. 
200.) Plath, O. E. Notes on Psithyrus, \vith records of two new 
American hosts. 100, xfiii, 23-44. Smith, E. J. The rediscovery of 
Odynerus (Ancistocerus) waldenii. 4, liv, 87. Szepligeti, V. Ich- 
ntumoniden aus der sammlung des Ungarischen Nat. Museum. 103, 
xii (1914), 414-32. Turner, C. H. A week with a mining cumenid: 
an ecological behavior study of the nesting habits of Odynerus clor- 
salis. 100, xlii, 153-72. Wheeler, W. M. Observations on Gigan- 
tiops destructor, and other leaping ants. 100, xlii, 185-201. 

Brues, C. T. On the hymenopterous genus Harpagocryptus and 
its allies. 5, xxix, 101-9. Mocsary, A. Chrysididae plerumque 
exoticae novae. 109, xii (1914), 1-72. Weld, C. J. Studies on 
chalcid-flies of the subfamily Leucospidinae, with descriptions of 
n. sps. 50, Ixi, Art. 6. Weld, L. H. Notes on American gall-flies 
of the family Cynipidae producing galls on acorns, with descriptions 
of n. sps. Notes on cynipid wasps, with descriptions of new N. 
American sps. 50, Ixi, Art. 18 and Art. 19. 

ume XIX. part 2. Rennes, France, May, 1922. This volume contains 
an introduction by Mr. Obertluir and the following" papers: A Contri- 
bution to the Study of the Aegeriidae, with descriptions of new species 
and varieties, by F. Le Cerf. The editor makes some interesting remarks 
on the species of Paniasshts in Central Asia, which are followed by an 
article by Andre Avinoff on Parnassius adcstis Or. M. Oberthur 
presents an article on Syriclitns al-i-cus. These difficult Hcsperidae are 
receiving much study in Humpe. Additional notes are given on the 
Lepidoptera of Morocco. Sonic oi the interesting l.epidoptera of 
Madagascar receive consideration by the editor, the beautiful 


riphcus being particularly mentioned. Prof. C. I loulhert makes a valu- 
able contribution, a study of the Melanargiinae of China and Siberia. 
There are 28 plates with the numerous species figured in color. These 
plates are of the superb character of those we have mentioned as appear- 
ing- in former volumes. M. Oberthiir richly deserves the thanks of all 
Lepidopterists for the production of this valuable series. H. SKINNER. 

PROFKSSOR BENEDICT JAEGER, Early Entomologist of Xew Jersey. 
Under this title, Mr. Harry B. Weiss has contributed a biographical 
sketch to the Proceedings of the Xczv Jersey Historical Society (new 
series, vol. VII, No. 3, pp. 196-207, Xewark, N. J., July, 1922). The 
author tells us that his interest in Jaeger "was first aroused by read- 
ing in Mr. John D. Sherman's 'Catalogue 10 of- Books on Insects' 
the following statement referring to Prof. Jaeger's book on 'The Life 
of North American Insects' : 'famous as the most worthless of all 
American Insect books'." In his usual painstaking way, Mr. Weiss 
brings together a number of scattered bits of published and un- 
published information on his subject. Jaeger was born in Vienna, 
Austria, in 1789, came to the United States in 1831 and died in Brook- 
lyn, August 17, 1869. His activities in natural history embraced other 
groups of animals in addition to insects and also plants. P. P. CALVERT. 

NOMENCLATOR CoLEOPTEROLOGicus. Eine etymologische Erklarung 
samtlicher Gattungs- und Artnamen dcr Kafer der deutschen Fauna 
sowie der angrenzenden Gebiete. Zweite Auflage In Verbindung mit 
Prof. Dr. R. SCHMIDT herausgegeben von SIGM. SCHENKLING. Jena 
Verlag von Gustav Fischer 1922. 8vo., pp. iv, 255. Price in paper 
binding 95 Marks, in cloth 125 Marks. In 1894 Herr Schenkling pub- 
lished the firs! edition of this book, now long since out of print. In 
1917, at the expense of the German Union of Teachers of Natural 
Science, he issued an "Explanation of the scientific names of beetles 
in Reitter's Fauna Germanica" (Lutz, Stuttgart, publisher). This new 
edition of the Nomenclator Coleopterologicus goes beyond the "Ex- 
planation" in that it gives not only the meanings (in German) of 
the generic and specific names, but also their roots, both Greek and 
Latin, the quantity of the syllables of the roots, and a detailed chapter 
(pp. 1-12) on entomological nomenclature, explanations of technical 
terms and translations of a number of Latin adjectives, adverbs, num- 
erals and conjunctions "so that one not acquainted with the ancient 
languages can, with the use of this book, translate Latin diagnoses and 
descriptions without great difficulty" that is, if he can read German. 
The author further tells us in his preface: "One will find also in tlr's 
book the explanation of many geographical names which, since they 
are often not of classical origin, are sought in vain even in the larg.T 
classical dictionaries. I need only hint at the high value of translation. 

xxxiii, '22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NK\VS 253 

for retaining scientific names in one's memory, as these names express, 
in great measure certain peculiarities of the structure or habits." 

On the philological side Herr Schenkling has had the assistance of 
Prof. Richard Schmidt, of the University of Minister in Westphalia. 

The greater part of the hook is divided into two sections, generic and 
s'.iligeneric names (pp. 1,5-116) and "Species and their varieties; ter- 
minology" (pp. 117-249), the names in both sections being arranged 
alphabetically. The nature of the information given is well illustrated 
by examples from each part : 

Carabus L. V. Kapafios (karabos), Kafername bei den Griechen, 
auch Meerkrabbe. Unmoglich von /cetvo) (keino) abschneiden. wie 
Leunis will. Vgl. Scarabaeus? 

nemoralis, e, in Hainen vorkommend. 

Bogemani (nicht Bogema'nni), nach dem friihercn schwedischen 
Hauptmann J. C. Bogeman. 

\s tbe subtitle of this Nomenclator indicates, the names included are 
limited to those of the beetle fauna of Germany and of the neighboring 
countries. With the increasing diffusion of European Coleoptera to 
other parts of the world, however, this work will be useful to extra- 
European entomologists who read German. P. P. CALVERT. 

March 15, 1922. This number contains reports on the Scutelleroidea [by 
Prof. DAYTON STONER] and the Orthoptera and Dermaptera [by Mr. 
A. X. CAUDELL] of the Barbados-Antigua Expedition of the University 
in 1918. and a report on Scutelleroidea of the Douglas Lake Region, 
Michigan, also by Prof. Stoner. The Barbados-Antigua collection of 
Scutelleroidea consisted of about 800 pinned specimens, representing 17 
species on Antigua (taken between June 19 and July 19) and 9 of the 
17 also on Barbados (taken between May 16 and June 11). "Of the 
17 Antigua species, 14 occur also in the United States and 3 are strictly 
neotropical. ... As a whole the pentatomid fauna of the two 
inlands seems to be Central American and Mexican in its affinities rather 
than South American." 

The Orthoptera and Dermaptera of the same islands consisted of 334 
pecimens comprising 31 species, but no general summary accompanies 
Mr. Caudell's Report. 

The Scuttelleroidea of the Douglas Lake Region were collected in 
July and AULMV,), 1919 and 1920. within 15 miles from the Lake, and 
amount to 23 species, which may be compared with the West Indian 
figures given above. Xo species is common to both lists but three 
genera (.1/nrwiV/r </. I'.uxfluxtus and l\</lixits) are. Prof. Stoner makes a 
brief comparison of the peiitatomid faunae of Doivl.i Lai e and oi Lake 
( ikohoji, Iowa, the latter of 2<) species, 17 of which are also found at 
Douglas Lake. P. P. ("AIVKRT. 


FLETCHER. Calcutta Superintendent Government Printing, India. 1921. 
(Reprinted from Scientific Reports, Agr. Res. Inst. Pusa, 1920-21, pp. 
41-59, pis. iii-viii). The principal work done on insect pests during the 
year mentioned was a continuation of the investigation of borers in 
sugar cane and other gramineous plants and, on the side of pathological 
entomology, on Tabanidae in connection with surra disease and on 
Culicidae. A Chalcidid of the genus Phanarus? heavily infests the eggs 
of several Tabanids but it lias not shown polyembryony. Twenty-one 
students received training to varying extents in agricultural and sani- 
tary entomology, lac- and sericulture. The collection at Pusa is now 
estimated to contain rather more than 7,000 named species of Indian 
insects. Among the specialists whose aid in making identification is 
acknowledged are Messrs. Rohwer and Morgan Hebard, Profs. Cockerell 
and Felt. The project for the preparation and publication of a cata- 
logue of all described Indian insects has been approved by Government 
and considerable progress made during the year. A notice of the first 
part of this catalogue (on Acryclidae or Tettigidae) appeared in the 
Nrws for March last, p. 95 of this volume. P. P. CALVERT. 


WILLIAM LUCAS DISTANT, known especially for his work 
on Lepidoptera and Hemiptera, died at Wanstead, Essex, Eng- 
land, February 4, 1922. He was born at Rotherhithe, November 
12, 1845, son of Capt. Alexander Distant, "who in old South 
Sea whaling-days, sailed round and round the world, and trans- 
mitted a love of roaming to< his sons," and whom the son ac- 
companied to the Malay peninsula in 1867. In his earlier 
years he was engaged in the tanning business and in this con- 
nection spent a year in the Transvaal in 1890-91, and made a 
second visit thereto in 1898. From April, 1899, to November, 
1920, he was a part-time Assistant in the British Museum 
(Natural History), rearranging the national collection of 
Hemiptera and describing many new species. His own collec- 
tion of about 50,000 specimens, chiefly in this order, and over 
2500 types came to the Museum in 1911. The last decade of 
his life was saddened by the loss of his wife and two younger 
sons and by incurable and protracted disease. 

American entomologists are especially interested in Hemip- 
tera Heteroptera, Vol. I (1880-1893) and Heteroptera Homop- 

xxxiii. '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 255 

tera, Vol. I in part (1881-1905), which he contributed to the 
Biologta Centrali-Ainericana. Among' his other works are 
Rhopalocera Malayana (1882-1886), Monograph of the Ori- 
aitol Cicadiclac (1889-1892), A Naturalist in the Transvaal 
(1892), hisccta Transvaaliensia (1900-1911), Rhynchota, 7 
Vols. (1902-1918), in the Fauna of British India, A Synonymic 
Catalogue of Homoptcra, Part I Cicadidac (1906), as well 
as numerous shorter articles in the English journals from 18/4 
to 1920. He was editor of The Zoologist from 1897 to 1914, 
and a member of the Entomological Societies of London, 
France, Stockholm and Belgium and a corresponding member 
of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Appreciative no- 
tices of him appeared in the March numbers of The Entomol- 
ogist and The Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, from which 
the above account is drawn. 

January 31, 1922, formed an extensive collection of Oriental 
Hymenoptera, many of them collected by himself in India from 
1872 on. This, together with a library on the same group, he 
presented during his life time to the Hope Museum at Oxford, 
England. ( Ent. Mo. Mag., May, 1922.) 

Another martyr to research on the nature and transmission 
of typhus has fallen in the person of ARTHUR W. BACOT, who 
died in Cairo, Egypt. April 12, 1922. At the invitation of the 
Egyptian Government he had undertaken experiments with 
lice in the laboratories of the Public Health Department and 
it is supposed that he became infected by some accident. He 
was previously well known for his work on the bionomics of 
rat fleas (done at his home in Essex, England), of the Yellow 
Fever Mosquito (which he studied in Sierra Leone in 1914-15). 
and of lice in connection with trench fever (1915-17). In 1911 
he was appointed Entomologist to the Lister Institute of Pre- 
ventive Medicine, in 1916 Honorary Entomological Adviser to 
the War Office, in 1917 to the British Trench Fever Committee 
of the War Office, and in 1 ( )20 he went to Poland with the 
Typhus Research Commission of the League of the Red Cross 

256 ENTOMOLOGICAL NKWS |<)ct.. '22 

Society. His earliest entomological work was with the British 
Lepidoptera, elucidating many life histories and furnishing 
many data for genetics. (The Entom., June, 1922.) 

HENRY ROWLAND-BROWN, "one of the best known and most 
popular of British entomologists," died May 3, 1922, at Harrow 
Weald. He was born at Woodridings, Pinner, May 19, 1865, 
educated at Rugby and Oxford, was athlete, journalist and 
poet, active and efficient secretary of the Entomological Society 
of London, and made the diurnal Lepidoptera of France his 
special study. A number of his papers are included in M. 
Charles Oberthiir's publications. Americans in attendance at 
the Second International Congress of Entomology, al Oxford, 
in 1912, will not fail to remember him and to regret his decease 
at a comparatively early age. He bequeathed his books to the 
London society and the Hope Museum, Oxford, his collection 
to the latter. An obituary notice is in The Entomologist for 
June, 1922. 

The same number reports the death of the well-known col- 
lector and author of "a very large proportion of the Rhopalo- 
cera section of Seitz's Exotic Macrolepidoptera," HANS FRUH- 
STORFER, at Munich, April 9, 1^22, in his fifty-ninth year. 

DR. OTTO TASCHENBERG. Professor of Zoology at the Uni- 
versity of Halle, author of the unfinished Bibliotheca Zoologica 
II, died March 20. 1922. in his sixty-eighth year. (Wiener 
Ent. Zeit., xxxix, p. 112.) 

The death of Louis BEDEL, Coleopterist, was announced, 
without date, at the meeting of the Entomological Society of 
France, held February 8. 1922. His principal works were a 
Monographic dcs Erotylicns (1870), Catalogue Raisonnc dc? 
Colcnptcrcs dn Nord dc I'Afriquc and Faunc dcs CoUoptcre;; 
(In Has-sin ilc la Seine, the latter two unfinished. He bequeathed 
the first set of his collection to the Entomological Laboratory of 
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Vol. XXXIII No. 9 


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Plate X. 









No. 9 


Schmieder The Tracheation of the 
Wings of Early Larval Instars of 
Odonata Anisoptera, with Special 
Reference to the Development of 
the Radius 257 

Allen Ovipositional Habit of Pyraus- 
tomyia penitalis Coq. ( Diptera, 
Tacbinidae) 263 

Needham A Peculiar Damsel fly 
Nvmph of the Subfamily Thorinae 
(Odon.. Agrionidae) 264 

Malloch Keys to the Syrphid Genus 
Spheg'na Meigen (Dip. ) 266 

Van Duzee A New North American 

Genus of Cydnidae (Hem.) 270 

Martin Studies in the Genus Hetae- 
rius (Col., Histeridae) 272 

Benjamin Early Stages of Noropsis 
hieroglyph ica Cram. (Lepidoptera, 
Noctuidae ) 277 

Malloch Temno^toma bombylans 
Linne Doubtfully American (Syr- 
phidae, Diptera 278 

Editorial Insect Surveys 279 

Skinner Protoparce rustica in Florida 
( Lep., : Sphingidae) and Mr. T. L. 
Mead 280 

The University of Michigan-William- 
son Expedition to Brazil 281 

Lindsey The Authorship of the Lepi- 
doptera Described in the Encyclo- 
pedic Method ique, Vol. IX 281 

Ferris A Note on Timema californi- 
cum Scudder (Orthoptera ; Phas- 
midae) 282 

Insect Photography 283 

Chrvsops rostata Sucking Human 

Blood in Cuba (Dip. : Tabanidae). 283 

Entomological Literature 284 

Obituary Note 288 

The Tracheation of the Wings of Early Larval Instars 

of Odonata Anisoptera, with Special Reference 

to the Development of the Radius. 

By RUDOLF G. SCHMIEDER, M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 


(Plates X, XI ) 

Comstock and Needham in 1898, and Needham in 1 ( H)3 
published, an account of the development of the wing venation 
of the Odonata. In the account of Needham, 1903, the devel- 
opment of the wing veins is traced through a series of larval 
stages in order to show that the vein lying posterior to .1/2, the 
sul modal sector of earlier authors, is really the vein A J .v, and 
that it has come to lie in this unusual position as the result of 
a series of evolutionary changes in the history of the dragon 
rly wing. These evolutionary changes, according to Needham, 
are indicated in the ontogeny of the larval tracheae. Figs. 1 
and _' in Xeedham's paper represent drawings of three stages 



in the development of the larval wing. These drawings are to 
show: in fig. 1, A, the primitive condition in which the trachea 
R s occupies its normal position anterior to ,1/1, in fig. 1, B. 
the second stage, in which Ks has come to lie posterior to Ml 
but is still anterior to M2, and finally, in fig. 2, the condition 
obtaining in the full grown larva, in which Rs lies posterior to 
M2. The occurrence of these stages in the larval wings con- 
stitutes a part of Needham's evidence that the vein lying be- 
tween A/2 and A/3 is the radial sector and is not a true branch 
of the media. 

The work of Tilly ard (1922) has again thrown doubt upon 
the identity of the vein Rs, for this author does not concur in 
Needham's interpretation but states that the Rs of Needham is 
really a branch of the media, although receiving its tracheal 
supply in part through a branch of R; and that the original Rs 
has been cut off by, and become attached to, the media. While 
admitting that if the ontogenetic stages described by Needham 
actually occur in the developing wing rudiments of the larva, 
this would constitute strong evidence in favor of Needham's 
view, Tillyard doubts that such stages can be demonstrated. 

It was suggested to me by Dr. Philip P. Calvert, that in view 
of the doubts which had thus been cast upon the existence of 
the two earlier stages described by Needham, it would be 
desirable to go over the work of that author and examine the 
tracheation of the earliest larval instars, since an accurate 
knowledge concerning the condition of the trachea Rs at its 
first appearance and of how it comes to occupy the position it 
is said to assume in later instars might be of value in solving 
the difficult problem of the homology of the imaghial vein Rs. 

The larvae examined were those of Anax jnnlns Drury, 
Gomphus villosipcs Selys and GompJuts c.rilis Selys. The wing 
rudiments of these larvae were prepared and mounted essen- 
tially after the manner described by Needham. In the case of 
the younger ones it was necessary, because of the small si/e 
of their wings, to cut out the thoracic terga and the first seg- 
ment of the abdomen in one piece and, without removing or 
disturbing any of the underlying tissue, to mount the piece 
thus removed entire. Treated in this way, the wing rudiments 

xxxiii, '22 j ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 259 

and the delicate tracheae contained in them are suhjected to no 
strain or pressure of any kind and there is practically no dan- 
ger of the tracheae being displaced from their normal courses. 
The figures are all from drawings made with the aid of a 
camera lucida, for it was found that the earlier stages, such ns 
those in which the wings were less than 0.5 mm. in length, 

o O 

could not be photographed, since the high magnifications neces- 
sary make it impossible to get all the tracheae in focus together. 
In the wing measurements given, the term "length" is used to 
indicate the distance between the mid-point on the line of 
articulation of the wing with the thoracic tergum and the 
extreme tip of the wing. 

In A mi. r, the smallest larvae posse-sing wing rudiments 
which I was able to obtain were 9 to 10 mm. in length. The 
wings of these larvae were 0.2 to 0.22 mm. long; three such 
wings, from different larvae, are represented in figs. 1-3. The 
shortness of these wings compared with their width at base 1 and 
the less definite arrangement of their tracheae make it imme- 
diately apparent that we have to do with a much earlier stage 
in the development of the wing than in the case of the earliest 
stages represented by Needham's figures or by Tillyard in his 
text fig. 3. 

In comparing the wings in figs. 1-3, it is noted that there is 
considerable variation, that there is not a single trachea which 
is exactly alike in all three figures but that each may vary in 
the number of its branches and that their arrangement gives 
but little hint as to the manner of their disposition in the adult. 
We also note that additional tracheae may often appear between 
the costa and the subcosta ; in fig. 2 there are two such tracheae, 
in fig. 1 there is one. I am confident in assuming that in all 
cases the extra tracheae are between C and Sc and that .!/ is 
always adjacent to R, for I have never found, at any stage in 
. Ina.v, any indications of extra tracheae inserted between A' and 
M. Thus I have found, as Needham did, that in the earliest 
stage in the development of the wing there are six principal 
tracheae. The additional tracheae of which there mav he one 
or more inserted between C and Sc, may persist through late- 
mstars but always remain small and are of no importance. 


It is noted too, that variability in the number of branches 
also characterizes the radius and media in this primary stage. 
In figs. 2 and 3, R is two-branched, while in fig. 1 it is nn- 
branched. The media is five-branched in fig. 2, while in figs. 1 
and 3 it is in its more usual four-branched condition. Finally 
it may be noted that the posterior two tracheae are three- 
branched in fig. 2, and that in figs. 1 and 3 they are two- 
branched. In regard to the costa it might be mentioned that, 
at least in Anax, this trachea almost always arises not from 
the same tracheal trunk as do the other wing tracheae, but from 
a branch of this trunk, the accessory costo-radial trunk, which 
passes out of the base of the wing. This condition is seen in 
figs. 2-8 ; in fig. 1 the costa arises from the same trunk as do 
the other tracheae. In Gomphus, the costa arises either directly 
from the transverse basal as do the other wing veins, or from 
the accessory costo-radial trunk as it does in Anav. 

Returning to the radius and observing the course of its 
branches in the earliest stages, we note that there is no crossing 
of any branch of this trachea over any part of the media. In 
fig. 1 the radius is not branched at all and is entirely remote 
from the media. In figs. 2 and 3 the radius has two branches, 
the posterior branch being, according to the view of Needham. 
the radial sector. This posterior branch, which for the present 
I will continue to refer to as Rs, is in this stage entirely free, 
and remote from the media. This observation apparently 
agrees with that of Needham, who illustrates such a condition 
in his fig. 1, A, if we disregard the difference in the sizes of 
the wings in the two cases. We must, however, remember that 
the wing rudiments represented in figs. 1-3, are in a much 
earlier stage of development than that figured by Needham 
which, he states, was 1 mm. long, as is indicated by their 
smaller absolute size, the difference in the proportions of length 
to width and in the great variability in the arrangement and in 
the number of branches of the various tracheae. 

Figs. 4-7 represent the tracheation of the wing rudiments 
taken from Ana.r larvae whose body length was 13 to 13.5 mm. 
These larvae are apparently of the instar following upon that 
of the larvae just discussed, since on frequent collecting trips 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 261 

during" August and September no larvae of an intermediate 
body length were found, although those of 10 mm. and those of 
13 mm. were quite plentiful. The wings of this instar were 
0.4 to 0.45 mm. long, the tracheation in them was much less 
variable than in those of the preceding instar. The additional 
tracheae, often so prominent in the previous instar, were less 
frequently observed or were at least comparatively smaller and 
of little importance. Other tracheal branches, especially those 
of R and M, heretofore simple, are in this stage composed of 
two or more fine branches which tend to cling together. The 
radius is, in all cases, at least tw r o-branched, a posterior branch 
Rs crosses over the two anterior branches of M. In all of the 
twelve individuals of this instar which were examined the 
trachea Rs always behaved in this way. A single exception is 
shown in fig. 7. This wing was from the same larva as the 
wing in fig. 6, which represents the conditions found in all of 
the other three wings of this larva. The wing in fig. 7 may 
therefore be considered as a variation having no special sig- 
nificance and not by any means as representing a normal occur- 
rence. We again note that compared with the wing repre- 
sented by Needham's fig. 1, B, the wings of Ana.v. although only 
0.4 mm. in length, have outstripped, in the specialization of 
tracheal paths as regards Rs, wings of Goniplnts which were 
(tcstc Needham) 3 mm. in length, whilst in regard to many 
other features the .-Ina.v wings are far behind the Gomphus 
wings of Needham. Not only is the wing in Needham's figure 
much larger and more elongated ( its length being greater than 
its width at base) than the wings in my figures, but the tracheae 
themselves, with the exception of Rs. speak of a more advanced 
stage of development. All the tracheae, excepting C, are com- 
paratively closer together at their origin and along their par- 
:i.'!t'l courses; Cu and .-1 have taken on quite decidedly the 
characteristic paths which they assume in anticipation of the 
formation of the triangle; the nodus and the stigma are already 
indicated ; and linally, the tracheal trunk supplying the win^ 
tracheae describes an arc of a comparatively shorter radius, a 
condition more typical of later instars. 

Fig. 8 represents a wing rudiment of the next succeeding in- 



[Nov., '22 

star, the larva being 15 mm. long- and the wing- 0.65 mm. in 
length. Here we note again that Rs crosses over Ml and M2. 
The branches of 7? and M are composed in their distal portions 
of bundles of fine tracheae lying close together and often wind- 
ing about each other, a condition already noted in the preceding 
instar and which has now become more pronounced. C and Sc 
have also developed a number of fine branches in this instar. 
This wing too, has many features in addition to its much 
smaller size, which indicate that it is in an earlier stage of 
development than that of Needham's fig. 1, B, which shows Rs 
as lying between Ml and M2. 

Text Fig. A. Wing rudiment from larva of Anaxjunius ; length of larva 33 mm., 

length of wing 1.9 mm. 

Finally, in text fig. A. there is represented a wing 1.9 mm. 
long, taken from a larva 33 mm. long. The wing in this stage 
is considerably elongated and the fascicled condition of the ends 
of the branches of R and M has been abandoned. 

( To he continued. ) 


Figs. 1-8. Wing rudiments from larvae of Anax junins. 
Figs. 1-3, Length of larvae 9 to 10 mm., length of wings 0.2 to 
0.22 mm. 

Figs. 4-7, Length of larvae 13 mm., length of wings 0.4 to 0.45 mm. 
Fig. 8, Length of larva 15 mm., length of wing 0.65 mm. 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 263 

Ovipositional Habit of Pyraustomyia penitalis 
Coq. (Dip., Tachinidae). 

By H. W. ALLEX, Agricultural College, Mississippi. 

Pyraustomyia (Panzcria) penitalis Coq.* is a common 
Tachinid parasite of the smartweed borer. Pyrausta am si id 
Hein. Adults of this parasite were abundant at Columbus, 
Ohio, during the summer of 1921 and their method of ovi- 
position was several times observed. To the author at least, 
their rather unique method of spanning the distance from adult 
fly to concealed host was new, and differed from the varied 
methods of oviposition and larviposition previously noted. 

The smartweed borer infests the cane of one of the more 
common smartweeds, (Polygonum pennsylvanicum} , entering 
by a small hole at the node and developing within short tunnels 
between the nodes, in its earlier instars in small colonies near 
the tip, later as solitary larvae in the older succulent joints. 

Females of Pyraustomyia penitalis in the act of ovipositing 
were observed to approach an infested node and quickly fasten 
a minute maggot enclosed in a very thin sheath of chorion, 
upon the cane, near the entrance hole of the borer. The 
maggot in all cases emerged from the sheath at once. Some 
found and entered the tunnel of the borer within a few 
seconds, while other instances were observed where the young 
maggot had been unable to find the entrance of the tunnel 20 
minutes after oviposition. Maggots emerging from the 
sheath moved at first on a straight line represented roughly by 
a prolongation of the longitudinal axis of the sheath, then 
failing to find the entrance hole of the borer would take a 
wandering course, frequently raising the anterior end and 
waving the head in the air. The course of the minute maggot 
after entering the tunnel of the borer until it appeared within 
the body of the host was not observed. Young maggots were 
recovered from the blood of borers a few hours after ovi- 

* Several adults were sent to Mr. John Tothill who has recently been 
\vorkiiiL' on a revision of this group of Tachinidae. He places Coquillett's 
Panccria pcnitalis in the genus Pyraustomyia, Can. Ent., Vol. LIT I. 
p. 201. 


position, indicating that soon after entering the tunnel, maggots 
find their host and penetrate its body. 

This manner of effecting parasitism seems remarkable in 
several respects. The host, though a borer and secure during 
most of its existence from the direct attack of a Tachinicl 
parasite, is highly vulnerable to this specialized method of 
approach, as is indicated by the frequent high rate of para- 
sitism. When the borer changes from the gregarious to 
solitary life, it leaves the colony tunnel and crawls on the out- 
side of the cane to a joint lower down, cutting a new entrance 
there, and at this period of its existence is particularly vul- 
nerable to direct parasite attack. But so far as observed, this 
parasite takes no interest in exposed larvae. Maggots, as 
indicated by the cast sheaths, are habitually deposited at dis- 
tances ranging from about one-fourth inch to over an inch 
from the borer entrance. Before the parasitic life of the 
maggot could begin, it was forced to perform the tortuous 
and difficult journey from the point of oviposition to the en- 
trance hole and then up the tunnel to the host and finally to 
penetrate the body of the host. So far as observed maggots 
were invariably placed near infested nodes. Superparasitism 
was common, several maggot sheaths being commonly found 
about the entrance containing but one borer. Many borers 
were found to contain two and three maggots. Females were 
induced to oviposit freely in small cages when confined 
with infested canes. 

A Peculiar Damselfly Nymph of the Subfamily 
Thorinae (Odon., Agrionidae). 

By JAMES G. NEEDHAM, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

Among the aquatic insects collected by Dr. J. C. Bradley 
on the Cornell Entomological Expedition of 1919-20 to South 
America, there was one damselfly nymph of form so peculiar 
I deem it worthy of special notice. When I first saw the speci- 
men in a vial of alcohol I thought that a bur or spiny seed of 
some kind was stuck to its tail, but when I got at the specimen 
and undertook to remove the supposed bur I found it to be 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NK\YS 265 

the highly modified middle gill that is possessed by all damsel- 
fly larvae. 

The curiously twisted ventral abdominal gills attached to 
segments 2 to 7 and bent beneath the abdomen as well as the 
form of labium and antennae show this nymph to be allied to 
that of Cora obtained by Dr. Calvert in Costa Rica and de- 
scribed by him in Entomological News, volume XXII, page 
52. I place it, therefore, among the Thorinae. Nymphs of 
three genera of this group Tliorc, l-.nthorc and Cl'.<i!coptcr\.\- 
remain unknown. The wings of this specimen are badly pre- 
served so that there is no venation to be seen in them that 
might help to identify the genus. The wings, however, are 
long and the nymph though small is apparently grown, and 
on the basis of size alone I hazard the guess that it belongs to 
the smallest and most highly specialized genus Chalcoptcrv.v. 
or else to one of the smallest members of the genus Euihorc. 
Herewith I publish figures drawn by Dr. Hazel E. Branch 
and a brief description. 

Fig. i. Nymph of a Thorine damselfly from Peru. To the right, a gill of same detached. 

Length 17 mm., antennae 2 mm., and modified middle gill 4 l / 2 mm. 
additional. Length of hind femora 4J4 mm., width of head 4^< mm. 

Color all brown, only the sutures and the tarsi paler. On the top of 
the head are seven oval bare scars that are somewhat yellowish, three 
of them transversely placed and conjoined about the middle ocellus and 
two pairs more laterally placed, one at the same level and almost con- 
tiguous to the eye, and one pair farther back and closer together. 

Head wider than thorax, abruptly narrowed behind the eye with a 
broadly rounded occipital notch bordered at either side as viewed from 
above by a rather sharply projecting angle. Antennae 7-jo.nted, the 
7th joint pale and feebly differentiated, the second joint longest, as long 
as joints 3 to 7 taken together, and one-half longer than the basal joint 
and twice as long as the third joint alone. There is a line of flat scale- 
like hairs bordering the inner margin of this long second joint, and a 
similar patch on the side of the he-id before the eye, and a dense fringe 
of scurfy hairs around the front edge of the labrum. The hinge of the 



labium extends rearward only to the middle of the prothorax, its median 
lobe is broadly rounded and cleft only to the level of the base of the 
lateral lobes. Each lateral lobe is 3-cleft at the apex into two outer, 

Fig. 2. Mouth parts : a, mandible ; b, end of labium from within ; c, more enlarged tip 

of lateral lobe of labium. 

incurved subacute teeth, and one inner obliquely truncate and scarcely 
falcate tooth. 

At each side of the pronotum is the usual pair of projecting lateral 
angles, the rear one being slightly larger; the legs are brown with 
yellowish tarsi, the femora bare, strongly longitudinally carinate and the 
tibiae similar, very weakly carinate. Wing tips extend posteriorly to 
abdominal segment 6. There are high, erect dorsal hooks on segments 
2 to 9. Gills on 2 to 7 decurved and twisted at the tip, three-jointed, the 
basal joint bearing very short filaments along one side. There are no 
lateral spines. 

The lateral gills are wanting. The mid-dorsal gill is of extraordinary 
form, inflated, heavily chitinized, pedicellate at base and compressed at 
apex, where it is bifurcated and slightly carinate beneath, where it 
bears a strong sharp tooth at each end of the inflated portion. There is 
also a pair of thorn-like processes projecting laterally from the middle 
of this portion. 

A single 9 specimen from Enafias del Pichis, Peru (east 
slope of the Andes), July 4, 1920. 

Keys to the Syrphid Genus Sphegina Meigen (Dip.). 

By J. R. MALLOCH, U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
The genus Sphegina is most closely related to Neoasciit 
Williston and is separable from it by the conspicuously con- 
cave face, the sloping instead of erect outer cross-vein, lack 
of distinct hairs on upper half of sternopleura (except in one 
or two species, and in these they are very inconspicuous), much 
shorter third antennal segment, and the presence of a more or 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 267 

less complete impressed curved line extending- from humerus 
on each side to the transverse median impression. 

The species vary much in color but in structure they are 
quite constant. No use has previously been made of the 
armature of the fifth sternite of the males in systematic papers 
though its shape has been mentioned, and previous authors 
have omitted any mention of the curved thoracic depression. 

Nothing is known of the larval habits of the genus ; the 
adults occur on various flowers. 

Key to Males. 

1. Hind tibia with a distinct elevated chitinized beaklike projection at 
apex on ventral surface which is either acutely pointed or com- 
pressed from each side ; apical abdominal sternite without minute 
spinules, only fine hairs present 

Hind tibia either transverse at apex on ventral side or with a short 
apically rounded scooplike production 

2. Small species, about 5 mm. in length ; black and yellow in color, the 
apical process on hind tibia beaklike and slightly curved ; hind tro- 
chanters without minute black setulae.. . . flavomaculata Malloch. 

Large species, 8-9 mm. in length 

3. Reddish species ; hind femora unicolorous rufous ; hind tibia with 
the apical process rounded at tip and compressed from each side ; 
hind trochanters without black setulae, 

armatipes Malloch var. rufa Malloch. 

Black species with yellow markings ; hind femora largely black ; 
hind tibia with the apical process beaklike, slightly curved, not com- 
pressed from both sides ; hind trochanters with some black 
setulae armatipes Malloch. 

4. Scutellum transverse at apex, the two long setulose hairs separated 
by ftiore than half the basal width of scutellum ; hairs at apices oi 
fourth and fifth abdominal sternites strong, but no short stout 
spinules present, fifth produced lobuliform at posterior angle on left 
side occidentalis Malloch. 

Scutellum regularly rounded posteriorly, the setulose marginal hairs 
if only two in number separated by much less than half the basal 
width of scutellum 

5. At least the fifth sternite with some short setulae or spinules 
apically '' 

No short spinules on fifth sternite. only fine hairs present 11 

6. Both fourth and fifth sternites with some short spinules apically..? 
Only the fifth sternite with short spinules apically 9 

7. Fifth abdominal sternite almost transverse at :ipt \, not noticeably 
produced in the form of a rounded lobe at left posterior anle ; the 


greater part of center of disc of both fifth and fourth sternites with 
short stubby spines ; hind tibia produced scooplike at apex on 

ventral side keeniana Williston. 

Fifth abdominal sternite with a central concavity in posterior margin, 
the left posterior angle drawn out into a rounded lobe; hind tibia 
transverse at apex on ventral side 8 

8. Black spinules of fourth sternite conspicuous, stubby, extending well 
on to disc; fifth tergite with a large rounded lobe; fourth tergite 
without long hairs on posterior lateral angles lobata Loew. 

Black spinules on fourth sternite very sparse and fine, confined to 
extreme margin of haired part ; fifth tergite with a small rounded 
lobe ; fourth tergite with long soft hairs on each posterior lateral 
angle punctata Cole. 

9. Spinules of fifth sternite black and stubby, many fine hairs laterad of 
them on the two rounded slightly elevated areas, .rufiventris Loew. 

Spinules of fifth sternite reddish, elongated on the two rounded ele- 
vations laterad of the median line 10 

10. Fifth sternite with a very large rounded lobe on left side at pos- 
terior angle which is not heavily chitinized and is separated from 
remainder of segment by a depression, the hairs long and not very 
strong ; outer crossvein and fourth vein beyond bend at apex inf us- 
cated petiolata Coquillett. 

Fifth sternite with a small rounded lobe which is as heavily 
chitinized as the remainder of segment and not separated from it by 
a depression, the hairs shorter and stronger ; veins not infus- 
cated campanulata Robertson. 

11. Hairs on frons erect, conspicuous, the longest as long as the entire 
antenna : abdomen inconspicuously pedunculate ; arista very little 
longer than antenna, densely pubescent infuscata Loew. 

Hairs of frons decumbent, short and inconspicuous, the longest not 
longer than second antennal segment ; abdomen conspicuously pe- 
dunculate 12 

12. Fifth abdominal sternite with a large lobe at right hind angle which 
is over half as long as the sternite at middle; only the apical seg- 
ment of tarsi deep black, the subapical one brownish lobulifera sp. n. 

Fifth abdominal sternite not distinctly lobed as above 1,> 

1.1 Hind tibia with a slight but distinct scooplike production of the 
ventral surface apically ; arista gradually tapered from base an-1 
distinctly pubescent ; small species, 5-6 mm. in length, 

flavimana Malloch. 

Hind tibia not produced as above, transverse at apex ; arista swollen 
on about a fourth of its length from base and nearly bare ; larger 
species, 8 mm. in length californica Malloch. 

Key to Females. 

1. Third (fourth) tergite of abdomen distinctly flared apically, fourth 
with a deep notch in middle of posterior margin ; the curved linear 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 269 

thoracic depression distinct and complete monticola Malloch. 

-Third tergite not flared at apex 2 

2. The curved linear depression of thorax extending from humerus to 
the transverse median depressed line not distinct except near the lat- 
ter ; third sternite distinctly longer than wide 3 

-The curved linear depression distinct and complete 5 

3. Hind femur with two black bands one just beyond middle and the 
other at apex ; humeri pale yellow ; disc of mesonotum black, entirely 
without vittae ; fore and mid tarsi yellow biannulata Malloch. 

Hind femora yellow, without black annuli ; thorax black or yellow, 
with three or more or less distinct vittae ; apical two segments of 
fore and mid tarsi black or brown 4 

4. Third antennal segment yellow campanulata Robertson. 

-Third antennal segment black or fuscous rufiventris Loew. 

5. Anterior width of frons about one-third of the head width; third 
sternite distinctly wider at apex than long in middle ; inner cross- 
vein not more than two-fifths from base of discal cell; scutellum 
usually with more than two long sctulose marginal hairs, 

infuscata Loew. 

Anterior width of frons much less than one-third of the head width ; 
scutellum with two setulose marginal hairs 6 

6. Scutellum distinctly transverse apically, the two long setulose hairs 
separated by more than half the width of scutellum ; third sternite 
longer than wide 7 

Scutellum regularly rounded apically, the two setulose hairs sepa- 
rated by less than one-fourth of the basal width of scutellum. .. .8 

7. Hind femur conspicuously compressed on lower half apically, widest 
part distinctly beyond middle ; thorax black, abdomen rufous 

occidentalis Malloch. 

Hind femur very slightly compressed apically, widest part close to 
middle; thorax and abdomen yellow punctata Cole. 

8. Fifth (fourth visible) tergite with a shallow transverse rounded 
concavity before apex which causes the tip of the segment to flare 
upwards very slightly, the hairs on this segment and on fifth sternite 
long and soft ; third sternite wider than long ; a robust species, 
about 8 mm. in length armatipes Malloch. 

Fifth tergite normal in shape; third sternite longer than wide; 
smaller species, not over 6 mm. in length 9 

9. Fore and mid tarsi with the apical two segments deep black, 

keeniana Williston. 
Fore and mid tarsi yellow, the apical two segments hardly darker, 

flavimana Malloch. 
Sphegina lobulifera sp. n. 

$. Shining black, antennae, lower half of fact- and a broad fascia 
on basal half of third tergite of abdomen yellow. Legs yellow, apical 


tarsal segment on all legs deep black, subapical one brownish; apical 
half of hind femora, a mark on apical half of hind tibiae, and most of 
basal segment of hind tarsi black. Cross-veins and tips of wings 
slightly clouded. 

Head as in calif ornica. None of the abdominal sternites with setulae, 
the peduncle moderately narrow, as in lobata. Hind femora much 
swollen ; hind tibiae transverse at apices. Length, 7 mm. 

Type, Plummers Island, Maryland, April 30. 1922. on 
flowers of Alliaria officinalis (H. L. Viereck). Type in U. S. 
National Museum. 

This species has the cross-veins more erect and the lower 
posterior angle of the first posterior cell less rounded than most 
species. The inner cross-vein is but little in front of middle 
of discal cell. 

A New North American Genus of Cydnidae (Hem.). 

By E. P. VAN DUZEE, San Francisco, California,* Curator, 
Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences. 


Allied to Pangacus but wanting ocelli, and anterior margin 
of the head armed with comb-teeth. Ovate, subdepressed, 
sides nearly parallel. Head broadly rounded before ; cheeks 
approaching at apex of tylus but scarcely forming a notch 
there ; edge strongly reflexed, the depressed submargin armed 
with alternating spines and bristles ; eyes small, closely set 
against anterior angles of pronotum. Ocelli wanting. Anten- 
nae five-jointed; segment II thinner and slightly longer than 
those following. Rostrum reaching intermediate coxae ; seg- 
ment I attaining base of head, III longest and thickest. Pro- 
notum subquadrate; anterior margin shallowly excavated, 
flattened and punctate but immarginate, armed with one 
bristle behind inner angle of each eye ; sides ciliate, slenderly 
but acutely carinate ; disk without transverse depression. 
Scutellum a little longer than wide, apex narrowly rounded ; 
punctate, with base nearly smooth. Corium scarcely exceeding 
scutellum, quite uniformly and coarsely punctured, its apex 
broadly, feebly arcuate; costa ciliate nearly to apex, the 

*Contributions from the California Academy of Sciences, No. 138. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NE\YS 271 

connexivum ciliate beyond that point. Osteole without a 
sulcus, opening behind a tumid elevation. Feet as in Pangacns. 

This is the first American genus of Cydnidae known to me 
in which the ocelli are entirely wanting. This character, with 
the spinose margin of the head and longer second antennal 
segment will serve to separate it from Pangacns, its nearest 

Type: Pscctroccphalus coccus n. sp. 

Psectrocephalus caecus new species. 

Black, coarsely punctate ; antennae testaceous ; marginal cilia rufous. 
Length 5 mm. 

Vertex and tylus nearly smooth, the latter transversely wrinkled 
toward apex ; cheeks rugosely punctate ; marginal spines as long as 
thickness of 3d antennal segment ; cilia about five times the length of 
the spines and nearly equal to median width of cheeks ; anterior sub- 
margin armed with a long bristle either side at base of bucculae ; 
anterior disk of pronotum continuously smooth, the lunate anterior 
margin and broad sides punctate, as is the posterior lobe ; punctures on 
scutellum shallow, becoming closer posteriorly, the base nearly smootli ; 
corium closely, deeply punctate ; membrane attaining apex of abdomen ; 
beneath polished, impunctate, the osteolar area opaque. 

Color deep Black when mature, polished ; rostrum and antennae piceo- 
testaceous, segments II and III of antennae darker; tarsi pale; mar- 
ginal cilia and eyes rufous; membrane white, in one individual shorter 
and sooty black. 

Described from two male and three female examples taken 
as follows: Pasadena, California, October 12, 1016. one pair 
taken among ants under a stone by Mr. J. O. Martin ; La 
Jolla, California, one female taken by me under a stone, on the 
hill back of Scripps' Institution, July 27, 1913; Laguna Beach. 
California, one male taken by Prof. E. O. Essig, July 15. 1913. 
and one female taken by Mr. C. T. Dodds at same place, July 
7, 1921, both under stones. 

Holrfypr, male, No. 926, and allotype, female. No. 927, 
Museum California .Academy of Sciences, from Pasadena. 
Paratypes in collections of the Academy, in that of Mr. Harold 
M. Jeancon and in lhat of the author. This species undoubted! \ 
is an inhabitant of ants' nests and may be common in such 


Studies in the Genus Hetaerius (Col., Histeridae). 

By J. O. MARTIN, Berkeley, California. 

All of the members of this interesting genus of the Histeridae 
are. so far as at present known, myrmecophilous and aside 
from this, little exact knowledge exists as to their life histories 
or their relations to their hosts. Although they live at the 
ants' expense, they show no signs of the degeneracy so often 
accompanying parasitism and seem to be as efficient as any of 
the family to which they belong. They have well developed 
wings and can use them and their legs, while apparently awk- 
ward, get them over the ground at a surprising rate. The 
compact body of these beetles is strongly chitinized and with 
its retractile head and antennae, its broad flat legs, serving as 
additional abdominal protection, offers impregnable defense to 
attacks of the ants. It is quite evident, from numerous obser- 
vations, that the ants tolerate these beetles owing to secretions 
which they exude and of which the ants are very fond. These 
secretions are believed to arise at the basal thoracic angles and 
there are specializations at these points which seem to support 
this idea. Also the ants are known to favor this region, even to 
the extent of gnawing holes through the thoracic walls, presum- 
ably while the chitin is soft directly after emergence from the 

The members of this genus are all of small size, varying in 
length from one and a half to three millimeters. The general 
form of the body is quadrately oval with variations in the ratio 
of length to breadth as well as to convexity. The general body 
color does not vary greatly in the different species, being a 
reddish brown similar to that common to many other insects 
of myrmecophilous habits. In vestiture there is a variation 
from almost complete nudity, to a considerable degree of hair- 
iness. The hairs themselves vary from plain bristles, through 
different degrees of plumosity to a squamose type which is 
generally plumose and recumbent. These hairs offer useful 
taxonomic characters, but should be used with caution as I am 
convinced that the ants frequently gnaw some of them off. 

The form of the prothorax is a very useful means of specific 
determination and as there is a very unusual development of 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 273 

this sclerite, it seems advisable to designate the various feat- 
ures in order to make clear the terms used in descriptions. 
The dorsal surface of the prothorax is divided into three main 
regions by two oblique, converging sulci, extending from the 
basal to apical margins and dividing the surface into a central 
discal area, with two bordering lateral areas of which the discal 
a'-ea is the largest. The sulci which produce this division are 
called the oblique sulci. The discal area is convex and highest 
along its central portion, sloping gradually toward the apex 
and also toward the sulci before reaching which it begins to 
curve upward to a carinate edge forming the inner border of 
the oblique sulcus. The depression which parallels this sulcus 
and is a part of the discal area, is, in all of the species I have 
examined, smooth, shining and impunctate, while the raised 
portion of the discal area may be variously punctured and 
hairy ; I shall call this depressed portion of the discal area the 
oblique depression. The lateral areas lying between the oblique 
sulcus and the lateral margin, are various in shape and in all 
cases are extended further cephalad than the discal area. The 
inner margin of these lateral areas is carinate and forms the 
outer border of the oblique sulcus. Each lateral area is 
divided near its basal third by a transverse sulcus which may 
vary in shape and depth in the various species. The portion 
of the lateral area cephalad of the transverse sulcus is gen- 
erally punctate with varying hairiness and is inclined to 
rugosity, while the smaller portion caudad of the sulcus gen- 
erally has its inner surface at least, smooth and shining. The 
surface of this division is, as a rule, convex and blister-like in 
shape; T shall therefore speak of it as the bulla. It is about 
this bulla that the ants seem to center their attentions and it 
seems probable that here is the chief seat of glandular secretion. 
The divisions <>f the prothorax above mentioned are to be 
foind in all of our species at present described but in Hetaeriiis 
ferrugmeus, the type of the genus, neither the oblique nor 
transverse sulci are present. The oblique sulcus is indicate'! 
by two parallel raised lines but there is no sulcus between them. 
Of the transverse sulcus there is not the slightest indication, 
neither is there any development of the bulla. In all other 


respects, however, this species seems to agree with our 
American species. 

In the pygidium and propygidium I can find no other specific- 
characters than the variation in punctation and hairiness. These 
variations, however, seem to be constant and offer a ready 
means of separating the species. I have carefully examined a 
series of eighteen specimens of Hetaeriits selus Fall, and over 
twenty-five of Hetaerius tristriatus Horn, for sexual char- 
acters, but have not been able to detect any here or elsewhere. 
Tn the prosternum we encounter one of the most valuable 
series of variations for specific separation as well as generic 
division. There are two types of prosternum, separating the 
genus into two well defined groups, one I shall call the sub- 
cylindrical, the other the depressed type. In the first or sub- 
cylindrical type, a ventral view of the prosternum' shows a sort 
of vase form with its base between the coxae and its bulbous 
tip at the cephalic extremity. The mesothoracic contact is 
emarginate and extended into two rounded angular lobes 
around the ends of the coxae. Between the coxae the sides are 
suddenly convergent, followed by a gradual divergence to a 
maximum at about the middle of the prosternum, at which 
point there is a convergence to a neck-like constriction, then 
an expansion to a bulbous extremity which has a pit-like de- 
pression on its end. The cephalic portion of this prosternal 
ridge is subcylindrical in bas-relief, growing less so at the 
middle and becoming flat between the coxae. The second or 
depressed type is the same in general plan as the above except 
that there is a varying slope away from the summit of the 
prosternal ridge instead of an abrupt drop as in the former. 
The mesothoracic contact is margined in both types and the 
extension of the bordering carina along the flattened surface 
of the ridge produces the margined area. 

In the head we find some differences both in shape and 
punctuation, but owing to its retraction, the front is the part 
most often made use of. The antennae also are difficult to 
see and for this reason have probably not been mentioned in 

The legs differ considerably in their proportions but as it 
requires special manipulation to measure them, I have tried 

xxxiii. '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 275 

to avoid the use of this character except where it is easily 

As a result of the present study I have recognized eighteen 
species, two east of the Rocky Mountains and the remainder 
from the Pacific side of the divide. I am confident that there 
are still others awaiting discovery, especially in the higher 
altitudes of the Sierras. Comparison with a paratype has 
convinced me that my species nitidus is synonymous with 
e.vigitHS Mann, also that the description of the latter species 
was rather incomplete. Since Horn's "Synopsis of the 
Histeridae," 1873* there has been no attempt to tabulate the 
species of this genus and as there were then but three known 
species, I offer the following table as a help in future studies 
of this genus. 

Hetaerius vandykei n. sp. 

Form oblong oval, ratio of extreme length to breadth as seven to five. 
Color fulvo-ferruginous ; punctate and hairy on all parts of the body 
except the prosternum ; punctures coarse, uniform and fairly close 
together; hairs except where elsewhere noted fine, long, suberect and 

Head at vertex nearly flat, coarsely, evenly punctate and hairy ; 
epistoma and labrum smooth, shining, impunctate ; front very shallowly 

Prothorax less than twice as wide as long ; sides evenly rounded 
from apex to transverse sulcus, which is rounded at bottom and rather 
deeply impressed. Bulla punctate and hairy on the outer two-thirds 
of its surface with stiff, inward curving, plumose hairs. These hairs 
are coarser than the hairs of the discal area. Discal area coarsely, 
evenly, punctured, each puncture with a long, suberect, soft yellow 
hair ; punctures and hairs of this area extend further into the obliqu" 
depression than in any other species I have examined. Lateral area 
coarsely punctured and hairy ; hairs along the margin coarser and 
castaneous in color. 

Elytra evenly, closely, punctate and hairy ; first dorsal stria extends 
three-fourths the distance to apex, second not quite reaching apex. 

Pygidium and propygidium punctate and hairy, each puncture marked 
by a slightly curved, fine, depressed line in the chitin ; punctures some- 
what less closely together than on upper surface, hairs depressed. 

Prosternum of the depressed type ; carinae of the margined area 
broadly convergent between the coxae, then diverging to one-half the 
length of the prosternum, then suddenly convergent, becoming parallel 
at tips, leaving the margined area open at its cephalic end. Prosternum 

*Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. XIII. 1873, p. 303. 


punctate, shining and but for a few coarse hairs between the coxae, 
naked. Meso- and metasternum punctate and hairy, hairs depressed, 
where the legs cover these sclerites in repose there are no hairs. Legs 
hairy. The hairs on under surface of body and legs are finely plumose 
and not as long as those on the thorax and elytra. Length 1.5 mm.; 
width 1 + mm. 

Described from an unique in the collection of Dr. E. C. Van 
Dyke, who collected it in the Yosemite Valley, California, and 
in whose collection the type remains. 

Hetaerius pilosus n. sp. 

Form broadly quadrate oval, ratio of extreme length to breadth, three 
to two. Color fulvo-ferruginous. Shining throughout. 

Head at vertex very slightly concave ; finely, closely punctate, minutely 
rugose between the punctures which deadens the surface lustre on 
vertex and front, punctures with long, curved, golden yellow hairs ; 
labrum and epistoma shining but minutely rugose. 

Thorax twice as broad as long ; disc smooth, shining, moderately 
punctate each with a long, very fine, curved, yellow hair. Bulla punc- 
tate and hairy on outer two-thirds, inner surface smooth and shining. 
Transverse sulcus deep and broad at bottom. Lateral area punctate 
and hairy ; these hairs and those on bulla coarser than those on the 
disc ; oblique sulcus carinate on both sides to base of elytra. 

Elytra smooth, shining, evenly, moderately punctured, punctures fine, 
each one bearing a long, fine, curved, suberect hair which tapers to a very 
fine, long point. First dorsal stria extends three-fourths the distance 
to the tip of elytra; all the others reach apex; striae fine. 

Pygidium smooth, shining, impunctate ; propygidium smooth, shining, 
punctate, punctures more widely dispersed than on upper surface of 
body, each with a long pilose hair. 

Prosternum of the depressed type; carinae of the margined area con- 
vergent between the coxae, thence gradually divergent to one-half 
the length of prosternum at which point they converge in a nearly 
straight line meeting in a sharply rounded tip, thus closing area in 
front ; surface of margined area minutely acinose ; remainder of 
prosternal surface punctate and acinose, punctures without hairs ; 
cephalic apex of prosternum slightly emarginate and broadly depressed 
at tip of ridge. Meso- and metasternum and abdominal segments smooth, 
shining, impunctate. Legs smooth, shining and rather widely punctured, 
punctures with short hairs. Length 2 mm.; width 1.5 mm. 

A single example taken in the nest of a small dark ant at 
Cypress Ridge, Marin County, California. Type in my own 

This species is close to helcnac Mann from Mexico but, 
according to Mr. H. C. Fall, who kindly compared it with the 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 277 

type, it differs from that species in being more densely hairy 
with no trace of regularity in the arrangement of the elytral 
hairs, which in hclcnac are in definite longitudinal series. In 
pilosns the margined area of the prosternum is closed in front 
while in helcnac it is open or in some cases nearly closed. In 
pilosus the propygiclium is hairy all over. 

(To be continued.) 

Early Stages of Noropsis hieroglyphica Cram. 
(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). 

By F. H. BENJAMIN, Agricultural College, Mississippi. 

Larva. Head, bright, shining, greenish-brown, clypeus whitish, man- 
dibles black, antennae white at base with last two segments black. Body 
and thorax, transversely striped with three or four distinct black stripes 
to each segment, one of these stripes being broadest and most conspic- 
uous, and this stripe broadening out on dorsum and each latex to form 
an interrupted dorsal line, and a dorso-lateral line on each side. The 
transverse stripes do not go around the entire body, but end in a ventro- 
lateral longitudinal black stripe below the spiracles. This stripe is 
broken to surround a small spot of ground color on the segment before 
the prolegs, and above each of the prolegs except the anal pair. The 
spiracles themselves are surrounded by black, resembling small black 
dots. A black dorsal plate on the first abdominal segment, divided 
cephalo-caudad by a medial very faint line of ground color, and some- 
t'mes interrupted by a more conspicuous transverse band of ground color. 
General ground color bluish-slate with somewhat of a greenish cast 
above the ventro-lateral line ; underneath, lighter, with the greenish cast 
stronger and more pronounced. True legs, black. Prolegs, blackish 
with yellowish-green in the middle. .-Inal prolegs, black. All prolegs 
very strongly chitinized, giving them a peculiar shining appearance. 
.-// plate, yellowish green marked by black cephalad, with a tendency 
for this black to surround the yellowish green by being very faintly 
present on the lateral and caudal borders of the plate. Length of larva 
45 mm. Diameter 7 mm. Head 4x4 mm. 

Pupa. Reddish at first, turning darker to a very dark reddish-brown 
almost blackish; the ventral part of the abdominal segments lighter. 
Cremaster, with two spine-like processes extending at about 45 degree 
angles from an imaginary mcsal line, with no ordinary setae visible. 
ProUwracic l>'(/s, reaching cephalad to eye pieces. Mesothoracic legs, 
not reaching as far cephalad. Prothoracic femora, not visible except 
as a slight widening between sutures. Dorsum, of abdominal segments 
pebbled with large raised granulations; between the segments are fine 
L'ranulutions, those on the cephalic end coarser than those on the caudal 
end, giving a sandpaper-like appearance. Spiracles, ovate, slightly 


depressed caudad ; with a raised flattened-crescent-shaped ridge near 
their cephalic margin. Mcso and metathoracic spiracles, similar to and 
unmodified except in the same manner as the abdominal ones. Sutures, 
all deeply impressed. Length of pupa 15-17 mm. Breadth 5-5.5 mm. 

The characters used in this description are the same as those 
used by Miss Edna Mosher in Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. XII, 
108-112, 1916, and would place the insect in her version of 
the Hacleninae. 

Cocoon. Several spun beside, above and below each other, in crotches 
of branches. The cocoon is made out of thin, coarse silk with fragments 
of leaves and bits of rubbish of various sorts covering the outside. The 
whole appears to have been cemented together by a fluid which hardens 
into a stiff glassy substance. Shape oval, about 20 mm. long and half 
as broad through the middfe. 

Temnostoma bombylans Linne Doubtfully American (Syrphidae, 


For some time I have had grave doubts as to the authenticity of the 
records of Temnostoma bombylans Linne from this country and have 
taken the trouble to get a specimen of the species from Europe, kindly 
supplied me by Dr. M. Bezzi, for comparison with our specimens. I find 
that there are differences between the specimens in our collections that 
do duty for that species and the European specimen. In fact I consider 
that there are two valid species, both described, from America, neither 
of which is bombylans. I have seen the type of trifasciata Robertson, 
sent to me by the describer, and have received data from Mr. Nathan 
Banks on the type of obscura Loew. I append a diagnosis for dis- 
tinguishing the forms involved. 

1. Third and fourth tergites in male slightly bluish, and with short decum- 
bent black setulose hairs beyond the pale fasciae, fifth tergite in fe- 
male similar to fourth; narrowest part of frons distinctly wider than 
anterior ocellus ; base of male hypopygium with black hairs ; tarsi of 
mid and hind legs in male entirely yellow trifasciata Robertson. 

- Third and fourth tergites in both sexes with yellowish or brownish 
hairs beyond the pale fasciae, which are rather fine ; narrowest part 
of frons not wider than anterior ocellus 2 

2. Hairs on fourth tergite and base of hypopygium pale yellow, and 
rather long and soft ; tarsi of mid and hind legs entirely yellow, 

ol'scnra Loew. 

- 1 lairs on fourth tergite and base of hypopygium brown, shorter and 
stronger ; apical two tarsal segments on mid and hind legs black, 

l>i>i!>\'litiis Linne. 

The male hypopygia appear to offer very good characters for the 
separation of the three species. J. R. MALLOCH, Bureau of Biological 
Survey, Washington, L). C. 



Insect Surveys. 

In 1917, after the United States had entered the World 
War, the importance of increasing crop production by the 
control of injurious insects was immediately recognized by 
entomologists, and Dr. L. O. Howard, as Chief of the Federal 
Bureau of Entomology, issued a circular, republished on the 
editorial page of the NEWS for May, 1917, page 229, inviting 
co-operation in the reporting of insect pests. With the data, 
which it was hoped, would be sent to Washington, 

the central office will be able to tabulate and map the occurrence of all 
injurious pests and to indicate to the men in the field the sections 
which are threatened with insect damage and the means for combatting 
same. With this information it will be possible to conduct a vigorous 
campaign against threatening pests. 

The plan thus proposed resulted in the "Emergency Ento- 
mological Service." the reports of which appeared in mimeo- 
graphed form and extracts from them are to be found in the 
XF.WS for June. 1917 (page 283), and subsequent numbers. 

It is evident that the data gathered during a period of war 
are also useful in times of peace, and the American Asso- 
ciation of Economic Entomologists, at its last annual meeting, 
recommended that a National Insect Pest Survey be organized 
under the direction of the Bureau of Entomology. Dr. Howard 
arranged for such a survey under the charge of Mr. J. A. 
Hyslop and Bulletin No. 1103 of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, dated July. 1922, gives the first results 
of the Survey. It is by Mr. Hyslop and is entitled Sn unitary 
of Insect Conditions tJiroitylionf thr United States during 
121. It reads: 

The object of the insect-pest survey is to collect accurate and detailed 
in formation, on the occurrence, distribution, ecology and relative dcstruc- 
ti veil ess of insect pests throughout the United States, and to study this 



[sic] data from month to month and year to year with relation to the 
several' factors that influence insect abundance. The results to be 
obtained from this undertaking over a series of years are manifold; we 
should be able to throw light on the reasons for the cyclic appearance of 
certain insect pests, the gradual shift of regions of destructive abund- 
ance, the limiting barriers to normal dispersal, the directive influences 
that determine the paths of insect diffusion, and the relation of climatol- 
ogy, geography, topography and geology, as well as biological complexes, 
to insect distribution and abundance. This is the necessary foundation 
for the next advance step in economic entomology, entomological fore- 

The degree to which this Bulletin realizes these high hopes 
must be decided by those who read it. The object is one well 
worthy of the support of both pure and applied entomologists, 
since it lies within the fields of both classes of students. It 
appeals to those without as well as within the Bureau as, for 
example, to Mr. John J. Davis, who has argued for An Indiana 
Insect Survc\ in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science. Mr. Davis would 

explore, exploit, record, map, collect and study the insect fauna of 
Indiana, determine the occurrence and range of all insects of the state 
and study their relation to plants, animals, human welfare, etc. Such 
a survey would include a study of the relations of insects to changing 
conditions, that is, swamp areas being reclaimed by drainage, peat bogs, 
sand areas and the like, being put under cultivation for the first time, 
etc. It would also include studies of the small lake areas, caves and 
similar places. 

May all these surveys be carried out in detail ! 

Notes and. 



Protoparce rustica in Florida (Lep.: Sphingidae) and Mr. T. L. Mead 

Mr. Theodore L. Mead has sent us a moth, Protoparce rustica. He 
says the caterpillar feeds on Callicarpa amcricana, down at his home, 
Oviedo, Florida. The larva of this species appears to have a variety of 
food plants. The life history is well illustrated in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 
1900, xi, 485. Mr. Mead has not been collecting insects for forty years 
but still takes an interest in them and gets specimens for friends in this 
country and Europe. He was a famous collector and writer in the past 
and his work is known to most Lepidopterists. H. SKINNER. 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 281 

The University of Michigan-Williamson Expedition to Brazil. 

The Expedition made collections in the vicinity of Para (see the 
XFAVS for October, page 244), August 1-10. On August 13, Mr. John 
W. Strohm sailed from Para for New York, with a snake chest, another 
box of reptiles, etc., one trunk solid with dragonflie*, a wooden chest 
lull of unnecessary supplies and other impedimenta. Mr. Jesse H. 
Williamson remained at Para until the morning of August 18, when 
he took steamer for Rio de Janeiro. There was much cloudiness and 
some heavy rain during their stay at Para and on August 17 Mr. Wil- 
liamson wrote: "Weather seems to be getting worse here instead <>i' 
better;" on August 8: "Here, as elsewhere on the trip, all say the 
season is unusual." As to the Odonate fauna of Para he wrote (Aug. 
1! ) : "M';st tli.ngs are the same as, or so similar that 1 detect no difference 
from, the Rio Madeira specimens." On Aug. 8 the Odonata of the 
Expedition were reckoned at 9029 specimens of 166 species. 

The Authorship of the Lepidoptera Described in the Encyclopedie 

Methodique, Vol. IX. 

A recent examination of the descriptions of Hesperiidae in this work 
led me to the interesting discovery that the authorship of all the Lepi- 
doptera should be attributed to Godart, and not to Latreille, as is com- 
monly done. This was first disclosed in the footnote to Ilcspcria 
yodari on page 722, and a reference to Latreille's introduction added 
other evidence in support of the conclusion. 

The title page of the volume would lead one to expect joint author- 
ship, at least, since it mentions Latreille as author with the assistance 
of Godart, but the passages by Latreille \vhich are mentioned above 
disclaim all responsibility for the descriptions of species and give full 
credit to Godart* The pertinent lines of the introduction read thus : 
"A 1'exception des generalites preliminaires, que je m'etois reservees, 
cet article Papillon lui f Godart] est absolument propre ; et si la justice 
ne me commandoit point cet aveu, ie ne craindrois point d'y met t re 
mon nom." (With the exception of the preliminary general remarks, 
which I had reserved for myself, this article on butterflies is absolutely 
his own; and if justice did not command this acknowledgment I would 
not fear to place my name here). Certainly this is definite enough 

*At the suggestion of the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, I am adding t he- 
wording of the title page of the volume under discussion. It is as 
follows : "Encyclopedie-Methodique Histoire Naturelle. Entomol. 
ou Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces, des Arachnides et des Insectes.- 
Par M. Latreille, Membre de I'lnstitut, Academic Royale des Sciences, 
ctc . Tome Neuvieme Par M. Latreille, de 1' Academic des Science*, 
et M. Godart, ancien Proviseur du Lycee de P.onn. etc. a Paris, 
Chez Mme. Veuve a Gasse, Po ns, N T o. 

MDCCCXIX." A. W r . L. 


in itself, but we find additional confirmation in the footnote to H. godart. 
This footnote does not bear Latreille's name, but its tenor indicates him 
as writer beyond reasonable doubt. The passage reads, in part : "Je 
n'ai autre part a son travail que celle de lui avoir fourni des moyens 
d'execution et de 1'avoir aide de mes conseils" (I have no other part 
in his work than that of having furnished him the means of its execu- 
tion, and of having aided him with my advice). 

One rather contradictory point is the appearance in this work of the 
species Hespcria godart, since it would be rather poor taste in an author 
to name a species for himself. This is counterbalanced, however, by 
the appearance on page 799 of another new species under the name of 
Castnia latrcille! 

The case certainly favors Godart's authorship of these species, in 
spite of the common attachment of Latreille's name to them, and it 
seems to the writer a matter or sheer justice that the change should 
be made. A thought is suggested by this, viz., that it is all too easy to 
be careless about reading introductory matter, perhaps more in syste- 
matic treatises than in others. A. W. LINDSEY, M. S., PH. D., Denison 
University, Granville, Ohio. 

A Note on Timema calif ornicum Scudder (Orthoptera; Phasmidae). 

This strange little Phasmid has attracted the attention of the present 
writer at various times during the past few years, with the result that 
it is possible to add a few field notes to those given by Hebard in the 
latest discussion of the species 1 . 

In the case of this particular species the only food plant indicated 
by Hebard is fir, although T. chumash Hebard, the only other member 
of the genus is recorded as having been swept from Ceanothus. I have 
at various times taken single specimens of T. calif ornicum purely by 
accident, finding them upon clothing or insect net after passing through 
the "chapparal" (which is simply the western word for brush) with 
which many of our hills are covered. As the "chamise," Adenostoma 
fasciculatum, is the most abundant member of the chapparal association 
it appeared probable that this was the normal host. However, a visit 
to the brush-covered top of Loma Prieta Mountain near San Jose, 
California (altitude 3000 feet) on June fourth, 1921, produced evidence 
that the normal host is really another shrub, the "silk tassel," Garrya 
rlliptica. Of twenty specimens secured, eighteen were jarred from 
one or two shrubs of this particular plant, one was found on the ground 
and one was taken in general sweeping. None were found on Ade- 
nostoma. The species is evidently abundant, if sought for in the right 
time and place, for scarcely a quarter of an hour was necessary to 
obtain these. 

The published descriptions of the species have evidently been based 

1 The genus Timema, etc., Hebard, Ent. Neivs, 31: 126-132. (1920). 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 283 

upon dried specimens. The only color notes from fresh material are 
those given by Hebard for specimens from fir, these being described as 
green. My material shows that the species presents a marked color 
dimorphism. Of the twenty specimens, eighteen were entirely green 
except that the antennae were dusky in both sexes while in the males 
the tarsi, tibiae and apical half of the femora were pinkish brown or 
pink. Two specimens, one of each sex, had the entire dorsum pink, 
the venter green, and the tarsi, tibiae and apical half of the femora pink. 

The measurements given by Hebard appear also to have been made 
from dried specimens, the greatest length given being 19.8 mm. for the 
female and 14.5 for the male. My specimens, which were killed in 
Carnoy fluid, ranged from 22-24 mm. for the female and 15-18 mm. for 
the males. 

With a knowledge of the host plant it is hoped that further notes as 
to the life history may be obtainable. G. F. FERRIS, Stanford Univer- 
sity, California. 

Insect Photography. 

At the meeting of the Entomological Society of Belgium, Brussels, 
March 4. 1922, M. Bastin, of Antwerp, showed a photostereosynthesis 
(Lumierc system) of a Dipter which, viewed as a transparency, gave 
the impression of astonishing reality. It had been obtained by the exact 
superposition of six photographs on glass, taken at the same magnifica- 
tion with the aid of a microscopic objective, at regularly increasing 
depths of the preparation. (Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. iv, p. 41). 

Chrysops costata Sucking Human Blood in Cuba (Dip.: Tabanidae). 

Under the title Sobrc la mosca Chrysops costata Fabr. quc clntpa la 
sangre del hombrc, obserToda en Cuba, Dr. W. H. Hoffman has a note 
in Sanidad y Bcncficcncia (Boletin Oficial, Edicion Mensual, XXVI, No. 
3, p. 121, Habana, Setiembre, 1921) describing his persanal experiences 
in being bitten on the head about twelve times by flies which Dr. Walter 
Horn, of Berlin-Dahlem, identified as Chrysops costata Fabr. The flies 
bit the observer at various hours, both by day and by night, from 
October to February, in the grounds of Las Animas Hospital at Havana. 
Generally the flies had a little blood in the stomach and they made no 
attempt to escape from his hands. The bite was followed by consid- 
erable inflammation and pain. As other residents of the locality have 
not been bitten by this fly the observer suggests that his keeping his 
hair short, which is not the. prevailing custom, exposes him to thi si- 
attacks. He has not found this species elsewhere than on his own 
person. The transmission of Filaria by C. dhuiduita in West Africa 
and of Bacterium tularensc by C. discalis in Utah suggests to him t Im- 
possibility that this Cuban species may also serve as a vector of disease. 


Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including- Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring' north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, "Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Einto- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B, 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

2 Transactions of the American Entomological Society of Phila- 
delphia. 4 Canadian Entomologist, Guelph, Canada. 7 Annals of 
The Entomological Society of America, Columbus, Ohio. 8 The 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 11 Annals and Mag- 
azine of Natural History, London. 12 Journal of Economic Ento- 
mology, Concord, N. H. 16 The Lepidopterist, Salem, Mass. 19 
Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 20 Bulletin de 
la Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 22 Bulletin of Ento- 
mological Research, London. 24 Annales de la Societe Entomolo- 
gique de France, Paris. 33 Annales de la Societe Entomologique 
de Belgique, Brussels. 34 Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique 
de Belgique, Brussels. 36 Transactions of the Entomological So- 
ciety of London. 44 Ectoparasites. Edited by Jordan & Roth- 
schild, Tring, England. 45 Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche In- 
sektenbiologie, Berlin. 50 Proceedings of the United States Na- 
tional Museum. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipsic. 54 Proceed- 
ings of the Biological Society of Washington, D. C. 62 Bulletin 
of the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 67 Le 
Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 68 Science, Garrison-on-the-Hud- 
son, N. Y. 69 Comptes Rendus, des Seances de 1'Academie des 
Sciences, Paris. 70 Journal of Morphology. Philadelphia. 76 
Nature, London. 81 The Journal of Parasitology, Urbana, Illinois. 
96 Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Natu- 
rales, Buenos Aires. 97 Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia 
Natural de Buenos Aires. 100 Biological Bulletin of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 103 Biologisches Cen- 
tralblatt, Leipzig. 104 Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 
Leipzig. 106 Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos 
Aires. Ill Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 114 Entomolo- 
gische Rundschau, Stuttgart. 116 Entomologische Zeitschrift, 
Frankfurt a. M. 119 Proceedings of the National Academy of 
Sciences of the U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 124 Bulletin de la 

xxxiii, '221 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 285 

Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, Cairo. 129 The Bulletin of the 
Hill Museum, Witley, Surrey, England. 

GENERAL. Downing, E. R. A naturalist in the great lakes 
region. (Univ. Chicago Press, 1922, 328 pp., ill.) Druce, H. H. 
Obituary. 8, 1922, 211. 9, 1922, 215. Fahringer, J. Die feinde 
der schlammfliege. 45, xvii, 113-24. Gibson, A. A quoi sert 1'ento- 
mologie? Benefices monetaires resultant des recherches entomolo- 
giques. 67, xlix, 30. Graef, E. L. Obituary notice. 19, xvii, 43-5. 
Greene, C. T. [Minutes of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington. Discussions on the number of insects.] (Jour. Wash. Acad. 
Sc., xii, 335-40.) Hayward, K. J. Colour-preservation in dragon- 
flies. 9, 1922, 209-10. Hyslop, J. A. Summary of insect conditions 
throughout the U. S. during 1921. (U. S. D. A. Bull. 1103.) Mast, 
S. O. Photic orientation in insects. 119, viii, 240-5. Morris, H. M. 
On a method of separating insects and other arthropods from 
soil. 22, xiii, 197-200. Mueller, R. Ueber vererbungslehre und 
entomologie. 114, xxxix, 29-30 (cont.). Sherborn, C. D. Index 

animalium 1801-1850. Sectio secunda. Part I. Talbot, G. 

Nomenclature and illustrations. 129, i, 366-7. de la Torre Bueno, 
J. R. Color characters vs. structural characters. 19, xvii, 63-4. 

punctures of insects. 12, xv, 312. Bischoff, W. Ueber die kopf- 
bildung der dipterenlarven. Ueber die deutung der mundhaken der 
cyclorhaphalarven. Ill, 1922, A, 6, 1-50; 51-60. Bishop, G. H. 
Cell metabolism in the insect fat body. 70, xxxvi, 567-94. Blunck, 
H. Zur biologic des tauchkaefers Cybister lateralimarginalis, nebst 
bemerkungen uber C. japonicus. . . . 52, Iv, 45-66 (cont.). Cramp- 
ton, G. C. The genitalia of the males of certain Hemiptera and 
Homoptera. 19, xvii, 46-55. Cuenot & Mercier La perte de la 
faculte du vol chez les dipteres parasites. 69, 1922, 433-36. Cuenot 
et Poisson Sur le developpement de quelques coaptations des in- 
sectes. 69, 461-64. Descy, A. Observations sur le retour au nid 
des hymnopteres (cont.). 34, iv, 93-9. Dirks, E. Liefern die mal- 
phighischen gefasse verdauungssekrete? (Fermenstudien an insek- 
ten.) Ill, 1922, A, 4, 161-220.- Elmer, O. H. Mosaic cross-inocu- 
lation and insect transmission studies. 68, Ivi, 370-2. Federley, H. 
Ueber eincn fall von criss-cross-vererbung bei einer artkreuzung. 
(Hereditas, iii, 126-46.) Feuerborn, H. J. Der sexucllc reizapparat 
der Psychodiden nach biologischen und physialogischen gesichts- 
punkten untersucht. Ill, 1922, A, 4, 1-137. Frers, A. G. Mcta- 
morfosis de coleopteros argentinos. 96, v, 245-62. Frost, S. W. 
Ecdysis in Tmetocera ocellana. 7, xv, 164-8. Garrett & Garrett 
The effect of a lead salt on lepidopterous larvae. 76. ex, 380. 
Graham, S. A. A studv of the wing venation of the Coleoptera. 
7, xv, 191-200. Kopec, S. Studies on the necessity of the brain for 
the incention of insect metamorphosis. 100, xlii, 323-42. Lamb, 
C. G. The geometry of insect pairing. ( Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond.. H., 
xciv, 1-11.) Mallock, A. Metallic coloration of chrysalids. 76, 
ex. '.', -14. Peacock, A. D.- Pairing and parthenogenesis in sa\v-llir>. 
76, ex, 215. Poisson, R. Armature genitale et structure chitineuse 
du penis dans le genre Gerris. 20, 1922, 171-3. Riley, C. F. 
Droughts and cannibalistic responses of the water-strider, Gerris 
marginatus. 19, xvii, 79-87. Roch, F. Beitrage zur physiologic der 
flugmuskulatur der inscktcn. 103, xlii, 359-64. Schuze, P. Ueber 
nachlaufende cntwicklung (Hysterotelie) einzclner organe bei 
schmetterlinge. Ill, 1922, A, 7. 109-13. Speyer, W. Die musku- 


latur der larve von Dytiscus marginalis. 104, cxix, 423-92. Stick- 
ney, F. The relation of the nymphs of a dragon-fly to acid and 
temperature. (Ecology, iii, 250-4.) Suffert, F. Zur morphologic 
und optik der schmetterlingsschuppen. 103;, xlii, 382-88. Williams, 
C. B. Co-ordinated rhythm in insects; with a record of sound pro- 
duction in an aphid. 9, 1922, 173-6. 


the taxonomy and biology of the tarsonemid mites, together with a 
note on the transformation of Acarapis woocli. 4, liv, 104-13. 
Vitzthum, G. H. Acarologische beobachtungen. Ill, 1922, A, 5, 

THE SMALLER ORDERS. Banks, N. Venational variation 
in Raphidia. 4, liv, 114-16. Campion, H. Notes on a small col- 
lection of Odonata from Argentina. 11, x, 290-5. Klapalek, F. 
Plecopteres nouveaux. IV. 33, Ixii, 89-95. Lichtenstein & Grasse 
-Une migration d'Odonates. 20, 1922, 160-3. Lloyd, J. T. The 
biology of North American caddis fly larvae. (Bui. Lloyd Libr., 
No. 21.) Malloch, J. R. Panorpa rufescens feeding on a cicada. 
19, xvii, 45. Murphy, H. E. Notes on the biology of some of our 
North American species of may-flies. (Bui. Lloyd Libr., No. 22.) 
Smith, R. C. Hatching in three species of Neuroptera. 7, xv, 169-76. 

ORTHOPTERA. Larrimer & Ford The daily maximum feed- 
ing period of Melanoplus femur-rubrum. 4, liv, 141-3. Uvarov, 
B. P. A new case of transformative deceptive resemblance in long- 
horned grasshoppers. 36, 1922, 269-74. 

Hebard, M. North American Acrididae. Notes on a few inter- 
esting Blattidae from Guatemala, with the description of a n. sp. 
2, xlviii, 89-108; 129-32. 

HEMIPTERA. Blanchard, E. E. Aphid notes. 96, v, 184-214. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. The mealy-bug called Pseudococcus bromeliae, 
and other coccids. 68, Ivi, 308-9. Giacomelli, E. Mimetismo ver- 
dadero y espurio. 96, v, 224-9. Griswold, G. H. Are there two 
species of the oyster-shell scale? 7, xv, 184-91. Holland, W. J. 
Tingitidae or Tingidae. 68, Ivi, 334-5. Knight, H. H. The genus 
Cyrtopeitis in North America. 19, xvii, 65-7. Jordan, K. The 
American Polyctenidae. 44, i, 204-15. Note on the distribution of 
the organ of Berlese in Clinocoridae. 44^ i, 284-6. Lehmann. H. 
Zweiter beitrag zur systematik der Scutellerinae. VI. Heteropteren- 
aufsatz. Ill, 1922, A, 7, 54-61. Lizer, C. Nota critica y sinoni- 
mica acerca de un supuesto nuevo Psyllidae cecidogeno del "Ilex 
paraguariensis." 96, v, 325-7. Pennington, M. S. Notas sobre 
coreidos srgentinos. .96, v, 125-70. 

Ball & Hartzell A review of the desert leafhoppers of the Ore- 
gerini. 7, xv, 137-53. Hungerford, H. B. Saldoida slossoni var. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEV/S 287 

wilieyi n. var., taken in Texas. 19, xvii, 64. McAtee & Malloch 
Changes in names of American Rhynchota chiefly Emesinae. 54, 
xxxv, 95-6. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Ainslie, G. G. Contributions to a knowledge 
of the Crambinae. 7, xv, 125-36. Angle, J. L. Papilio ajax in 
New York. 19, xvii, 90. Dukes, W. C. Concerning Papilio ajax. 
19, xvii, 97. Fassl, A. H. Eryphanis dondoni species nova. 116, 
xxxvi, 25. Flint, W. P. Studies of the life history of Nomophila 
noctuella. 7, xv, 154-6. Joicey & Talbot New forms of moths 
from New Guinea and South America. New forms of Papilionidae 
from New Guinea, Malaya, and S. America. New forms of butter- 
flies from S. Am. 129, i, 300-2; 320-24; 357-8. Lindsey, A. W. 
Some Iowa records of L. (Proc. Iowa Ac. Sc., xxvii, 319-35.) 
McDunnough, J. H. Synonymic notes on Catocala species. 4, liv, 
100-4. Meyrick, E. Descriptions of South American Micro-lepi- 
doptera. 36, 1922, 65-116. Skinner & Williams On the male geni- 
talia of the larger Hesperidae of North America. 2, xlviii, 109-127. 

Barnes & Lindsey A new genus and species of No'Ctuidae. 19, 
xvii, 56-7. New Noctuidae. 19, xvii, 71-6. Cassino & Swett 
Some new Geometridae. Two new Peros. 16, iii, 175-9; 180-2. 
F? Cassino, S. E.] Some new Geometridae. 16, iii, 167-74. Mc- 
Dunnough, J. Notes on the L. of Alberta. 4, liv, 134-41. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. New or little-known exotic 1 iou- 
lidae. 36, 1922, 34-64. Bezzi, M. On the South American species 
of the dipterous genus Chiromyza. 7, xv, 117-24. Brethes, J. 
Biologia de la "Synthesiomyia brasiliana." 96, v, 292-3. Bruch, C. 
Contribucion al conocimento de nuestras de Tipulas. 96, v, 320-24. 
Enderlein, G. Neue aussereuropaische Simuliiden. (Sitz. Ges. 
Naturf. Fr. Berlin, 192L, 77-81.) Jordan & Rothschild New 
Siphonaptera. 44, i, 266-83. Larrimer, W. H. An extreme case of 
delayed fall emergence of hessian fly. 7, xv, 177-80. Matheson & 
Shannon New mosquito records and notes on the habits of cer- 
tain species from central New York. 7, xv, 157-63. Walker, E. M. 
Some cases of cutaneous myiasis, with notes on the larvae of 
Wohlfahrtia vigil. 81, ix, 1-5. 

Alexander, C. P. The crane-flies of New York: First supple- 
mentary list. 19, xvii, 58-62. Curran, C. H. New and little known 
Canadian Syrphidae. 4, liv, 117-19. Enderlein, G. Klassifikation 
dcr Alicropeziden. Ill, 1922, A, 5, 140-2:.'!). MalJoch, J. R. A 
synopsis of the N. American species of the dipterous genus Amau- 
rosoma, with description of n. sp. A new borborid from Maryland. 
19, xvii, 77-8; 87. Two n. sps. of the genus Helina. 19, xvii, 95-6. 

COLEOPTERA. Cockerell, T. D. A. IM -..t\ j.syl'.r.s castoris, in 
Colorado. 19, xvii, 64. Benderitter, E. Un Rutelide nouveau du 
Venezuela. 20, 192:2, 147. Bruch, C. Dos nuevos coleopteros mir- 

288 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEV.'S [Nov., '22 

mecofilos. 96, v, 296-300. Fleutiaux, E. Trois Melasidae nou- 
veaux. 20, 1922, 148-50. Graham, S. A. Ips pini, as a primary 
pest of jack pine. 4, liv, 99-100. Hopping, R. Coniferous hosts 
of the Ipidae of the Pacific coast and Rocky mountain regions. 4, 
liv, 128-34. Knisch, A. Hydrophiliden-studien. Ill, 1922, A, 5, 
87-126. Hugoscottia, eine neue Helocharengattung. (Hydrophili- 
dae.) 124, ii, 89-91. Leng & Mutchler The Lycidae, Lampyridae 
and Cantharidae of the West Indies. 62, xlvi, 413-99. Marshall, 
G. A. K. On new genera and species of Neotropical Curculionidae. 
36, 1922, 181-224. Moreira, C. Coleopteres Passalides du Brasil. 
24, xc, 255-94. Mutchler & Weiss Wood-boring beetles of the 
genus Agrilus known to occur in New Jersey. (N. J. Dep. Agr., 
Circ. 48.) Pic, M. Coleopteres exotiques nouveaux. 20, 1922, 
169-70. Weise, J. Coleoptera e collections Bruchiana. 106, xciv, 

Fall, H. C. New species of N. Am. Acmaeoderae. 19, xvii, 88-90. 
Voss, E. Monographische bearbeitung der unterfamilie Rhynchiti- 
nae. Ill, 1922, A, 58, 1-113. Wolcott, A. B A new sp. of Helodes. 
19, xvii, 94. 

HYMENOPTERA. Beutenmuller, W. Note on Rhodites. 19, 
xvii, 45. Bruch, C. Regimen de alimentacion dc algunas hormigas 
cultivadoras de bongos. 96, v, 307-11. Brues, C. T. Some hymen- 
opterous parasites of lignicolous Itonididae. (Proc. Am. Ac. Arts 
& Sc., Ivii, 263-88.) Cockerell, T. D. A. Some Canadian bees. 4, 
liv, 143-4. An ancient wasp. 76, ex, 313. Folsom, J. W. Pollina- 
tion of red clover by Tetralonia and Melissodes. 7, xv, 181-84. 
Prison, T. H. Notes on the life history, parasites and inquiline 
associates of Anthophora abrupta, with some comparisons with the 
habits of certain other Anthophorinae. 2, xlviii, 137-56. Gallardo, 
A. Las hormigas de la Republica Argentina. Subfamilia Poneri- 
nas & Dorilinas. 97, xxx, 1-112; 281-410. Una nueva Prodorilina, 
Acanthostichus afflictusy'' Hormigas del Neuquen y Rio Negro. 97, 
xxx, 237-242; 243-54. Lichtenstein et Rabaud Le comportement 
des "Polysphincta" ichneumonides parasites des araignees. (Bui. 
Biol. France et Belg., Iv, 267-87.) Santschi, F. Camponotus neo- 
tropiques. 33, Ixii, 97-124. Savin, W. M. Wasps that hunt spiders. 
Observations on Sceliphon and Chalybion. (Nat. Hist., New York, 
xxii, 327-32.) 

Cockerell, T. D. A. Descriptions and records of bees. 11, x, 
265-9. Kinsey, A. C. Studies of some new and described Cynipidae. 
Varieties of a rose gall wasp (with K. E. Ayres). (Indiana Univ. 
Studies, ix, 3-142; 142-62.) Muesebeck, C. F. W. A revision of the 
N. A. ichneumon-flies belonging to the subfamilies Neoneurinae and 
Microgasterinae. 50, Ixi, Art. 15. 


We are indebted, in the first instance, to Dr. L. O. Howard, 
for the sad news of the death of DR. D,\vm SHARP, which 
occurred at Brockenhurst on Au^usl 27. .\ notice of his life 
and work will appear in a later number of the NEWS. 


Fine perfect specimens of this grand rare species are offered ; also O. 
chimaera Zelotypia staceyi, superb rarity many others. Largest stock of 
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Plate XI. 









Martin Studies in the Genus Hetae- 
rius (Col., Histeridae) 289 

Malloch Notes on two Acalyptrate 
Diptera 293 

Brimley List of the Robberflies ( Asili- 
dae, Diptera) of North Carolina... 294 

Schmieder The Tracheation of the 
Wings of Early Larval Instars of 
Odonata Anisoptera, with Special 
Reference to the Development of 
the Radius 299 

Champlain and Knull A New Typo- 

Shoemaker and Davis The Moth Na- 
cophora quernaria var. atrescens 
(Lep.: Geometridae) 310 

Editorial " He Helped Me When No 
Others Volunteered " 311 

The University of Michigan-William- 
son Expedition to Brazil 312 

Entomological Literature 312 

Review of Jordan and Rothchild's Ec- 
parasites 316 

Di'ings of Societies Ent Sec., Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phil. (Col., Orth., Dipt., 

cerus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) 304 ; Lepid.) 317 

Coolidge The Life History of Lero- 
dea eufala Edwards ( Lepidoptera, 
Hesperiidae) 305 

Davis Old Time Economic Entomo- 
logy on Staten Island, New York.. 310 

Obituaries Dr. David Sharp 318 

Hamilton H. C. J. Druce.. 320 
Edward Louis Graef 320 

Studies in the Genus Hetaerius (Col., Histeridae). 

By J. O. MARTIN, Berkeley, California. 

(Continued from page 277) 

Hetaerius setosus n. sp. 

Form broadly quadrate oval. Color ferruginous. Punctate and setose. 

Head but slightly concave at vertex, which is evenly, moderately 
punctate, each puncture bearing a long bristle-like seta ; front impunc- 
tate, shining, minutely rugose ; labruin smooth shining. 

Prothorax twice as wide as long ; minutely rugose except in the 
oblique depression which, is smooth and impunctate ; disc evenly, mod- 
erately punctate and setose, the setae long, recurved and tapering to a 
sharp point, minutely plumose along cephalic margin. Lateral areas more 
closely punctured and setose, these setae becoming coarser, longer and 
more evidently plumose at the outer edge ; sides evenly rounded from 
transverse sulcus to apex ; inner carina of the oblique sulcus bends 
sharply inward opposite the transverse sulcus, by this separation pro- 
ducing a deep triangular depression opposite the bulla and narrowing 
the oblique depression at this point. Bulla smooth shining on inner half, 
outer portion punctate and bordered by coarser and longer plumose 

Elytra shining and minutely rugose; space between the first dorsal 



stria and the elytral suture evenly, moderately punctate with setae similar 
to those on disc of thorax ; punctures without regular arrangement ; 
each stria has along its raised edge a row of setigerous punctures 
slightly closer together than those on the disc ; parallel to this is 
another single row of setigerous punctures more widely spaced. First 
dorsal stria reaches but one-half the distance to apex ; remaining striae 
extend to apex. 

Pygidium and propygidium evenly, moderately, punctate and setose. 

Prosternum finely punctate and rugose but lacking setae ; bordered 
area contracted between the coxae, thence gradually separating to one- 
half the length of the prosternum where they merge into the prosternal 
surface, leaving the cephalic end of the margined area open. Cephalic 
end of prosternum emarginate ; immediately caudad of the emargination 
there is a slight indentation in the raised portion. Meso- and mcta- 
sternum punctate and hairy. Legs evenly and moderately punctate on 
the outer surface, setae shorter than those on upper surface of body. 
Length 2 mm.; width 1.5 mm. 

Described from a series of nine specimens taken at North 
Fork, California, in the nests of Formica plicicornisf Type in 
my collection, paratypes in the collection of Mr. Henry Dietrich 
who collected the species. 

Hetaerius nudus n. sp. 

Of the same form as sctosus, which it resembles in many respects ; 
it has more yellow in the body color and is noticeably less convex. 

Vertex of head flat, evenly, moderately punctate, punctures with 
short, squamose, recumbent hairs ; front impressed, finely rugose, im- 
punctate ; labrum finely rugose, shining. 

Prothoracic disc evenly, moderately, punctured with minute, short 
recumbent hairs jn each puncture; basal end of oblique depression broad; 
lateral areas finely rugose, marked with a series of slightly raised lines 
extending from transverse sulcus to the apex ; between these lines are 
single rows of punctures bearing the same type of hairs as those on the 
disc ; outer margin with a row of coarser, curved hairs ; inner margin 
for half its length, beginning at transverse sulcus, with a single row of 
flattened, recumbent hairs ; bulla finely rugose on outer half, which is 
punctate with coarse, squamose, recumbent hairs, outer margin with 
hairs like those on margin of lateral area, inner surface finely rugose, 
impunctate. Carinae of the oblique sulcus not as widely separated at 
base as in sctosus. Outer margin of lateral area while rounded shows 
a slight tendency to angulation at one-third the distance from apex 
to transverse sulcus. 

Elytra evenly, moderately punctured and with the same minute, 
recumbent hairs as those on the prothoracic disc ; the first and second 
dorsal striae of same length and not quite reaching to apical margin. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 291 

Prosternum of the same type as in sctosus but with the margined 
area narrower and the general surface less convex; cephalic margin 
more deeply emarginate and with a more pronounced prosternal pit. 

Pygidium and propygidium evenly, moderately punctured and with 
the same type of hairs as on upper side of body. Legs on outer surface 
and remainder of under surface the same. Length 2 mm.; width 1.5 mm. 

Described from five specimens taken by Mr. Henry Dietrich 
at North Fork, California, in the nests of Formica plicicornis? 
Type in my collection, paratypes in that of Mr. Henry Dietrich. 

This species while close to setosns is distinct in the characters 
given above. The hairs are so minute as to give it a naked 
appearance when compared with that species. 

Hetaerius dietrichi n. sp. 

Form quadrate oval ; ratio of extreme length to width as seven and 
a half to five plus; color ferruginous. 

Head at vertex nearly flat, where it is coarsely punctate and rugose ; 
punctures with squamose, suberect hairs, a few of which near thorax 
are twice as long as the others, all being plumose ; front and labrum 
punctate and rugose, shining. 

Thorax less than twice as broad as long ; discal area smooth, shining, 
thickly punctate in front, but becoming less so at base, punctures with 
short, small, yellow hairs ; lateral area more coarsely punctured, hairs 
of the same type as on the disc; bulla slightly smaller in proportion 
to lateral area than usual ; transverse sulcus broad and shallow, be- 
coming more narrow toward the oblique sulcus ; outer half of bulla 
coarsely punctate and hairy. 

Elytra smooth, shining, finely punctured, punctures with short minute 
hairs ; first and second dorsal striae reaching three-fourths the distance 
to apex. 

Pygidium and propygidium shining, minutely rugose and very finely 
punctate with minute hairs in the punctures. 

Prosternum closely punctate and rugose with short minute hairs in 
the punctures ; margined area with carinae convergent between the 
coxae, thence divergent to less than half the length of prosternum, where 
they converge toward a common point, in some cases very nearly meet- 
ing but in the majority of cases well separated, leaving margined area 
open in front. Meso- and metasternum shining, less closely punctured 
than prosternum, punctures with short, minute hairs. Outside of legs 
sparsely punctate, the accompanying hairs coarser and evidently plumose. 
Length 1.5 mm.; width 1.25 mm. 

Described from six examples taken by Mr. Henry Dietrich 
at Dalton Creek. Fresno County, California. .T have also a 
single example which I am unable to separate from the above 


which was found by Mr. E. R. Leach of Piedmont, California, 
floating in an irrigation ditch in Nevada County, California. 
Type in my collection, paratypes in the collection of Mr. Henry 

This small species varies in amount of vestiture, one speci- 
men being almost without hairs, the type being a fair average. 
It also varies in the distance apart of the cephalic ends of 
the carinae enclosing the margined area of the prosternum ; 
I have seen no case where they actually meet, but in two 
instances they very nearly do. 

Table to the Species of Heiacrlus.\ 
Prosternum subcylindrical. 

Posterior femora over three times as long as wide. 

Pygidium and propygidium with the punctures separated by a 

space equal to the diameter of a puncture....!, morsus Lee. 

Pygidium and propygidium with the punctures contiguous and 

coarser than the above 2. strenuus Fall 

Posterior femora about two and one-half times as long as wide. 
Pygidium without hairs, propygidium with hairs. 
Centre of thoracic discal area punctate and hairy, 

3. tristriatus Horn. 
Centre of thoracic discal area finely punctate and without 

hairs . _. 4. hirsutus Mart. 

Pygidium and propygidium both with hairs. 

Outer surface of legs moderately clothed with long, pointed, 

plumose hairs 5. williamsi Mart. 

Outer surface of legs moderately punctate, femora without 

hairs, tibia with small pointed hairs 6. zelus Fall 

Outer surface of legs moderately, closely punctate with minute 

blunt hairs 7. blanchardi Lee. 

Pygidium and propygidium both hairless 8. horni Wickh. 

Prosternum depressed. 

Prosternal margined area closed in front by a coalescence of the 
margining carinae. 

Carinae of the margined area converging to a rounded point, 
slightly sinuate before meeting. 

Upper surface of body sparsely punctate with suberect, 

squamose hairs 9. minimus Fall 

Upper surface of body closely punctate with long, pilose 
hairs 10. pilosus Mart. 

fl am unable to find any record of the capture of Hetaerius hclcna,- 
Mann in the United States and see no reason for its inclusion in Leng's 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 293 

Carinae of the margined area closing with a rounded arch in 
With a few scattered hairs on disc of thorax and elytra, 

11. brunneipennis Rand 
\Yith numerous long, pointed hairs on disc of thorax and 

elytra 12. californicus Horn 

Without hairs, but with evident punctures on disc of thorax, 

elytra punctate with a few hairs 13. exiguus Mann 

Prosternal margined area with carinae not meeting in front. 

Carinae beyond intercoxal convergence, divergent to their 
cephalic ends, leaving margined area widely open in front. 
Pygidium and propygidium sparsely punctate with long, 

pointed hairs 14. setosus n. sp. 

Pygidium and propygidium without long hairs. 

Pygidium and propygidium with minute, squamose, 

recumbent hairs 15. nudus n. sp. 

Pygidium and propygidium without evident hairs, 

16. wheeleri Mann 

Carinae of the margined area converging at apex, but not 
Disc of thorax with short, minute, sparse hairs, 

17. dietrichi n. sp. 
Disc of thorax with long, pilose hairs 18. vandykei n. sp. 

In concluding I wish to extend thanks to Mr. H. C. Fall, 
who examined for me the types of morsus Lee. and hclcnae 
Mann; also to Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, who kindly loaned me all 
of his material in this genus. I am also indebted to Mr. 
Henry Dietrich for the loan of his material, including three 
new forms. Prof. H. F. Wickham also sent his specimens 
which included a number that I had not seen. 

Notes on two Acalyptrate Diptera. 

In 1913 (Jour. X. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 21. p. 204) Dr. A. L. Melander 
described M mnctopin iiitcns, distinguishing it from tcniiinalis Low,- '>v 
its partly black face and parts of the head- This form is ineivly the 
male of tcnninalis. which has tin- head and its parts yellow or whitish. 

In the same paper he recorded (Vnn^<>;//</ /r;;:r>n;/;'\ MeiLjen from the 
\vest, an error which I avoided in my paper on the family which ap- 
peared at the same time. My view has since been o >n firmed by Dr. 
Aldrich in print. This year I took one specimen of the true fitl-i'ipcs 
Meigen (femoralis Meigen) at Glen Kcho, Maryland, so that the species 
really does occur in America though not present in Melander's material 
from the west. Mendel lias recently followed Melander in recording 
fcuionilis from this country, the record being based upon the dark form 
known in Europe as ih'iitici>niis var. nigroscutellata Strohl which is 
common in the extreme west. J. 1\. M \Moni, Bureau of Biological 
Survey, Washington, D. C. 


List of the Robberflies (Asilidae, Diptera) of 
North Carolina. 

By C. S. BRIMLEY, Entomological Division, N. C. Department 
of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

The following list of the robberflies of North Carolina is 
based on the records of this department which have been gath- 
ered by Mr. Franklin Sherman, Chief in Entomology since 
1900, and by his various assistants. The initials following the 
records are those of Mr. Sherman, Messrs. G. M. Bentley, 
S. C. Clapp, J. E. Eckert, R. W. Collett, S. W. Foster, V. R. 
Haber, C. O. Houghton, R. W. Leiby, W. B. A'labee, C. L. 
Metcalf, T. B. Mitchell, M. R. Smith, R. S. Woglum, and my- 
self, his assistants at various periods, also of Mr. A. H. Manee, 
of Southern Pines, N. C.. and Mr. C. W. Johnson, oi" Boston, 
Mass. The Raleigh records are not as a rule initialled. 


LEPTOGASTER BADIUS Loew. Raleigh, May 16, 1909; June 30, 1921. 

LEPTOGASTER BREVICORNIS Loew. Raleigh, early June, 1909 ; May 30, 

LEPTOGASTER INCISURALIS Loew. Southern Pines, late August, 1912, 

LEPTOGASTER OBSCURIPENNIS Johnson. Raleigh, July 25, August 4, 16, 
1906; August 13, 21. 1921; Blantyre, early September, 1906. RSW. 

LEPTOGASTER PICTIPES Loew. Raleigh, May 2, 1905 ; September 2, 
1904; June 5, 11, 1906; Murfeesboro, June 9, 1895, CWJ. 

LEPTOGASTER TESTACEUS Loew. Raleigh, early August, one, FS. 

LEPTOGASTER VIRGATUS Coq. Raleigh, taken on May 31, June 13, 14, 
August 13, 16, in different years. 


CERATURGUS CRUCIATUS Say. Swannanoa, July 15, 1917, RWL ; Lin - 
ville Falls, late June, 1920, FS. 

CERATURGUS NIGRIPES Will. Linville Falls, late May and early June, 
1920, FS; Spruce, June, 1911; late May, 1913, FS ; Black Mts., laU 
May, 1910, FS ; Andrews, mid-May, 1908, FS; Macon County betwrni 
Highlands and Franklin, 2200 to 4000 ft., early May, 1908, FS. 

CERATURGUS SP., larger than cniciatits with blackish wings. Raleigh, 
June 30, 1921, TBM. 

CYRTOPOGON ALLENI Back. Spruce, late May, 1913, CSB. 

CYRTOPOGON FALTO Walker. Spruce, late May. 1913, CSB. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NE\\ s 295 

CYRTOPOGON LYRATUS OS. Black Alts., July 18, 1919, about 5000 ft., 


CYRTOPOGON MARGINALIS Loew. Linville Falls, late May, 1920, FS ; 
Spruce, late May, 1913, FS ; Highlands, July, 1907; early May, 19 
FS ; Aquonc, raid-May, 1911, FS ; Macon County between Highlands 
and Franklin, mid-May, 1908, FS. 

DEROMYIA PLATVPTERA Loew. Goldsboro, July 28, 1921, one male, 

DEROMYIA RUFESCENS Macq. Raleigh, late August, 1914, CSB ; 
Beaufort, August 11, 1902, FS; Southern Pines, September 14, 1912, 
AHM; McCullcrs, September 10, 1921, TBM. 

DEROMYIA TERNATUS Loew. Raleigh, June to September, not uncom- 
mon; Southern Pines, mid-July, 1906, AHM; Marion, mid-July, 1907, 
FS ; Havelock, late June, 1905, FS. 

DEROMYIA UMBRIXUS Loew. Blowing Rock, August 29, 1902, t\vo. FS. 

DEROMYIA \VINTIIEMI Wied. Raleigh, mid-July to mid-September, 
not uncommon; Elizabeth City, early and mid-August, 1919. FS ; Stat s 
ville, mid-July, 1919, FS ; Durham, July, 1903, SWF. 

DIOCTRIA ALBIUS Walker. Swannanoa, June 22, 1917, RWL. 

DIOCTRIA BREVIS Banks. Black Mts. (north fork of Swannanoa River), 
Banks, Psyche, 1917, p. 117; Linville Falls, early June, 1920, two fe- 
males, FS. 

DIZONIAS TRISTIS Walker. Willard, July 20, 1920, one male, VRH. 

ECHTHODOPA FORMOSA Loew. "North Carolina," Back, Trans. Am. 
Ent. Soc., vol. 35, p. 249. 

HOLCOCEPHALA ABDOMINALS Say. Late June to late September, com- 
mon at Raleigh in rank herbage in damp shady places ; also taken at 
Blowing Rock, in August and September ; Grandfather Mt., up to 4000 
ft. in September ; Black Mts. in mid-July at about 5000 ft. ; Statesville 
in mid-June ; Greensboro in early October ; Gibson in mid-October. Not 
yet taken east of Raleigh. 

HOLOPOGON GUTTULA Wied. Pendlcton, June 7, 1895, CWJ ; Southern 
Pines, early May, 1912, AHM; Swannanoa, mid-June, 1919, FS. 

LAPHYSTIA FLAVIPES Coq. "North Carolina, Morrison," Back, Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc., vol. 35, p. 229. 

LAPHYSTIA SEXFASCIATA Say. Beaufort, mid-June, 1903; early July, 
1909, FS; Wilmington, September, 1905; July, 1906. RSW ; mid-Octo- 
ber. 1919, MRS; September 23, 1920, WBM ; Wrightsville, September 
23, 1920, TUM. 

LASIOPOGON OPACULUS Loew. Raleigh, mid and late April and early 
May, several specimens; Lake Toxoway, May, 1 (| 07, Mrs. A. T. Slosson. 

NuwLFS PICTUS Loew. Southern Pines, October and November, com- 
mon, AHM. 

NUSA FIM.YK AUDA Say. "North Carolina," McAtee, Ohio, Jour. Sci., 
vol. 19, p. 246. 

STENOPOCON SUBULATUS Wied. l.umherton, September 6, FS. 


STICHOPOGON TRIFASCIATUS Say. Beaufort, August 9, 11, 1902; early 
July, 1909; mid-September, 1911 and 1912, FS. 

TARACTICUS OCTOPUNCTATUS Say. Raleigh, June 30, 1921, CSB ; 
Delco, early May, 1920, FS. 


ATOMOSIA GLABRATA Say. Raleigh, July 28, 1906, CSB; Swannanoa, 
mid-July, 1919, above 3000 ft.; June 22, 1917, RWL. 

ATOMOSIA PUELLA Wied. Lake Ellis, May 27, 1907, CSB; Southern 
Pines, late July, 1912, AHM ; Swannanoa, mid-June, 1919, FS; Spruce, 
June, 1911, FS; Blowing Rock, July, 1904, GM ; Hendersonville, June. 
1907, FS ; Hot Springs, Mrs. Slosson. 

CEROTAINIA MACROCERA Say. Raleigh, July 25, 1906 ; June 25, July 
10, 1907, CSB. 

DASYLLIS AFFINIS Macq. Raleigh, mid-September to mid-December, 
rather common ; also within the same season at Lumbertou, Wa Jesboro, 
Gibson, Dundee, Pilot Mt. and Newton. Not as yet taken east of 

DASVLLIS CHAMPLAINI Walton. Dillard-Highlands road, July 11, 1921, 
TBM; Swannanoa, mid-June, 1919, FS. 

DASVLLIS CINEREA Back. Raleigh, late March to early May, not in- 
frequent ; Southern Pines, March, 1903, Manee. 

DASVLLIS DIVISOR Banks. Black Mts., late May, 1910, FS ; Linville 
Falls, late May to late June, 1920, FS ; Andrews, mid-May, 1907, FS 
and CSB. 

DASYLLIS FLAVICOLLIS Say. Same places and dates as preceding, and 
also Spruce, late May, 1913; June, 1911, FS. 

DASYLLIS GROSSA Fabr. Raleigh, mid-June, CSB ; late June, 1921, 
TBM; June 14, 1921, CSB; Cedar Grove, June 13, 1901, FS ; Highlands, 
July, 1907, FS; Dillard-Highlands road, July 11, 1921, TBM; Swanna- 
noa, mid-June, 1919, FS. 

DASYLLIS POSTICATA Say. Pendleton, June 7, 1895, CWJ. 

DASYLLIS SACRATOR Walker. Blowing Rock, June 27, 1901 ; July 24, 
1904, FS; Black Mts., late May, 1910, FS; Swannanoa, mid-June, 1919, 
FS; Spruce, June, 1911, FS. 

DASYLLIS THORACICA Fabr. Black Mts., late May, 1910, FS ; Southern 
Pines, specimen received from A. H. Manee, by CSB. 

DASYLLIS VIRGINICA Bks. Raleigh, mid-May, 1915, CSB ; April, CSB. 

LAMPRIA BICOLOR Wied. Raleigh, October 1, 1900, FS ; June 16, 1921, 
CSB; Pendleton, June 7, 1895, CWJ. 

LAMPRIA RUBRIVENTRIS Macq. Wilmington, October 15, 1919, M. Kis- 

LAPHRIA AKTIS McAtee. Craggy Mts., June 8, 1916, two, RWL. 

LAPHRIA INDEX McAtee. Linville Falls, mid-June, 1920, one male, FS. 

LAPHRIA SAFFRANA Fabr. Wilmington, April 24, 1920, one, RWL; 
Southern Pines, May, not common, AHM; Tryon, W. F. Fiske (McAtee, 
Ohio Jour. Sci., vol. 19, 169). 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 297 

LAPHRIA SERICEA Say. Blantyre, May, 1 ( >07, FS; Spruce, late May, 

1913, CSB; Black Mts., McAtce, /. c., 157; Linville Falls, late May to 
late June, 1920, FS ; Blowing Rock, July 22, 1904, GMB. 

LAPHRIA SICULA McAtee. Raleigh, May 30, 1921, CSB; mid-June, 

1914, CLM ; July 5, 1904; July 12, 1921; July 14, 1908, CSB; Waynes- 
ville, July, 1901, FS ; Linville Falls, late June, 1920, FS. 

POGONOSOMA MELANOPTERA Wied. Pendletoii, June 7, 1895, CWJ. 


ASII.US ANGUSTIPENNIS Hine. Highlands, September, 1906, RSW. 

ASILUS ANTIMACHUS Walker. Southern Pines, early April, 1913, 

ASILUS AURICOMUS Hine. Raleigh, mid-October, 1904, SMB. 

ASII.US AUTUMNALIS Bks. Swannanoa, mid-June, 1919, FS. 

ASILUS FLAVOFEMORATUS Hine. "North Carolina," Hine, Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Am.. 1909, 153. 

ASILUS FUSCATUS Hine. Raleigh, June 14, 1921, CSB; Pendleton, 
June 7, 1895, CWJ; Murfreesboro, June 8, 1895, CWJ; Swannanoa, mid- 
July, 1919, above 3000 ft., RWL. 

ASILUS CRACILIS Wied. Raleigh, late June, 1917, CSB. 

ASILUS LECYTHUS Walker. Raleigh, May 18, 28, 1921, CSB; mid- 
May, 1921, TBM; Swannanoa, mid-July, 1919, RWL. 

ASILUS MANEEI Hine. Southern Pines, May 15, 1908, A. H. Manee ; 
Statesville, mid-July, 1919, FS. 

ASILUS NOTATUS Wied. Andrews, mid-May, 1908, FS ; Highlands, 
September, 1906, RSW; Craggy Mts., ^une 8, 1916, RWL; Blowing 
Rock, July 20, 1904, FS. 

ASILUS NOVAE-SCOTIAE Macq. Raleigh, early July, FS ; Blowing 
Rock, August 29, 1902, FS; Hot Springs, Mrs. Slosson. 

ASILUS ORPHNE Walker. Cranberry, Linville Falls, Black Mts., Craggy 
Mts. and Spruce, late May to late June. 

ASILUS SADYTES Walker. Raleigh, mid-June, 1906, RSW ; July 8, 
1902, FS; Gary, September 19, 1900; also at Wilkesboro, Blowing Rock, 
Blantyre and Highlands in August and September. 

ASILUS SERICLUS Say. Raleigh, early June, one CSB ; also at Elkin, 
Blowing Rock, Cranberry, Swannanoa and Hot Springs in June. 

ASILUS SN-OWI Hine. Raleigh, May 18, 1909, CSB; July 3, 1902, 
GMB ; August 18, 1902, COH. 

ERAX AESTUAXS L. (BASTARDI Macq.). Whole state, late M'iy to early 
October, common. 

ERAX APICALIS Wied. Southern Pines, AHM. 

EKAX BAKBATUS Fabr. Whole state, mid-May to early October, com- 

ERAX INTERRUPTUS Macq. Whole state east of the mountains, June 
to September, common. I bred the species from its larva in summer of 


ERAX RUFIBARBIS Macq. (AESTUANS Wied.). Whole state, mid- August 
to early November, common. 

MALLOPHORA BOMBOIDES Wied. Southern Pines, August, September, 
AHM ; Aberdeen, early October, 1921, TBM. 

MALLOPHORA CLAUSICELLA Macq. Raleigh, early July to late Septem- 
ber, common, bites sharply if handled incautiously; McCullers, La- 
Grange, Overhills, Southern Pines and Greensboro, within the same 

MALLOPHORA GUILDIANA Will. "North Carolina," Williston, Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc. XII, 60. 

MALLOPHORA ERCINA Wied. Raleigh, late July to mid-August, 6 
specimens, CSB; Beaufort, August 9, 1902, FS ; Statesville, mid-July, 
1919, FS ; mid- September, 1917, JEE. 

MALLOPHORA LAPHROIDES Wied. Southern Pines, August 15, 1902, 
FS; August 6, 1921, TBM; Wilmington, August 1, 1921, TBM; Fay- 
etteville, July 30, 1919, JEE. 

OMMATIUS MARGINELLUS Fabr. Raleigh, August 15, 1904; June 19, 
1906, CSB; Beaufort, June 15, 24, FS ; Lake Ellis, June 23, 1905, CSB; 
Whiteville, July, 1906, RSW ; Highlands, September, 1906, RSW; Swan- 
nanoa, July 10, 1913, CLM : mid-June, 1919, FS. 

PROCTACANTHUS BREVIPENNIS Wied. Eastern part of state, west to 
Raleigh and Southern Pines, mid-April to early July, not uncommon. 

PROCTACANTHUS HEROS Wied. Southern Pines, August, Manee. 

PROCTACANTHUS LONGUS Wied. Castle Hayne, July 30, 1921, one, 
TBM. Wilmington, 1919, M. Kislink. 

PROCTACANTHUS MILBERTI Jvlacq. A specimen each from Raleigh 
(mid-October, 1904, GMB) and Southern Pines (early July, 1906, 
RSW) doubtfully identified by Prof. J. S. Hine as this. Neither speci- 
men is in good condition. 

PROCTACANTHUS PHILADELPHICUS Macq. Beaufort, early July, 1909; 
Kingsboro, early October, 1919, MRS ; Lucama, September 29, 1920, 
TBM; Moncure, October 6, 1921, TBM; Greensboro, August 31, 1903, 
SWF; August, 1902, FS; Andrews, August, 1904, RWC. 

PROCTACANTHUS RUFIVENTRIS Macq. "North Car.," Hine, Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Am., 1911, 158. 

PROCTACANTHUS RUFUS Will. Raleigh, July 10, 1902, two, FS ; late 
June, 1921, one, TBM; Nagshead, late August. 1919, FS. 

PROMACHUS BASTARDI Macq. Raleigh, mid- June to mid- July, several, 
FS and CSB; Durham, July, 1903, SWF. 

PROMACHUS RUFIPES Fabr. Raleigh, and Overhills, Laurinburg, Lib- 
erty, Greensboro, Barber and Wilkesboro, early July to mid-October. 

The greater number of the preceding species have been iden- 
tified by Prof. J. S. Hine, of Ohio State University, to whom 
we express our sincerest thanks. Others have been named by 
Prof. O. A. Johannsen and the late Mr. D. W. Coquillett, and 
a few by myself. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 299 

The Tracheation of the Wings of Early Larval Instars 

of Odonata Anisoptera, with Special Reference 

to the Development of the Radius. 

By RUDOLF G. SCIIMIEDER, M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 


(Continued from page 262) 

In the wings of Gomphns, stages of tracheal development 
were found which corresponded to those found in Anax. The 
observations and remarks made concerning the wings of Ana.v, 
as regards their size at the various stages of tracheal develop- 
ment, the variability in the number of tracheae and tracheal 
branches, and the condition of the tracheae, whether simple or 
fascicled, apply also in a large measure to the wings of Gom- 
phus, as is shown in figs. 9-14. (Figs. 9-13 are of G. villosipes, 
fig. 14 is of G. c.v His.) 

In addition it should be noted that, especially in the earliest 
stages, the wings of Goniphits show even greater variations 
than have been described for \-hin.\-. Fig. 9 is a wing 0.12 mm. 
in length from a larva 8 mm. long. It has only five tracheae, 
the anal being entirely absent. The radius is branched from 
its point of origin, the posterior branch is bent at right angles 
and its distal portion passes caudad and crosses over the four 
anterior branches of the media. It is often found that in early 
stages tracheae may be very elongated so that their distal por- 
tions pass either cephalad or caudad along the edge of the 
wing, and this fact, together with the observation that the 
courses of the tracheae are at this time indefinite and largely 
a matter of chance, indicates that, the condition of the posterior 
branch of R in this wing has no relation to the crossing of a 
radial branch over J/l and .1/2. which is found in later instars. 

In fig. 10, a wing 0.15 mm. long from a 7 mni. larva, condi- 
tions are very different from the preceding, there being no less 
than eleven distinct tracheae originating from the transverse 
basal trunk. In this wing R is unbranched, and M has but t\\o 

Figs. 11 and 12 are of the front and hind wings respectively 
of a 10 mm. larva. These wings are 0.23 mm. in length and 
again show noteworthy variations. 


Figs. 9-12 then, represent the ontogenetic stages in Gotnphus 
corresponding to the stages in Anax of figs. 1-3. The succeed- 
ing stage is shown in figs. 13 and 14, wings which are 0.4 and 
0.45 mm. long, and corresponds to that of figs. 4-7 of Anax. 
The differences in the sub-costa of figs. 13 and 14 are interest- 
ing, as is also the presence of an additional trachea between R 
and M in figs. 11 and 14, since such was never observed in 

Can we derive from the foregoing observations any clew as 
to the identity of the vein Rs; can we now determine whether 
the trachea crossing Ml and M2 really represents Rs and that 
we should therefore call the vein which forms along its course 
and in the adult lies posterior to M2 the radial sector ? 

Needham has shown that in many insects the veins of the 
adult may be formed independently of the tracheae and that a 
vein is not always supplied by its corresponding trachea. In- 
deed in the wings we are now considering, we see that the costa 
receives its tracheal supply in great part from the subcosta 
and radius. There is, therefore, no a priori reason for assum- 
ing that the trachea called Rs may not, although it is a branch 
of R, be supplying a vein which is a true branch of the media, 
especially since Tillyard has shown that in Uropetala the vein 
Rs is supplied by a branch of M as well as by a branch of R. 

Referring again to our figures we note that the radius in the 
very earliest instars (figs. 2, 3, 9, 11, 12) usually shows two 
branches and that in the next instar it most often has two 
groups of branches (figs. 4, 5, 13, 14) representing the same 
two branches ; and in addition to these a fine tracheal branch 
which passes backward and crosses over the two anterior 
branches of the media. The differences between R in figs. 4 
and 5 and the same trachea in figs. 6 and 7 are easily explained 
by referring back to the conditions found in the preceding in- 
star. All of the principal tracheae in this first stage are sim- 
ple, they are not composed of fascicles of fine branches as in 
the two later instars. In passing from this instar to the next, 
the two branches of R seen in figs. 2 and 3 develop branches 
equaling themselves in caliber and pursuing a course more or 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 301 

less parallel to the tracheae from which they have originated, 
thus producing the conditions shown in figs. 4 and 5. In fig. 
4 the anterior of these two branches is now composed of three 
fine tracheae, the posterior branch is still a single trachea ; in 
fig. 5 the anterior branch is three-branched, the posterior two- 
branched. In addition there is another fine branch, the trachea 
Rs of Needham. This trachea is always but a single fine strand 
in this instar and crosses over Ml and M2. It can be inter- 
preted only as a new outgrowth of the radius, appearing for 
the first time in this instar, and not as the original posterior 
branch of this trachea which has shifted its position. In fig. 1 
the radius has no branches ; a larva in which such a condition 
obtains would in the succeeding instar show a condition such 
as is represented in figs. 6 and 7. The distal end of the vein 
has produced a branch so that it is now double at the end, in 
the same manner as the two branches of R in figs. 2 and 3 have 
given rise to the two anterior groups of branches seen in fig. 5. 
In addition, R, in figs. 6 and 7, shows a caudal branch Rs which 
again is a new outgrowth, appearing for the first time in this 
instar, just as the small branches which have appeared on the 
anterior side of both Sc and R are new outgrowths. With 
respect to .!/, a similar observation might be made on the 
phenomenon of tracheal branching and on the presence of fas- 
cicles of tracheae where only single tracheae existed in the 
preceding instar. In fig. 8 is shown the instar following upon 
that which is represented in figs. 4-7. The fascicled condition 
is more evident than in the preceding instar and it is noted that 
Rs, which was heretofore always simple, has now also produced 
branches and is composed of a group or fascicle of three 

In the wings of Gomphus the same conditions obtain. The 
usual two-branched condition of the radius of the earliest stage 
is seen in figs. 0, 11, 12; and in figs. 13, 14, the next stage, in 
which the two radial branches have been replaced by two fas- 
cicled branches and in which there is an additional fine branch 
crossing over .1/1 and .1/2. 

It is evident then, that when a trachea or tracheal branch 


appears it is at first a single strand and not until the following 
instar does it acquire a fascicled condition as the result of the 
formation of parallel branches. Therefore, I believe that the 
branch Rs, which appears in the instar shown in figs. 4-7 of 
Anax, and in figs. 13 and 14 of Gomphus, is a new tracheal 
outgrowth appearing first in this instar and that it is not the 
posterior branch of the two-branched radius of the preceding 
instar (figs. 2, 3, 9, 11, 12). This posterior branch of R 
(called Rs by Needham) really develops into Rl, while the 
original R\ of this first stage does not develop into any prin- 
cipal trachea, but the small branches of which it is composed 
pass forward into the region of the costal vein. 

I believe the evidence I have given is sufficient to demon- 
strate that if the trachea which Needham refers to as Rs in 
his fig. 1, A, is the true Rs, then in the grown larva the trachea 
Rl is really Rs, and the Rl of Needham's figure is represented 
in later stages only by the fine tracheae which pass forward and 
supply the costa, or possibly it has become combined with Rs 
and the fine tracheae going to the costal vein represent branches 
of Rl. 

I have also shown that the tracheal branch of R which 
crosses 71/1 and M2 is not the original posterior branch of this 
vein which is seen in the first stage and which, according to 
Needham, has undergone a shifting in position, but rather that 
it is a new outgrowth of the radius and that in the instar in 
which it first appears it is already in the position which it 
occupies in the full grown larva. This trachea therefore, can- 
not be considered as representing Rs in the sense that it has 
developed by a shifting of the posterior branch of R which is 
observed in the earliest stage and which Needham has said 
must be Rs. 

This study of the tracheation of the wings of two Anisopter- 
ous larvae has thus yielded not the slightest evidence that the 
trachea Rs of the earliest instar has undergone a shifting in 
position and has come to lie posterior to .1/2; but rather it has 
shown that this trachea retains its original position and forms, 
at least in part, the Rl of the grown larva. It has revealed that 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 303 

the tracheal branch of R which supplies a part of the course 
of the imaginal vein Rs, appears as a secondary outgrowth 
whose purpose is to function as a part of the tracheal supply of 
a vein which for some reason has failed to receive a tracheal 
supply from the one of which it is properly a branch, the media. 
Unless we interpret Rs as a supplementary vein not homologous 
to any primitive one, we must accept the theory of Tillyard and 
consider it as a true branch of the media. As to the fate of the 
original Rs, the ontogenetic stages in the larva seem to indicate 
that, at least the tracheae corresponding to this vein, remain 
along the course of A*!, and that possibly the vein Rs has com- 
bined with Rl or has taken its place. This is the conclusion we 
should arrive at if we trusted in the ontogenetic stages to obtain 
a true account of phylogeny. However, I believe that our faith 
in such evidence should not be too implicit and that conclusions 
derived therefrom should not be accepted unless supported by 
other evidence which may develop out of a paleontological 


COMSTOCK, J. H., and NEEDHAM, J. G., 1898, The Wings of Insects. 
Amer. Nat, XXXII and XXXIII, 1898 and 1899; Art. Odonata, 

XXXII, pp. 903-911, 9 figs. 

XEEDHAM, J. G., 1903, A Genealogic Study of Dragon-Fly Wing 
Venation. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, pp. 703-764, Plates xxi- 
liv. (No. 1331). Wash., U. S. A., 1903. 

TILLYARD, R. J., 1922, New Researches upon the Problem of Wing- 
Venation of Odonata. I. A Study of the Tracheation of the Larval 
Wings in the Genus Uropetala from New Zealand. Ent. News, 

XXXIII, pp. 1-7, 45-51, Plate I. 


Figs. 9-13, Wing rudiments from larvae of Gomphus villcsipcs. 
Fig. 9, Length of larva 8 mm., length of wing 0.12 mm. 
Fig. 10, Length of larva 7 mm., length of wing 0.15 mm. 
Figs. 11-12, Length of larva, 10 mm., length of wings 0.23 mm. 
Fig. 13, Length of larva 12 mm., length of wing 0.4 mm. 
Fig. 14, Wing rudiment from larva of Gomphus e.vilis; length of 
larva 10 mm., length of wing 0.45 mm. 


A New Typocerus (Coleop., Cerambycidae). 

By A. B. CIIAMTLAIN and J. N. KNULL, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Through the kindness of Prof. J. S. Hine and Prof. J. G. 
Sanders, the authors were allowed to work over some unde- 
termined Cerambycidae in the collection of the Ohio State 
University. An apparently new species of Typoccrns was 
found. After carefully going over the literature, the species 
was found to be undescribed. Specimens were sent to Prof. 
H. C. Fall and Chas. Liebeck for examination. 

Typocerus trimaculatus n. sp. 

Size and form of Typocerus velutinus Oliv. 

Head black, front finely punctate, covered with golden pubescence, 
which is more dense on the vertex. Prothorax black, convex, apex 
constricted, base impressed, finely and densely punctate, covered with 
golden pubescence which becomes more dense at base and apex. Scu- 
tellum triangular, densely clothed with golden pubescence. Elytra grad- 
ually attenuate to apex, which is obliquely truncate and bispinose, sur- 
face densely punctate and pubescent, bright yellow, with base, suture and 
tip varying in color from brunneous to piceous, and three transverse 
piceous bands running from suture to lateral margin. Ventral surface 
finely and denselv punctate, clothed with golden pubescence. Legs 
yellow. Length 15 mm. 

$. Antennae black; when laid over the dorsal surface, extending 
four-fifths the length of the elytra, joints six to eleven provided each 
with two large poriferous areas, the eleventh joint appendiculate and 
containing four such areas. 

9 . Antennae black ; when laid over the dorsal surface, extending 
beyond the middle of the elytra, joints six to eleven provided each with 
two smaller poriferous areas, the eleventh joint appendiculate and con- 
taining four such areas. 

Superficially this species resembles Tvpoccrus zcbratits Fab., 
but it is easily distinguished from this species by the larger size 
and finer punctuation of the prothorax. According to Leng's 
Key* it runs to T. I'dntinns Oliv. The bright yellow color of 
the elytra, together with the black cross bands, will at once 
separate the two species. 

Type, a male collected at New Roads, Louisiana, on July 14, 
in Authors' collection. Paratvpes as follows : Oaines-nTe. 
Florida, collected on May 14, bv C. J. Drake, in Ohio State 
University collection ; New Roads, La., collected on July 14, in 
the collection of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Plant Industry ; 
Winnfield, Louisiana, collected on May 12, by H. C. Fall, in 
the collection of Prof. H. C. Fall, to whom we are indebted 
for the loan of the specimen. 

*Entomologica Americana V. 6, p. 150 1890. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 305 

The Life History of Lerodea eufala Edwards. 
(Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae.) 

By KARL R. COOLIDGE, Hollywood, California. 
Lcrodca eufala, a rather common butterfly of the southern 


states, extending its range thence through Mexico into Central 
America and the Antilles, seems to have only recently invaded 
California, entering by way of the Imperial Valley. No pub- 
lished records exist of its inhabitation in California. The late 
\V. G. Wright, in his Butterflies of the ITrst Coast, misidenti- 
fies the species, figuring it on plate 31, b and c, as Paw.f>hila 
ucreus, and stating that: "It is common enough at Yuma, but 
does not come further west." Dr. Lindsey, in his recent revi- 
sion of the Hesperioidea, gives the range of eufala as "Florida, 
Texas, Arizona" and its seasons as "April to July, October and 
November. " 

In recent years several specimens have been taken about San 
Diego, and in the Coachella Valley, which is virtually an 
extension of the Imperial Valley, and which marks the western 
limits of the Colorado Desert, it seems to have gained a firm 

It occurs only scantily about Palm Springs, but at Indio, 
some twenty miles to the south and in a much warmer district, 
it is rapidly becoming a common butterfly. Here it is certainly 
triple-brooded, and may even have four or five broods. The 
first hot weather in late March or early April brings it on the 
wing, but not in any considerable numbers. Towards the first 
week in June it appears again and by the middle of the month 
is fairly abundant. But the largest numbers are to be found 
about the middle of ( )ctoher, continuing well into November. 
Very probably there is a brood emerging some time in August, 
but as this is a scorching month on the desert no records of its 
appearance then have been noted. 

On October 21, I f l20. I found eufala abundant at Indian 
Wells, a small settlement near Indio, and confined some females 
in a mason jar with some ordinary lawn grass. These pro- 
ceeded to lay almost at once when expnscd to the hot sun. and 
by October 23 a total of twenty-eight eggs had been laid. 
On October 30 these began to disclose, making the egg period 
nine days. 


Brought to Los Angeles, most of the larvae ceased feeding 
and in a few days were dead, apparently unable to adapt them- 
selves to a seacoast climate so much in contrast with the dry- 
ness of the desert. In fact, I have had this same difficulty with 
all the eggs and la/vae I have brought in from the desert. 
Larvae of Pholisora Jibya Scudder, though supplied with abso- 
lutely fresh sprigs of their food-plant, could not be induced to 
touch them. Likewise, larvae of Melitaca chara Edwards re- 
fused their Bclcpcronc and soon passed away. And this sea- 
son not a single one of over fifty eggs of Atlides halcsus 
Hiibner has hatched, although I can see that the embryos have 
apparently fully developed. But half grown larvae do not seem 
to mind the change in the least, and readily go on with their 

So but two of my cnfala larvae survived their visit to Los 
Angeles, and the record of their transitions is as follows: 

Eggs laid October 23rd, 1920 

Eggs hatched October 30th, 1920 

Larvae passed first moult November 15th, 1920 

Larvae passed second moult December 28th, 1920 

Larvae passed third moult February 2nd, 1921 

Larvae passed fourth moult March llth, 1921 

Pupated April 1st, 1921 

Images emerged April 24th, 1921 

This makes a total of 184 days from egg to imago, but very 
probably on the desert, under natural conditions, the larvae 
mature much more quickly and pass the winter in a pupal state. 

There is nothing of unusual interest to record in the behavior 
of the young larvae. They form the usual type of vertical nest 
by drawing together the edges of a blade of grass with ten or 
a dozen loose strands of silk. In later stages the nest is more 
perfectly closed, a cylinder being formed in which the larva 
remains hidden from view and apparently feeding entirely by 
night. They were extremely sluggish, remaining at times 
motionless for days at a stretch. 

Egg. Hemispherical, the base sharply flattened, 1.04 mm. in diameter. 
From base sloping at first very gradually, then from upper two-thirds 
rather rapidly, to the narrow, rounded summit, where the diameter is 
but .30 mm. The micropyle is in a shallow weak pit and difficult to 
detect. The surface of egg rather evenly broken by a delicate tracery 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 307 

of scarcely perceptible raised polygonal cells, which average .04 mm. 
in diameter. Color a very delicate pale green, glistening. Height 
.72 mm. 

The young larvae, upon emerging from the eggs, at once 
attacked the empty shells and in nearly every instance devoured 
them to the bases. 

Lari'a. First Instar. Head suhtriangular, rounded, higher and 
broader than any part of the body, and with the median suture only 
faintly impressed. Head .56 mm. in diameter, black, shining, delicately 
rugose and clothed with only a few short straight sharp but weak color- 
less hairs, at scattered intervals, but most numerous about the frontal 
triangle. These hairs .08 mm. in length. 

Body slender, quite uniform, tapering only slightly posteriorly. In 
color the body is a pale lemon yellow, with a very delicate whitish sheen. 

Series of minute, bristle-bearing papillae arranged on the body as 
follows : A subdorsal series, located on the anterior portion of the seg- 
ment, one on each side to a row and rather sharply inclined outwards. 
A laterodorsal row, centrally located. A suprastigmatal row, placed 
slightly anterior to middle of segment. An infrastigmatal row, situated 
just posterior to middle of segment. On the thoracic segments the sub- 
dorsals become supralaterals and are there centrally located. These 
papillae are black, .01 mm. in height, and of the same diameter at base. 
The arising hairs are black, .04 mm. in height, very slightly enlarged an.l 
flattened apically, where the diameter is .01 mm. ; the tips pellucid. 

Each segment with six, fine, transverse creases, of which the foremost 
one is the most conspicuous. The transverse dorsal shield of first 
thoracic segment shining black, narrow, extending laterally to just above 
the spiracles, .03 mm. in width, but thickened subdorsally. A few fine 
black hairs on the shield. Anal segment with four, subdorsal, pale 
yellowish papillae from which project long, colorless, spiculiferous hairs 
posteriorly, these being .40 mm. in length ; also a few shorter, colorless, 
wavy hairs bordering the anal segment, some as long as .20 mm., others 
but .08 mm. 

Pseudostigmatic blisters laterally on second and third thoracic seg- 
ments geminate, pale testaceous. Spiracles round, .02 mm. in diameter, 
with a prominent brownish orange ring. On the eighth abdominal seg- 
ment the spiracles arc enlarged. .04 mm. in diameter, elevated, and 
higher above the line than the others. A fine, even, dark green dorsal 
line, .02 mm. in length. 

Prolegs and ventral surface pale greenish yellow. I>gs very pale 
yellow brown, shining. 

Length 2.56 mm. Height at first thoracic segment .44 mm. Width at 
anal segment .38 mm. 

\s the larva feeds the ground o>l<>r ni" the !><>dy becomes more ami 
more a pale grass ^reni. and white substigmatal and suprastigmatal 
bands appear, but are not well defined nor prominent in this stage, 


Second Instar. Head .90 mm. in diameter, pale orange brown, mottled 
with sordid white ; the brown quite regularly defined, especially in a 
median stripe that divides and sends two branching streaks over the 
front face, and a conspicuous oblique band. Hairs of head weak, sharp, 
colorless, scattered, .08 mm. in length on the average. 

Body profusely sprinkled with minute black papillae, each giving rise 
to a short, sharp, black hair, .05 mm. in length. The dorsal line even, 
fine, dark green. Collar as before, piceous black. Anal segment with 
a rather thick fringe of sharp, wavy, colorless hairs, spiculiferous, some 
as long as .30 mm. Spiracles round, .03 mm. in diameter, with a fine 
orange brown annulation. 

Body in color pale grass green, with a white sheen especially notice- 
able on either side of the dorsal line. Prolegs and ventral surface pale 
green. Legs pale yellow brown. The suprastigmatal and substigmatal 
white bands still indistinct. 

Length 7 mm. Width at first thoracic segment .80 mm. Width at 
anal segment .72 mm. 

Third Inslar. Head 1.16 mm. in diameter, sordid white, with pale 
orange brown blotchings as in previous stage ; along the median suture 
this blotching is deep brown, almost black. Hairs of head as before, 
now averaging .12 mm. in length- 
Body adorned as before with minute papillae, now .02 mm. in height 
and with the arising hairs .08 mm. in length on the average. Collar, 
as before, piceous black. Hairs fringing" anal serrmert n; i^ng as .40 
mm. Spiracles .04 mm. in diameter, with a distinct orange brown ring ; 
on eighth abdominal segment the spiracles are .08 mm. in diameter. 
Dorsal line prominent, dark green, .20 mm. in width. 

Body in color pale grass green; on either side of the dorsal line the 
ground color is more or less broken up by whitish blotchings. Prolegs 
and ventral surface pale grass green ; legs pale orange brown, shining, 
fuscous at tips. The white suprastigmatal band now rather prominent ; 
the white substigmatal stripe much less so. 

Length 12 mm. Width at first thoracic 1.06 mm. Width at anal 
segment 1 mm. 

Fourth I:isiar. Head 1.60 mm. in diameter, sordid white, marked as 
before with orange brown stripes, blackish brown along the median 
suture. Hairs of head as before, some as long as .24 mm., others but 
.08 mm. 

Numerous, black body papillae as before, now .03 mm. in height and 
of the same diameter at base, with the arising hairs .10 mm. in length, 
straight, sharp, colorless. Hairs fringing anal segment as long as .56 
mm. Spiracles .05 mm. in diameter, round, with a prominent orange 
brown ring. Dorsal line dark green, prominent, .30 mm. in width. 

Body in color a vivid grass green. Prolegs and ventral surface pale 
grass green. Legs pale orange brown, shining, darker at tips. The 
suprastigmatal band now yellow white, not very prominent ; below it a 
second, finer, concolorous band, not very distinct. The substigmatal 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL XK\VS 309 

hand white, even, but not at all prominent. The space between the upper 
band and the dorsal line subject to yellowish white blotchings, especially 
immediately next to the dorsal line. 

Length 17 mm. Width at first thoracic 1.38 mm. \Yidth at anal 
segment 1.20 mm. 

Fifth Instar. Head 2.08 mm. in diameter, sordid white, and as before 
marked with orange brown stripes. Sides of head pale gray yellow. 
Interior to these sides a dark orange brown area broken with a wavy 
stripe of yellow and with irregularly placed yellow blntchings. The 
line of the median suture black, spreading out to include the frontal 
triangle, now a pale gray green. Hairs of head as before, some as long 
now as .36 mm. 

The black body papillae as before, .04 mm. in height and of the same 
diameter at base, with the arising hairs straight, sharp, colorless or 
faintly brown tinged, of varying lengths, some .12 mm. long, others but 
.05 mm. Hairs fringing anal segment as long as .62 mm. Spiracles 
pallid, .12 mm. in diameter, with fine brown ring^. Dorsal line even, 
dark green, and bordered with an obscure blotching of rather bright 
yellow. The segmental creases cf each segment fine, bright yellow. 

Body in color vivid grass green. Prolegs and ventral surface pale 
grass green. Ventral surface with some short, sharp, colorless, spicu- 
liferous hairs, perhaps .16 mm. in length on the average. Legs pale 
orange brown, shining, darker at tips. The two suprastigmatal bands 
as in previous stage, pale yellow, not very prominent nor sharply defined. 
The substigmatal band white, even, but not conspicuous. 

Length 21 mm. Width at first thoracic 1.90 mm. Width at anal seg- 
ment 1.68 mm. 

Chrysalis. Slender and cylindrical, of almost 'uniform width until 
tapering rapidly at the last three abdominal segments. Head with sides 
straight, slightly narrower than the thorax. Ocellar swellings rather 
prominent. Head in middle protuberant, the pmjcction extending to a 
distance of 2 mm. and ending in a rounded knob. 

On the abdominal segments a prominent dark green dorsal line, .5 mm. 
in width, marked on cither side with a crcnate yellowish white edging. 
This dorsal line narrowing posteriorly and fading out on the last two 
abdominal segments. A subdorsal, yellow white band, fairly prominent, 
beginning on abdominal segment one, parallel with the dorsal line, but 
converging laterally, and then sweeping back dorsally so as to join the 
d- rsal line at next to the last abdominal segment, where both bands 
disappear. Tongue case freely extending beyond tips of wings to a 
distance of 3.4 mm., truncated at end, where the width is .16 mm. In 
color the free portion of the tongue is a sordid green, with a prominent 
golden brown edging. 

Color a delicate green, slightly deeper in tone on the abdomen dorsally. 
Head protuberance and cremaster opaque. A few fuscous hairs, clavate 
and sharply bent, on edges of head case; the-,e an exceedingly minute, 
but .02 mm. in height, and very infrequent. Spiracles elongate, .1-1 mm. 
in length, with a distinct brown edging. Hooklets of -remaster opaque. 
.26 mm. in length, abrnntly cm- iked apically into a clubbed head, .02 
mm. in width and reddish brown tinned. 

Length 20.5 mm. Width of head 3 mm. Width of th-irax 3.75 mm. 
Suspend''-! \\ by a small button of silk anally, and with a strong 
but loose thoracic girdle. 



[Dec., '22 

Notes and Ne\vs. 



Old Time Economic Entomology on Staten Island, New York. 

In an old book of records of the town of Northfield, Staten Island, 
labeled "Town Records, 1783 to 1823," an agriculturist of the period 
recorded at least two ways of combatting insect pests. It was thought- 
ful of him to put his information in such a safe place, for of course 
the book of town records was to be preserved, and our regret is that 
he failed to fill up all of the blank pages with observations on the 
natural history of Staten Island when he was trying out his experi- 
ments with soft cow dung, water and "Eder sprouts." 

The recipes are as follows: "1. Tanse boiled and' Cabich or other 
Plants Weterd with the Decoction prevents flys &c, Eating them. 

"2. Soft Cow Dung put in Water and Eder [Elder?] Sprouts 
bruised and Steepd in the Water put over any plant prevents any insects 
injuring them." WM. T. DAVIS, New Brighton, S. I., N. Y. 

The Moth Nacophora quernaria variety atrescens (Lep. : 


The black and white variety of Nacophora quernaria described by 
Hulst in the Canadian Entomologist for June, 1898, under the name of 
atrescens, appears to be very rare in collections. It is not represented 
in the extensive collections of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, the Museum of*the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences or in 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The type came from 
"London, Ontario, Canada ; from Mr. Moffat." 

Nacophora quernaria var. atrescens Hulst. 

In the summer of 1921 the senior author found a large Geometric! 
caterpillar on wild cherry at Upper Montclair, New Jersey, and on 
April 23, 1922, the female moth, reproduced in the accompanying figure, 
appeared. It is one of the most beautiful of Gecmetrid moths, and, as 
far as known, the first record of the insect from tins part of North 



"He Helped Me When No Others Volunteered." 
The cover of the NEWS for this year, 1922, has borne a small 
portrait of Charles Alfred Blake, an early member of the 
American Entomological Society and a contributor to the lit- 
erature on American Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. After 
his death on June 24, 1903', an obituary notice of him ap- 
peared in this journal for September, 1903, accompanied by 
a larger and later photograph. That notice contains this inter- 
esting recollection by Air. E. T. C'resson : 

I remember the many nights Mr. Blake toiled with me in the publica- 
tion of the Proceedings and Transactions, and he was ever ready and 
willing to help me when no others volunteered; we worked together 
side by side at the case, and while I rolled on the ink, he pulled the 
press being the stronger. He was a cheerful companion, and his good 
humor rendered the work easier and the time passed more pleasantly. 
The Society is greatly indebted to him for his endeavors in its behalf. 

Those endeavors are referred to by the late Dr. Henry C. 
McCook in the Introduction to the History of the same Society, 
published in 1909. Speaking of the founders, he wrote : 

these pioneers, discerning clearly the importance of the \vork to which 
they had set themselves, and the need of an organ of communication 
with entomologists elsewhere, ' began almost immediately the publication 
of a journal of their proceedings. The lack of income and of state aid 
and patronage did not deter them. Indeed it did not even occur to them 
to appeal to city, state or nation for help. They purchased fonts of 
type and a hand press and set up and printed off, by their own labor 
out of business hours, as well as wrote and edited their discoveries, 
descriptions and reflections thereon. 

It is well to recall these voluntary, unpaid labors of our pre- 
decessors, for the need of similar, unselfish aid is as great 
t<>day as it was in the eighteen hundred and sixties nay, 
greater. 'AYhen no others volunteered." Then, as now. it wa> 
the few who did. The many looked on. 



The University of Michigan-Williamson Expedition to Brazil. 

Mr. Jesse H. Williamson went by the steamship Bahia from Para on 
August 18, 1922, to Rio de Janeiro, arriving August 28, and having 
landed en route for a few hours respectively at Maranhao, Ceara, Recife 
(Pernamhuco) and Bahia. He collected in the vicinity of Rio from 
August 31 to September 27 on favorable days, as there was much cloudy 
weather when insects were not visible. He arrived at his home in 
Bluffton, Indiana, in the latter half of October. 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north 
of Mexico are grouped at the end of their respective Orders. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A. London. For records of papers on Medical ELnto- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series P, 

The titles occurring in the Entomological News are not listed. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, Guelph, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 6 Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 
7 Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Columbus, 
Ohio. 8 The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 9 The 
Entomologist, London. 13 Journal of Entomology and Zoology, 
Claremont, Cal. 30 Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, The Hague, 
Holland. 33 Annales dc la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, 
Brussels. 37 Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 
49 Entomologische Mitteilungen, Berlin-Dahlem. 54 Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, D. C. 62 Bulletin of the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. 68 Science, 
Garrison-on-the-Hudson, N. Y. 69 Comptes Rendus, des Seances 
de 1'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 74 Proceedings of the Staten 
Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, New York. 76 Nature, Lon- 
don. 85 The Journal of Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 
90 The American Naturalist, Lancaster, Pa. 91 The Scientific 
Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 101 Journal of The Linnean Society of 
London. 103 Biologisches Centralblatt, Leipzig. lll--Archiv fur 
Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 114 Entomologische Rundschau, Stutt- 
gart. 116 Entomologische Zeitschrift, Frankfurt a. M. 138 Amer- 
ican Museum Novitates. 143 Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung. 

GENERAL. Gibbs, L. Obituary notice. 4, liv, 167-8. Horn, 
W. Et meminisse et vaticinari liceat. Ueber crfahrungen mit 
papierschere tmd kleistertopf. 49, xi, 130-1. Jordan, D. S. The 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 313 

production of species. 68, Ivi, 44S. Sharp, D. Obituary notice. 9, 
1922, 217-21; 8, 1922, 234-7; 76, ex, 521-2. Wade, J. S. The scarab: 
emblem of eternity. 4, liv, 14.3-'.). Weiss, H. B. -The fungous insect 
fauna of a mesophytic woods in X. Jersey. 54, xxxv, 125-28. Wil- 
liams, C. B. Co-ordinated rhythm in insects; with a record of 
sound production in an aphid. 9, 1922, 173-6. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Baldi, E. Studi sulla lisi- 
ologia del sistcma nervoso negli insetti. 85, xxxvi, 211-88. Clausen 
& Collins The inheritance of ski wing* in Drosophila melanogaster. 
(Genetics, vii, 385-426.) Garstang, W. The theory of recapitula- 
tion: a critical re-statement of the biogenetic law. 101, xxxv, 81-102. 
Hyde, R. R. An eyeless mutant in Drosophila hydei. (Genetics, 
vii, :;i '.)-:: I.) Janet, C. Considerations sur 1'etrc vivant. L'individu, 
la sexualite, la parthenogenesc ct la mort, au point de vue ortho- 
biontique. Beauvais, 1921. I'.'O pp. Krausse, A. Myrmekologie 
und phylogenie. Ill, 1922, A, 9, 79-89. Lancefield, D. E. Linkage 
relations of the sex-linked characters in Drosophila obscura. (Gen- 
etics, vii, 335-84.) Pearl & Parker On the influence of certain envir- 
onmental factors on duration of life in Drosophila. 90, Ivi, 385-405. 
Timberlake, P. H. Observations on the phenomena of heredity in 
the larlybeetle, Coelophora inaequalis. 37, v, 121-33. Wolff, C. 
Uber konzentrische strukturen ini eikern von colcopteren. (Arch. f. 
Zellforschung, Berlin, xvi, 443-02.) 

ogeny of the gall mites and a new classification of the suborder 
Prostigmata of the order Acarina. 7, xv, 213-22. Oudemans, A. C. 
L'eber die metamorphose der vogelbewohnenden Acaridiae. 30, 
Ixv, 184-91. Pawlowsky, E. N. Zur mikroskopischen anatomic des 
blutgcfassystems der skorpionen. (Act. Zool., Stockholm, 1922, 
461-74.) Thor, S. L'eber die phylogenie und systematik der Aca- 
rina mit beitragen zur ersten entwicklungsgeschichte einzelner grup- 
pen. (Nyt Mag. f. Naturv., Kristiania, Ix, 113-30.) 

Chamberlin, R. V. The No. American spiders of the family Gna- 

phosidae, 54, xxxv, 145-72. Chapin, E. A. On Simonella, a genus 

of Salticid spiders new to No. Am. 54, xxxv. 129-32. Marshall, R. 

New American water mites of the genn > Neumania. (Tr. Wise. 

Ac. S., A. & L., xx, 205-14.) 

THE SMALLER ORDERS Branch, H. E. A contribution to 
the knowledge of the internal anatomy of Trichoptera. 7, xv, 256-75. 
Lacroix, J. L. ICtudes sur les ChrvMipidcs. (An. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 
1921, 51-KI7.) Longinos Navas, R. P. In^rctos nuevos o poco cono- 
cidos. (Mem. R. Ac. Cien. y Art.'-. Han-dona, xvii, Xo. 15.) Lucas, 
W. J. Colour preservation in dragon flies. 9, L922, '.'((9. Sulc, K. 
Prispevky ku poznani INyll. 111. ( l\<>/. Ceske Ak. Fr. Jos., Praze, 


xxiv, II, 5.) Withycombe, C. L. The wing venation of the Coniop- 
terygidae. 9, 1922, 224-5. 

Macnamara, C. Two new species of Achorutes (Collembola). 4, 
liv, 149-53. 

ORTHOPTERA. Willemse, C. Beschreibung einer neuen Rhi- 
pipteryx aus Sud-Amerika. 49, xi. 174-76. 

HEMIPTERA. Barber, H. G. Note on Luteva Carolina. 6, xxx, 
130. Donisthorpe, H. How the honey-dew of plant-lice is excreted. 
8, 1922, 233-4. Heikertinger, F. Sind die wanzen (Hemiptera heter- 
optera) durch ekelgeruch geschutzt? 103, xlii, 441-64. Kershaw & 
Muir The genitalia of the Auchenorhynchous Homoptera. 7, xv, 
201-12. Morrison, H. On some trophobiotic Coccidae from British 
Guiana. 5, xxix, 132-52. Parshley, H. M. Tingitidae or Tingidae. 
68, Ivi, 449. 

Bergroth, E. The American species of Ploecariola. 143, ii, 77-81. 
Essig, E. O. A new aphis on California sage (Aphis hiltoni). 13, 
xiv, 61-2. Ferris, G. F. Notes on Coccidae. 4, liv, 156-61. Con- 
tributions toward a monograph of the sucking lice. (Stanf. Univ. 
Pub. Biol. Sc., ii, 139-78.) 

LEPIDOPTERA. Andrews, J. E. Some experiments with the 
larva of the bee-moth Galleria mellonella. (Tr. Wise. Ac. S., A. & 
L., xx, 255-62.) Chase, R. W. The length of life of the larva of the 
wax-moth Galleria mellonella, in its different stadia. (Tr. Wise. Ac., 
S., A. & L., xx, 263-68.) Fassl, A. H. Neue schmetterlingsformen 
aus Brasilien. 116, xxxvi, 38-9; 42-43. Giacomelli, E. Trois lepi- 
dopteres nouveaux de La Rioja, Rep. Argentine. 9, 1922, 2i25-7. 
Jordan, K. Einige neue Saturnoidea aus Sudamerika. 49, xi, 193-5. 
Kruger, E. Catoblepia orgetorix und verwandte arten in Columbien. 
114, xxxix, 38-9. Leiby, R. W. Biology of the goldenrod gall-maker 
Gnorimaschema gallaesolidaginis. 6, xxx, 81-94. Marshall, W. S. 
The development of the frenulum of the wax moth, Galleria mello- 
nella. (Tr. Wise. Ac. S., A. & L., xx, 199-204.) Meyrick, E 
Exotic microlepidoptera. Vol. 2, Parts 16-17. Tee-Van, J. The 
dance of the butterflies. (Zool. Soc. Bull, N. Y., xxv, 120-22.) 

[McDunnough, ].] A correction. 4, liv, 168. Watson, F. E. 
Miscellaneous notes and records of local L., and description of two 
new aberrations. 6, xxx, 131-5. 

DIPTERA. Cartwright, W. B. Sexual attraction of the female 
hessian fly. 4, liv, 154-5. Davis, W. T. Records of flies belonging 
to the family Hippoboscidae chieflv from Staten Island, N. Y. 74, 
i, 64-5. Fluke, C. L. Syrphidae of Wisconsin. (Tr. Wise. Ac. S., 
A. & L., xx, 215-54.) Koeppel, A. Ein doppelatimer. Ein beitrag 
zum kapitel der anaerobiose . . . Der hecht der schnakenlarven. 
(Mikrokosmos, 1921, 1-4; 110-13.) Legendre, J. Role trophique des 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 315 

oiseaux a 1'egard des Culicines. 69, clxxv, 1)40-8. Lloyd, H. 
Larvae of Phormia chrysorrhea, found upon nestling bluebirds. 
(Can. Field Nat., xxxvi, 11(5.) Parker, G. H. Possible pedogenesis 
in the blow-fly, Calliphora erythrocephala. 5, xxix, 127-31. Ton- 
noir, A. Notes sur le genre Nemopalpus et description d'une espece 
nouvelle. 33, Ixii, 125-36. Vimmer, A. Nekolik pnznamek k mor- 
fologii larev Dipter. (Roz. Ceske Ak. Fr. Jos., Praze, xxiii, II, 44.) 
Zavrel, J. Ustni ustroje larev Pelopiir. (Tanypinae). (Roz. Ce^ke 
Ak. Fr. Jos., Praze, xxv, II, 24.) 

Curran, C. H. The syrphid genera Hammerschmidtia and Brachy- 
opa in Canada. 7, xv, 239-55. Kieffer, J. J. Notice sur quelques 
Chironomides d'Amerique et de Nouvelle-Zelande. (An. Soc. Linn., 
Lyon, 1921, 145-8.) Malloch, J. R. Seven n. sps. of the syrphid 
genus Sphegina. 54, xxxv, 141-4. 

COLEOPTERA. Benick, L. Einige steninen des stadtischen 
museums in Stettin. 143, Ixxxii, 117-24. Bernet Kempers, K. J. W. 
Nadere beschouwingen van het adersysteem der coleoptera in ver- 
band met het systeem van prof. Kolbe en anderen. 30, Ixv, 1-38. 
Blair, K. G. A new genus and some new species of Mordellidae. 
8, 1922, 221-26. Falcoz, L. Etudes sur les Cryptophaginae. (An. 
Soc. Linn., Lyon, 1921, 24-40.) Kleine, R. Bestimmungstabelle der 
gattung Brenthus. Ill, 1922, A., 9, 89-114. Moser, J. Beitrage 
zur kenntnis der Melolonthiden. Neue Melolonthiden von Mittel- 
und Sud-Amerika. Neue Cetoniden-arten. 143, Ixxxii, 48-73; 133-82; 
183-87. Pic, M. Melanges exotico-cntomologiques. Fasc. 36, 32 pp. 
Schenkling, S. Coleopterorum catalogus. Pars 75: Scarabaeidae: 
Trichiinae, Valginae. 58 pp. Schmidt, A. Bestimmungstabelle der 
mir bckannten Canthon arten. Verbreitungsgebiete der Canthon- 
arten. Neubeschreibungen von Canthon, Saprositis, Mendidius, 
Euparia und Alaenius. Ill, 19:3:2, A., 3, 61-103. 

Blatchley, W. S. Notes on the Rhynchophora of eastern N. A., 
with characterizations of n. gen. and descriptions of n. sps. 6, xxx, 
95-1 06. Hopping, R. New sps. of the old genus Leptura and allied 
genera. 4, liv, 162-6. Notman, H. A new genus and sp. of weevil 
from Texas. 6, xxx, 128-9. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bouvier, E. L. Nouvellcs recherches sur 
1'apparition des individus reproducteurs dans la fourmi fauve et la 
fourmi des pres. 69, clxxv, 555 58. Brues, C. T. Conoaxima, a 
new gen. of the hymenopterous faihily Eurytomidae : with a descrip- 
tion of its larva and pupa. 5, xxix, i5:;-s. Friese, H. Nachtrag zur 
bienent'auna von Costa Rica. 143, Ixxxii, 71-98. Herbst, P. Revi- 
sion der Halictus arten von Chile. 49, xi, 1*0-91. 7.ur synonymie 
chilenisclier blumenwespen. I'ber chilcnischc hymenopteren, welche 
Brethes erwahnte. V.w synonymie cliilenischcr grabwespen. 143, 


Ixxxii, 99-116. Kieffer, J. J. Causeries sur 1'abeille. (Mem. Ac. 
Nat. Metz, 1921, 113-233.) Peacock, A. D. Observations on the 
biology of sawflies. 9, 1922, 227-31. Plath, O. E. A unique method 
of defense of Bremus fervidus. 5, xxix, 180-7. Robertson, C. 
Synopsis of Panurgidae. 5, xxix, 159-73. Stumper, R. L'influence 
de la temperature sur 1'activite des fourmis. 33, Ixii, 137-40. Quan- 
titative Ameisenbiologie. 103, xlii, 435-40. Wheeler, W. M. Ants 
of the genus Formica in the tropics. 5, xxix, 174-77. Keys to the 
genera and subgenera of ants. 62, xlv, 631-710. Ants, their develop- 
ment, castes, nesting and feeding habits. 91, xv, 385-404. Neotropi- 
cal ants of the genera Carebara, Tranopelta and Tranopeltoides. 
138, No. 48. 

Rohwer, S. A. A new parasite of the spruce budworm. 4, liv, 

ECTOPARASITES. Edited by Dr. K. JORDAN and the Hon. N. CHARLES 
ROTHSCHILD, M. A., Vol. I, pt. 4, pp. 199-286, text figures 195-280. 
Issued September 1, 1922. [Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts, Eng- 
land.] This publication is issued at irregular intervals, the preceding 
three parts bearing the dates December 30, 1915; January 20, 1920, and 
January 15, 1921, and being devoted entirely to fleas. The present num- 
ber contains articles on Polyctenidae (including one on The American 
Polyctcnidae by Dr. Jordan), on Clinocoridae and Siphonaptera (with 
some new species of fleas from North, Central and South America). 
Of the Polyctenidae Dr. Jordan says : "The five American species which 
are known [3 of them new] are so much alike that not only must they 
be placed in one single genus Hespcroctcncs Kirk. (1906), but cannot 
be distinguished from one another except by a close examination of the 
details in the vestiture and of the relative proportions of the sections 
of the body and appendages. Hesperoctenes is a primitive genus which 
has remained comparatively stationary, the species not having developed 
in very different directions . . . Considering the large number of 
species of bats which are known we may conclude that the ten Polycte- 
nidae so far discovered represent but a small proportion of the species 
actually existing on these mammals in the tropical and subtropical 

There is a Note on the Distribution of the Onjan of Bcrlesc in Clino- 
coridae, also by Dr. Jordan. He finds that this organ (which appears 
externally as a deep triangular incision in the apical margin of the fourth 
abdominal sternite of females, placed asymmetrically on the right side, 
about midway between the centre and the lateral margin of the seg- 
ment), is present in seven described species of Clinocoris (Cimex auct), 
Bertilia i-aldiriac and two species of Occiacns. the Swallow Bugs. In 
Haematosiphon and Cacodmns there is an analogous organ on the upper 
side of the fifth abdominal segment, central in Haematosiphon ("which 
is presumably the more primitive position"), asymmetrical toward the 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 317 

left side in Cacoduuts. Berlese's organ has been supposed to be an 
organ of copulation, receiving the spermatozoa direct from the male 
and passing them on to the body cavity, whence they reach the oviduct 
and the ova. In the Clinocoricl genus Lo.raspis and the nearly related 
Polyctcnidae no such organ is known. 

Doings of Societies. 

Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences of 


Meeting of January 26, 1922. Five persons present, Dr. Skinner pre- 

COLEOPTERA. A specimen of the sweet potato weevil, Scylas fonni- 
carius, from Hayti was presented by Mr. Kisliuk. 

ORTHOPTERA. Mr. Rehn made a few remarks on two Cuban species 
of the genus Etirycotis, and followed this by commenting upon the num- 
ber and distribution of the West Indian species of the genus Epilampra, 
with particular reference to those of Hispaniola. 

Meeting of March 23, 1922. Eleven persons present, Vice-director 
R. C. Williams presided. Alessrs. John C. Hollinger, R. H. Hutchison 
and Arthur D. Whedon were elected members. 

Mr. Rehn gave an interesting account of the collecting trip he made 
last summer with Mr. Hebard in the western United States. 

DIPTERA. Mr. Cresson exhibited a collection of named Diptera from 
the East Indies, which he said would make a valuable addition to the 
collection. Tt contained more than 100 species new to our series. Air. 
Rehn moved that the Conservator approve the purchase by the Academy 
or the Section for the sum of $25.00. Carried. 

Mr. Hornig mentioned the late appearance of mosquitoes this season. 
He noted for the first time the appearance of Cnlcx canadcnsis the day 

Meeting of May 26, 1922. Nine persons present, including Dr. J. M. 
Aldrich, U. S. National Museum, visitor. Director Philip Laurent in 
the chair. 

DIPTERA. Mr. Cresson reported the purchase by the Academy of the 
collection of Diptera to which attention of the Section was called at tin- 
last meeting. 

Dr. Aldrich gave an interesting account of his trip to Alaska the pre- 
ceding summer. He spoke of the present accessibility of the country, of 
the climatic conditions in the interior as so different from those of the 
oia-tal reL'imis, which necessarily have much influence on the insect 
fauna. He spoke of the similarity of the flora and insect fauna with 
tin isc ,if northern Minnesota and southern Canada. Regarding the 
Diptera, he said there was an abundance of species of the Drosophilidae 


and Anthomyiidae in the interior, but there was an apparent scarcity of 
the Muscoidea in general. He did not see any specimens of the house- 
fly until he returned to British Columbia. For the first time in all his 
years' collecting he captured both sexes of a species of the Lonchopteri- 
dae in numbers at the same time. He said both sexes of these flies are 
rarely captured at the same time. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Mr. Williams exhibited some of the larger North 
American Hcsperidae and drawings of their male genitalia, calling 
attention to several species superficially very close, but which showed 
remarkable differences in the characters of these organs. 

ORTHOPTERA. Mr. Rehn made a communication upon the West Indian 
species of the blattid genus Plccoptcra, illustrating his remarks with a 
series including all the species now known from those island?.. The 
speaker discussed the taxonomic features of the species and their groups, 
particularly those of the genitalia. 

EZRA T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 



Two obituary notices of the late Dr. DAVID .SHARP lie before 
us from The Entomologist for October, by W. J. Lucas, and 
from The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, for the same 
month, by J. J. Walker. Each is accompanied by a (different) 
portrait. One refers to him as of the "very front rank of zool- 
ogists," the other as "one of the most distinguished Entomol- 
ogists of our time." "Unquestionably," says one, "Dr. Sharp's 
magnum opus is the treatise on 'Insects' forming the greater 
part of two volumes [V, VT] of the 'Cambridge Natural His- 
tory'," published in 1895 and 1899, "but it is safe to say that 
no work of equal value on general Entomology has been pro- 
duced in this country since Westwood's 'Introduction to the 
Modern Classification of Insects' appeared more than half a 
century previously." When the present writer had to select a 
general work on insects as part of a necessarily small collection 
of books to accompany him during a year in Costa Rica, his 
choice fell upon this work of Sharp's. Although Dr. Sharp 
was a specialist in Coleoptera, his wide sympathies and experi- 
ence made it possible for him to deal more equally with the 
various orders of insects than almost any other one man could 
have done, and the two volumes if largely compilations from 
the nature of the task' contain much new material throughout. 

xxxiii, '22] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 319 

Dr. Sharp's greatest service to zoologists, and hence to ento- 
mologists, was his recordership of the section on insects in the 
Zoological Record from 1885 and his editorship of the entire 
annual volumes from 1891. "This work he continued till the 
year of his death, even completing the reading of the final 
proofs of records for 1920 during his last illness." 

Mr. \Yalker says : The magnitude of Dr. Sharp's entomological work 
during his long life may be estimated hy the fact that no fewer than 
257 entries stand under his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue of 
Scientific Papers and the Zoological Record to date, besides a multitude 
of minor articles in onr own and other magazines. 

His chief works on the Coleoptera are A Rez f ision of the 
UritisJi Species of Hoinalota (1869), on the Staphylinidae of 
Japan (1874) and of the Amazon Valley (1876); on Cole- 
optera of New Zealand (1878, 1885) and of the Hawaiian 
Islands (1878-80, and in the Fauna Haivaiicnsis, 1899, 1908) ; 
On Aquatic Carnivorous Coleoptera or Dysticidac (1880-82) ; 
on water-beetles, Staphylinidae, most of the Clavicornia, certain 
Rhynchophora, Brenthidae and Bruchidae in the Binhgia Ccn- 
trali-Americana (1885-1911), Catalogue of the British Cole- 
optera in conjunction with Canon W. W. Fowler (1893), 
Rhynchophora of Japan (1896), and The Comparative Anat- 
omy of the Male Genital Tract in Coleoptera (with F. Muir 
his son-in-law 1912). 

He was born October 15, 1840, at Towcester, Northants, and 
died August 27, 1922, at Brockenhurst. From about his twelfth 
to his twenty-fourth year he lived in London with his father, 
a leather merchant, where 

Herbert Spencer was for some considerable time an inmate of his 
father's house and there can be no doubt that the keen and logical quality 
of Dr. Sharp's mind was in large measure due to his early association 
with the eminent philosopher, who gave him much encouragement and 
assistance in his first efforts in the study of Natural History, and of 
whom he was wont to speak with respect and affection to the end of his 
life. In 1904 [he] wrote an article in the Zoologist entitled The Place 
of II, '!'>,>! .S'/vmvr in Binlogv, having particular reference to him in 
connection with the teachings of Charles Darwin. 

Sharp studied medicine for two years in St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, London, then at the University of Edinburgh, where 


he received the degree of M.B. in 1866. From 1867 to 1883 
he practiced in Dumfriesshire; from 1890 to 1909 he was Cura- 
tor of the University Museum, Cambridge. His own collection 
of beetles from all parts of the world was acquired for the 
British Museum, his entomological library by the Cawthron 
Institute, Nelson, New Zealand ; his British beetles remain with 
his family. 

He was President of the Entomological Society of London 
in 1887 and 1888, elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1890, 
an honorary M.A. of Cambridge, one of the fifteen honorary 
members of the Entomological Society of France, correspond- 
ing member of the American Entomological Society (1898). 
and of many other scientific associations. P. P. CALVERT. 

HAMILTON H. C. J. DRUCE, son of the Lepidopterist, Her- 
bert Druce (1846-1913, see the NEWS, xxiv, page 432), died 
June 21, 1922, at the age of 54. He specialized on the Lycaenid 
and Hespcrid butterflies, his most important publications being 
Monograph of Bornean Lycacnidac (1895, 1896) and Neotrop- 
ical L\caenidac (1907), both in the Proceedings of the Zoolog- 
ical Society of London, which contain also a number of his 
shorter papers. 

His only separately published work was a small but very valuable 
volume* containing photographic reproductions of many of the type 
specimens of Lycaenidae in the Berlin Museum, but he was, until forced 
to give up on account of ill health, actively engaged in completing the 
volumes on Rhopalocera in the Fauna of British India Series. His col- 
lections are now in the Hill Museum, Witley, having been purchased 
by Mr. J. J. Joicey some three or four years ago. (Kntom.. Sept.. 1922.) 

EDWARD Louis GRAEK, the lepidopterist, of Brooklyn and 
Bay Shore, New York, died February 15, 1922. in his eightieth 
year. An' obituary notice and portrait were published in the 
Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society for April (re- 
ceived August 17). 

*This is doubtless: Illustrations of South .African Lycacnidac; being 
photographic representations of the /v/v specimens contained in the 
Imperial zoological museum at Berlin. London, 1910, pp. 1-35. 8 pis., 
quoted in the Zoological Record for 1910, Insects, pp. 37, 321. EDITOR. 


(* denotes new genera, species or varieties) 

ALDRICH, J. M. Mr. E. A. Schwarz, honorary Ph.D. . . . 242 
ALEXANDER, C. P. Undescribed crane-flies from Argen- 
tina, Part V 207 

An undescribed species of net- winged midge from 

Argentina 10 

ALLEN, H. W. Ovipositional habit of Pyraustomyia peni- 

talis. (Tachinidae) 263 

I'.ARNES & BENJAMIN. On the types of Gnatnptonychia 

rent rails, a correction 217 

BARNES & LINDSEY. New synonyms in the Noctuidae . . 9 
BENJAMIN, F. H. Early stages of Nor op sis hicro- 

glyphica 277 

(See Barnes & Benjamin.) 

BRAUN, A. F. A new genus in the Gelechiidae 43 

BRIMLEY, C. S. Additional data on North Carolina 

Tabanidae, Bombyliidae and Tachinidae 230 

List of the robber-flies of North Carolina 294 

List of the Tachinidae of North Carolina 20 

BROWER, A. E. Preparatory stages of Catocala itlaliunc, 

with larva of C. lacrynwsa for comparison 234 

BUTIIX, W. Some cases of aberrant oviposition in but- 
terflies 26 

CABRERA, J. Observations on Dibclona cttbcnsis, a little 

known Cuban Gryllacrid 169 

CALVERT, P. P. The boundless field of entomology 

(editorial) 29 

Chrysops costata sucking human blood in Cuba (Re- 
view) 283 

Collect data first, specimens second (editorial) 185 

The conservation of natural conditions (editorial) .... 150 
Entomology at the convocation week meetings, Decem- 
ber, I'^l . (editorial) 53 

"He helped me when no others volunteered" (editorial) 311 


322 INDEX 

Insect surveys (editorial) 279 

The need of greater precision in taxonomic literature 

(editorial) 241 

Obituary: T. A. Chapman, G. von Seidlitz, G. B. Long- 
staff, "P. W. L. Sladen. and T. W. Fyles 127 

Obituary : William Lucas Distant, George Alexander 
James Rothney, Arthur W. Bacot, Henry Rowland- 
Brown, Hans Fruhstorfer, Otto Taschenberg, Louis 

Bedel 254-256 

Obituary : David Sharp, Hamilton H. C. J. Druce, Ed- 
ward L. Graef 318-320 

Obituary: Ernest Rousseau and Patrick Manson .... 159 

Obituary: Caroline B. Thompson .... 62 

On firing shot (editorial) 217 

Review: Ectoparasites 316 

Review : Professor Benedict Jaeger 252 

Review : Nomenclator coleopterologicus 252 

Review : The Psychic Life of Insects 222 

Review: Report of the Imperial entomologist, 1920-21 254 
Review : Report of the Proceedings of the Fourth 

Entomological Meeting Held at Pusa 223 

Review : University of Iowa Studies 253 

Those incomplete titles again (editorial) 89 

Zoological bibliographies (editorial) 119 

CHAMBERLIN, R. V. A new diplopod from British Guiana 

taken at quarantine at Philadelphia 85 

A new milliped of the genus Polv.rcnus from Florida 

Keys 165 

CHAMPLAIN & KNULL. New North America Coleoptera. 144 

A new Typoccrus 304 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. Some Coccidae found on orchids. 149 
COOLIDGE, K. R. The life history of Lcrodca cufala .... 305 
CRESSON, E. T., JR. Descriptions of new genera and spe- 
cies of the dipterous family Ephydridae. V 135 

Minutes of The American Entomological Society 192 

Minutes : Entomological Section of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (see under General 
Subjects: Entomological Section) 

IXDEX 323 

CRESSON & REHN. Entomological literature (see under 

General Subjects) 
DAVIS, W. T. Old time economic entomology on Staten 

Island, New York 310 

(See also Shoemaker & Davis.) 

EWING, H. E. Notes on the occurrence and distribution 
of Antarctic land arthropods (springtails and mites: 

Collembola and Acarina) 76 

FALL, H. C. A correction and a protest 83 

Notes on Clivina, with description of a new species from 

the Pacific coast 161 

FELT, E. P. A new gall midge on rushes 166 

FERRIS, G. F. A note on Tiiucina calif ornicnm 282 

FISHER, W. S. A new Cerambycid beetle from Santo 

Domingo 52 

FORBES, W. T. M. Five strange Lepidoptera (Oinophili- 

dae, Noctuidae, Gelechiidae.) (ill.) 97 

FRENCH, G. H. Catocala iilalumc a distinct species. . . . 233 
PRISON, T. H. Further biological and systematic notes 
concerning Brent us kincaidii, and other closely related 

species 214 

GAIGE, F. M. University of Michigan-Williamson expedi- 
tion to Brazil (see under General Subjects: Univer- 
sity of Michigan-Williamson expedition.) 

HALL, G. C. A carbon-tetrachloride killing bottle (ill.) . . 112 
NARROWER, D. Minutes of The American Entomological 

Society 191 

HOLLAND, W. J. A few notes on distribution 168 

HEBARD, M. Obituary : Joseph Lane Hancock 160 

Review: Catalogue of Indian insects. Acrydidae 

(Tettigidae) 95 

The stridulation of a North American Noctuid, Hcli- 

ochcilus paradoxus 244 

HOUGH, W. S. Observations on two mealy bugs. Triony- 

inits trifolii, and Pscmlococcits uKtrituiins 171 

HOWARD, L. O. A braconid feeding by indirect suction. . . 218 
HUTCHISON, R. H. Mulfonl biological exploration of the 

Amazon basin news bulletins 55, 91. 150, 245 

324 INDEX 

JONES, F. M. A new North American psychid 12 

Two new Psychids, and notes on other species (ill.) . . 129 
KENNEDY, C. H. The morphology of the penis in the 

genus Libcllula (ill.) 33 

The phylogeny and the geographical distribution of the 

genus Libellula (ill.) 65. 105 

KIRK, H. B. Biological notes on Elateridae and Melasi- 

dae 236 

KNULL, J. N. (See Champlain & Knull.) 
LEATHERS, A. L. Chironoinits brascniac, a new species . . 8 
LINDSEY, A. W. The authorship of the Lepidoptera des- 
cribed in the Encyclopedic Methodique, Vol. IX 281 

Notes on the distribution and synonymy of some spe- 
cies of Pterophoridae 211 

(See Barnes & Lindsey.) 

McATEE, W. L. Bird lice (Mallophaga) attaching them- 
selves to bird flies ( Hippoboscidae) 90 

Note on abundance of mosquitoes 121 

Prosimulium fuhnini, a biting species 79 

A shower of Corixidae .' 88 

McDuNNOUGH, J. Synonymic notes on Lepidoptera .... 228 
MALLOCH, J. R. Keys to the syrphid genus Sphegina. . . 266 

Notes on two Acalyptrate Diptera 293 

Temnostoma boinbylans Linne doubtfully American . . 278 

MARCHAND, W. Aphis-lion attacking man 120 

MARTIN, J. O. Studies in the genus Hetacrius (Histeri- 

dae) 272, 289 

MASON, A. C. Cryptothrips lanrcll, a new thrips from 

Florida (ill.) 193 

MASON, F. R. Additions to the Coleoptera in The 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 241 

A collecting adventure near home 225 

METCALF, C. L. Doings of societies. The Entomological 

Society of America 64 

NAKAHARA, W. On anomalies in wing markings of 

Basilarchia astyana.v 183 

NEEDHAM, J. G. A peculiar damselfly nymph of the sub- 
family Thorinae (Agrionidae) (ill.) 264 

INDEX 325 

PARKS, T. H. Doings of Entomological workers in 

Ohio institutions 96 

PARSHLEY, H. M. A change of name in the Saldidae . . 71 
Hemipterological notices II 41 

REHN, J. A. G. (See Cresson & Rehn.) 

REIXH\RD, H. J. Host records of some Texas Tachini- 

dae 72 

RILEY, C. F. CURTIS. Food during captivity of the water- 

striders, Gcrris remit/is and (/". inarninatits 86 

ROSEWALL, O. W-. Insects of the yellow thistle 176 

SCH MiniRR, R. G. The tracheation of the wings of early 
larval instars of Odonata Anisoptera, with special 
reference to the development of the radius (ill.) 257, 299 
SHOEMAKER & DAVIS. The moth Nacophora qncrnaria 

var. atrescens 310 

SKIXXER, H. The identity of Ncouiinois ridings! and A r . 

dionysus (ill.) 74 

Protoparcc rustica in Florida and Mr. T. L. Mead .... 280 

Review : Bulletin of the Hill Museum 95 

Review: Etudes de Lepidopterologie Comparee 251 

TILLYARD, R. J. New researches upon the problem of the 

wing- venation of Odonata (ill.) 1, 45 

Review : Insect Transformation 153 

VAX DUZEE, E. P. A new North American genus of 

Cydnidae 270 

VTERECK, H. L. Obituary: A. Mocsary 157 

Obituary : Victor Szepligeti 61 

WEISS & LOTT. The juniper webworm, Ypsolophns mar- 

(/incllits 80 

\YETSS & WEST. Notes on the Desmodium leaf miner, 

PctcJivscJidiis lacvigatns (ill.) 180 

WEST, E" (See Weiss & West.) 

WIU.IAMSOX, E. B. Enallagmas collected in Florida and 
South Carolina by Jesse H. Williamson, with descrip- 
tions of two new species ( ill. ) 114, 138 

Indiana Somatochloras again 200 

I.ibellulas collected in Florida by J. H. Williamson, with 
description of a new species 13 

\Yiu.i\MS, R. C. Minutes of The American Entomo- 
logical Society 224 




Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, Coleoptera 

in 241 

Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia (see 'also 
Entomological Section.) 
America, Entomological So- 
ciety of 64 

American Entomological So- 
ciety 191, 224 

Animals attacked by insects, 

79, 120, 283 

Bibliographies, Zoological ... 119 
Bibliographies and catalogs 

wanted, Information on... 118 
Elake, C. A., In memory of.. 311 
Boundless field of entomology 29 
Brazilian entomological so- 
ciety, Foundation of 240 

Carbon-tetrachloride killing 

bottle (ill.) 113 

Catalogs wanted, Information 

on 118 

Collect data first, specimens 

second 185 

Collecting near home 225 

Concilium bibliographicum, To 

the American subscribers of 122 
Conservation of natural con- 
ditions 150 

Convocation week meetings . . 53 

Crop protection institute 56 

Cuvier's magnifying glass.... 240 

Disease and insects 12 

Disease transmission by lice 

and horsefly 12 

Economic entomology on Sta- 

ten Island, Old time 310 

Entomological Literature, 
30, 57, 92, 123, 151, 187, 219, 
246, 284, 312. 

Entomological Section ...155, 317 
Exchange of scientific litera- 
ture with Russia 245 

Fire, Entomological losses by 51 

"He helped me when no oth- 
ers volunteered" 311 

Human blood sucking by 
Chrysops in Cuba 283 

Incomplete titles 89 

Insect photography 283 

Insect surveys 279 

Kiangsu bureau of entomol- 
ogy 218 

Killing bottle, Carbon-tetra- 
chloride (ill.) 112 

Mulford biological exploration 
of Amazon Valley. 55, 91, 
150, 245 

Ohio institutions, Entomolog- 
ical workers in 96 

Parasites of insects 20, 72 

Photographs received for the 
album of The American En- 
tomological society 73 

Plants attacked by insects, 
8, 12, 20, 44, 80, 133, 148, 
156, 166, 171, 180, 193, 237, 
263, 280, 282. 

Plants visited by insects. . 149, 176 

Russia, Exchange of litera- 
ture with 245 

Russia, Request for exchanges 
with 186 

Taxonomic literature, Preci- 
sion in 241 

University of Michigan-Wil- 
liamson expedition to Brazil, 

11, 104, 186, 216, 242, 312 

Zoological record, Save the.. 91 


Bacot, A. \V 255 

Bedel, L 256 

Chapman, T. A 127 

Distant, W. L 254 

Druce, H. H. C. J 320 

Fruhstorfer, H 256 

Fyles, T. W 128 



Graef , E. L 320 

Hancock, J. L 160 

Longstaff, G. B 128 

Manson, P 159 

Mocsary, A 157 

Rothney, G. A. J 255 

Rousseau, E 158 

Rowland-Brown, H 256 

von Seidlitz, G 128 

Sharp, D 318 

Sladen, F. W. L 128 

Szepligeti, V 61 

Taschenberg, 256 

Thompson, C. B 62 


Alexander, C. P 240 

Blake, C. A 311 

Mead, T. L 280 

Schwarz, E. A 242 


Bouvier : Psychic Life of In- 
sects 222 

Carpenter : Insect Transfor- 
mation 153 

Fletcher: Catalogue of Indian 
insects 95 

Fletcher: Report of the Im- 
perial entomologist 254 

Hill Museum, Bulletin of 95 

Jordan & Rothschild : Ecto- 
parasites 316 

Oberthur : Etudes de Lepid. 
Compar 251 

Pusa, Fourth Entomological 
Meeting at 223 

Schmidt : Nomenclator cole- 
opterologicus 252 


Arizona: Col., 148, 238. Lep.. 12. 
California: Col., 276, 289. Dipt., 

136. Hem., 270. Lep., 305. 

Orth., 282. 
Colorado: Col., 237. Hem., 149. 

Lep., 74, 269. 

Connecticut : Col., 237. 

Florida: Col., 145, 304. Lep., 131, 

280. Myriop. 165. Odon., 13, 

114, 138. Thys., 193. 
Idaho : Lep., 74. 
Illinois: Dipt., 166. 
Indiana : Oclnn., 200. 
Iowa: Lep., 168, 212. 
Kansas : Lep., 169. 
Louisiana: Col., 304. Dipt., 176. 

Hem., 176. Hym., 176. Lep., 

101, 176. 

Maine : Col., 237. Hym., 156. 
Maryland: Dipt., 270, 293. 
Massachusetts : Lep., 103. 
Michigan : Col., 239. 
Mississippi : Lep., 100. 
Missouri : Lep., 233. 
New Jersey: Col., 180. Lep., 80, 

310. Neur., 120. 
New Mexico: Col., 144, 241. 
New York: Dipt., 8. Lep., 103, 

North Carolina: Dipt., 20, 230, 

294. Lep., 133. 
Ohio: Col., 147. Hem., 171. Lep., 


Oregon: Col., 164, 237. Dipt, 90 
Pennsylvania : Col., 236. Lep., 

168. Odon., 191. Orth., 169. 
South Carolina : Lep., 133. Odon., 


Texas: Dipt.. 121. Lep., 100, 244. 
Utah: Hem., 88. 
Virginia: Col., 238. 
Washington : Dipt , 137. 
Wyoming : Lep., 74. 
Antarctica : Acar., 76 Collemb., 76 
Canada: Col., 237. D'plop., 85. 

Dipt., 90. Lep., 101, 212. Mal- 

loph., 90. 

Central America : Dipt., 135. 
South America: Dipt, 10, 136, 

207. Lep., 26. Odon., 242, 264. 
\\Vst Indies: Col., 52, 317. Dipt., 

135, 283. Orth., 169. 




Acarina, Occurrence and dis- 
tr bution of Antarctic .... 76 

Antarctica, Halozctcs 77 

bartschi*. Poly.vcnus 165 

Diplopod taken at Philadel- 
phia, A new British Guiana 85 
Gamascllus (see racovitsai) . 
tin 'an-anus*, Trichonannolcnc 

(ill.) 85 

Halozcics (see antarctica). 

Milliped from Florida 165 

Polyxenus from Florida, New 165 
racointzai, Gamascllus 77 




alboinaculatum*, Elaphidion. . 146 
Ancpsyra (see Elaphidion). 

angusticcps, Lymnaeum 83 

Anthophila.r (see quadrimacu- 


arena-turn, Bembidium 83 

Atiinia (see huachucac). 
Bembidium (see arcitatitm, 

incrcmatuin) . 

bicolor*, Idoemca 145 

Biological notes on Elateridae 

and Melasidae 236 

blanchardi, Hctacrius 292 

brunncipcnnis, Hctacrius .... 293 

Buprestidae 180 

calif ornicus, Hctacrius 293 

Callichroma (see domingocn- 

Carabidae 83, 161 

Carabidae, Correction and 

protest 83 

castlci*, Mastogenius 145 

Cerambycid beetle, New .... 52 

Cerambycidae 52, 304 

Chrysobothris (see woodgatci). 
Clivina, Rearrangement of 

species 161 

Clii'ina from tlie Pacific Coast 161 

collaris, Clirina 162 

cordata, Clirina 163 

dclonyi*, Elaphidion 147 

dcntipcs, Clh'ina 162 

Desmodium leaf miner 180 

dietrichi*, Hctacrius 291 

domingoensis*, Callichroma.. 52 
Elaphidion (see albomacula- 
t it in, dclonyi). 

Elateridae 236 

exiguuj, Hetacrius 293 

fcrrugincus, Hctacrius 273 

Aoridanus*, Leptostylus 148 

formicarius, Scylas 317 

fossor, Clivina 162 

Hctacrius. Studies in 272, 289 

hirsiitus, Hctacrius 292 

Histeridae 272 

horni, Hetacrius 292 

huachucae*, Atiniia 148 

fdocmea (see bicolor). 

imprcssifrons, Clivina 162 

incrcmatum, Bembidium .... 83 
laczigatus, Pachysclichis (ill.) 180 
Lasiodcnna (see scrricornc). 

laticcps, Lyinnacniii 83 

Leptostylus (see floridanus). 
Lymnaeum (see laticcps, an- 
Mastogenius (see castlci). 

Melasidae 236 

minimus, Hctacrius 292 

morsus, Hctacrius 292 

nudus*, Hctacrius 290 

orcgona*, Cl'ivina 164 

Pachyschclus (see laci'igatus). 

pilosus*, Hctacrius 276 

quadrimaculatiis*, Antho- 

plnla.r 147 

quadrinotatus, Typophorus . . 156 

rufa, Clivina 162 

Scylas (see formicarius). 

scrricornc, Lasiodcnna 224 

sctosus*. Hctacrius . 289 



sti</mula, Clirina 163 

st re units, Hetaerius 292 

striatopunctata, Clivina 162 

trinuicnlalus*, Typoccnis .... 304 

iristriatus. Jietucrins 292 

Typncems, A new 304 

Typopliorus (see quadrinota- 


randylcei*, Hetaerius 275 

wheel cri, Hetaerius 293 

White Mountains, Collecting 

in the 225 

i\.'iltiinnsi, Hetaerius 292 

woodgatet*, Clirysnhothris .. 144 
zehts, Hetaerius 292 


Acalyptrate Diptera, Notes on 293 

ad finis*, Triinerina 137 

alicna*, Discocerina 137 

amoenicnrnis*, Tipula 210 

argentinensis*, Edwardsina .. 10 
Asilidae, List of North Caro- 
lina species 294 

ai icitlaria Ornitlioinyia 90 

Blepharoceridae, Undescribed 
species from Argentina ... 10 

Bombyliidae 230 

braseniae*, Chironomus 8 

hniiihylaiis, Tciiiiiostoina .... 278 

Ciiiiadensis, Cule.v 312 

Cecidomyiidae 166 

Cerodontia (.see femoralis, 

nigroscutellata, fulripcs). 
Ccropsilopn (see coquilielti. 

Chironomidae 8 

Cliirtinoinns (see hraseniae). 
Clirysnps enstatu sucking hu- 
man blood 283 

C'lirysops (sec disculis). 
cuinpllcalir'-, l\hiil>(li-,mnti.\- .. 209 

../;a//i'//i'*, Ceropsilopa 136 

costata. Cl;rysi>ps 283 

Crane-flics from Argentina . . 207 

Cnle.r (see cuiiitdcii: 

Culicidae 121 

Dicranomyia (see omissivena). 

diinidi/itd*. I'silopa 137 

discalis, Chrysops 12 

Discocerina (see alicna). 

dispar*, Ceropsilopa 135 

Edwardsina (see urijcntincn- 

Kphydridae, New genera and 

species 135 

feinontlis. Cerodontia 293 

fnk-ipcs. Cerodontia 293 

fill-fit in, Prosiuiiiliidii 79 

Gall midge, A new 166 

fituidens*, (leranoinyia _'(>S 

Geranomyia (see ynndcns).' 

liinei*, Ptagiops 135 

Hippoboscidae carrying Alal- 

lophaga 90 

Horsefly transmitting disease. 12 

June!*, Procyslip/iora 166 

Leptopsilopa* 136 

lineanota*, Lcptopsilupa 136 

Mosquitoes, Abundance of... 121 
Minuet opia (see nitens). 

ni(jr'u-t>.\-a*, Leptopsilopa 136 

olf/a*, Psilopa 137 

Jiiaroseittelhita, Ccrdontin . . 293 

nitens, Mninctopia 293 

oinissii'cna*, Dicran.nnyia ... 207 
Ornithomyia (see aiiciiltiria}. 
Ovipositional habit of 1'ynms- 

toinyia penitaHs 263 

/'( //opsilopa (see sclt^'arzi). 

penitalis, l^yraitsLnnyia 263 

I'latjiops (see hincii. 
Prueystiplinri: (see jnnci). 
I'rosinntliitin (see ftil-r.'itin). 
I'.iloptt (see skinneei, olya, 

ditnidiatu ) . 

Pyraustomyia penitalis. Ovi- 
positional habit of 263 

Rhabdomastix i see 



Sacandaga (see Rhabdomas- 
r). ' 

schwarsi*, Peltopsllopa 135 

Simuliidae, Biting habit of... 79 

skinncri*, Psilopa 139 

Sphegina, Keys to the spe- 
cies of 266 

subapicalis*, Leptopsilopa . . . 136 

Syrphidae : 266, 278 

Tachinidae 20, 72, 230, 263 

Tachinidae, Some Texas rec- 
ords 72 

Tachinidae of North Carolina 20 
Temnostomabombylans doubt- 
fully American 278 

Tipitla (see amoenicornis). 

Tipulidae 207 

Triincrina (see ad finis). 


Aneiints (see simplex). 
Aonidia (see pscudaspidiotits) . 

Apateticus 42 

Aradus (see roluistus). 

bolsduvatii, Diaspis 149 

caecus*, Pscctrocephalns 271 

Chrysomphalus (see dictyo- 

Coccidae found on orchids... 149 

Coccidae 149, 171 

Corixidae, Sho\ver of 88 

Cydnidae, New genus of 270 

Diaspis (see boisduvalii) . 
dictyospcnni, Chrysomphalus 149 
Euschistus (see tristigmits) . 
Food of water-striders dur- 
ing captivity 86 

Gcrris (see rcmigis, margina- 


Lice and a horsefly transmit- 
ting disease 12 

marginatus, Gcrris 86 

maritimus, Pscudococcns .... 171 
Mealy bugs. Observations on 171 
Pentatomoidea of Illinois by 
C. A. Hart 41 

Fsectroccphahts* 270 

pseudaspidiotiis, Aonidia .... 149 
Pseudococcus (see maritimus). 

remigis, Gcrris 86 

robustus, Aradus 43 

Saldidae, Change of name in. 71 

simplex, Ancnrns 43 

trifolii, Trionynnts 171 

tristiginns, Euschistus 41 

Trionymus (see Irifolii). 


Biological notes on Bombidac 214 

Bombidae 214 

Bremns kincaidii. Notes on.. 214 
Brennis (see strcnniis. polaris). 
Feeding habit of a Braconid. 218 
Habrobracon johansenni, Feed- 
ing habit of 218 

johansenni, Habrobracon .... 218 

kincaidii, Bremus 214 

Pelccinus (see polyturator). 

kincaidii, Bremus 214 

polyturator, Pelecinns 156 

strcnuns, Bremus 214 

Systematic notes on Bombidae 214 


Acronycta (see daresccns). 

albida, Platyptilia 213 

Alucita (see Orneodes). 
andropogonis*, Slereomita . . 44 

arenclla*, Gclcchia (ill.) 103 

Argyraciis (see callista). 

arrosta, Ccrapoda 9 

astyana.v, Basilardiia 183 

atrcsccns, Nacoplmra (ill.).. 310 
Inisilarchia (see astyann.r). 
brachymorpha, PlatyptiHa . . 213 
cacocncmos*, Psyche (ill.) . . 131 
callista*, Argyractis (ill.) ... 102 
callista*, O.ryclophila (ill.).. 102 
Caloplwsia (see strigala). 
Catocala ulaluinc a distinct 
species 233 



Catocala ulalunic, Preparatory 

stages of 234 

celibata*, Psyche (ill.) 130 

Ccrapoda (see oblita, arrosta). 
Chelonia (see doris, ucrca, 

michabo, minca). 

clarescens, Acronycta 228 

contemplate;, Macaria 229 

Coremia (see defensaria). 
cosmodactyla, Platyptilia .... 213 

crenulatii, Platyptilia 213 

defensaria, Corcttiia 229 

dionysns, Ncoininnis 74 

Distribution of some Ptero- 

phoridae 211 

Distributional notes 168 

dii'isaria, Ypsipetes 229 

doris, L hclonhi 228 

Duvita (see taharnsclla). 
Encyclopedic Methodique, 

Authorship of Lepidoptera 

described in 281 

eufala, Lerodea 305 

Hurycyttanis (see Psyche), 
ficldi, Oidaematophorus .... 212 
fishii, Oidaematophorus .... 212 

fragilis, Platyptilia 213 

friuidaia, Ypsipetes 229 

fiiscicornis, Plalyplilia 213 

Gel c chia (see arcnclla). 

Gelechiidae 43, 80, 97 

Geometridae ' 310 

Gnampt any chia (set- vcntralis). 
Hcliocheilus parado.nts, Strid- 

ulations of 244 

Hesperiidae 305 

hierofjlyf-'hicn, Xoropsis 277 

hucbncri. Ornendcs 213 

Juniper web\vorin (see Ypso- 

lophus inargitieHus). 

lacryiiwsa, Catocala 234 

!.,-r, >dca eufala. Life history 

of 305 

Oidaematophorus 213 

Life history of Lerodea 

eufala 305 

linns, Oidaematophorus 213 

louisiana*, Xylonnisa (ill.) . . 101 
Macaria (see contemplate) . 
margincllus, Ypsolophus .... 80 
martnarodactyla, Platyptilia . 213 
inatlieisianiis, Oidaematophor- .. 

its 212 

mengcli, Stcnoptilia 212 

iniclial'/i, ('helonia 228 

minca, Chelonia 228 

montana, Orncodes 213 

Xacophora quernaria var. 

atrcsccns (ill.) 310 

Ncomitwis (see ridingsi, 

dionysns) . 

nerca, Chelonia 228 

Noctuidae 9, 233, 244, 277 

Noctuidae, Synonyms in the. 9 
Noropsis hieroglyphica, Early 

stages of 277 

Nymphalidae 183 

oblita, Cerapoda 9 

Oidaematophorus (see mathc- 

tivauus, ficldi, fisliii. linns, 


Oiketicns (see toumeyi). 
Orncodes (see montana, hueb- 

Oviposition in butterflies, 

Aberrant 26 

Oxychphila* 102 

Phacnscs* 98 

Platyptilia (see marmarodac- 

tyla, crcnuhtta, brachyinor- 

pha. fuscicornis, ensnwdac- 

tyla. shasfae, fragilis, al- 

hida, tesseradactyla) . 

plwviata, Ypsipetes 229 

Protop.trc,' ntstica in Florida 280 
Psyche (see celibata, traeyi, 

cacocnemos) . 
Psychidae 12, 129 



Psychidae, New North Amer- 
ican 12, 129 

Pterophoridae 211 

Pterophonts (see Oidctua- 

tophorus) . 

riding si, Neominois (ill.) ... 74 

rustica, Protoparcc 280 

sabinclla*, PJwcoscs (ill.) . . 100 

Satyridae 74 

shastac, Platyptilia 213 

Sphingidae 280 

Stenoptilia (see mcngcli). 

Stcrcomita* 43 

Stridulations of Hcliochcilus 

parado^ns 244 

strigata, Calopliasia 9 

Synonymic notes 228 

Synonymy in Pterophoridae. 211 

iahavusclla*, Durita 103 

tcsscradactyla, Platyptilia . . . 212 

toumcyi*, Oikeficns (ill.).. 12, 133 

tracyi. Psyche (ill.) 131 

ulalumc. Catocala 233, 234 

z'cntralis, Gnamptonychia . . . 217 
Wing markings in Basilarcliia 

astyanax 183 

Xylonnisa* 101 

Ypsipetcs (see frigidata, divi- 

saria. phiviata) . 
Ypsolophus (see marginellus). 


DcgecricHa (see rotundata). 
Docophorus (see 'leontodon). 

leontodon, Docophorus 90 

Mallophaga attached to Hip- 

poboscidae 90 

Nirmiis (see itncinosus). 

rotundata, DccjrcricUa 90 

uncinosus, Nirinits 90 


Aphis-lion attacking man . . . 120 
Chrysopidae 120 


Agrionidae 144, 138, 264 

atic/clina. Lib cU ula (ill.) ... 67 
Anisoptera, Tracheation of 

the wings of (ill.) 257, 299 

aitripauiis. LibclIuJa (ill.). 18, 106 
a.villcna, Libcllnhi (ill.)... 18, 107 

cardcniitni, Enallagma 143 

chiltom, Uropclala (ill.) .... S 
comanchc, Libcllula (ill.).... 107 
composite, Libcllula (ill.) ...105 
concisiini*, Enallagnia (ill.), 

117, 140 
croccipennis, Libcllula (ill.) . . 68 

cyanca, Libcllula (ill.) 107 

dcplanata, Libcllula (ill.) ... 69 

dcpressa, Libcllula (ill.) 108 

dilatatus, Gomphus 191 

doubledayi, Enallagnia 142 

durum, Enallacnua 142 

Enalla.armas collected in Florida 

and South Carolina (ill.), 

114, 138 
Enallagma (sec sulcatum. cou- 

cisuin. rcspcntiu, polJuttiiu. 

pichnu, geminatum, donblc- 

dayi, durum, cardtnhnn'}. 

exusta, Libcllula fill.) 68 

fl.arida. LibcllnJa fill.) 106 

fnrcnsis. Li'bcl'ula f''ll.) .... 70 

fuh'a. Libcllula fill.) 108 

acmmatum. EnaUannin 142 

(roinfihus fsee dilatatus^!. 
bcrculca, Libcllula (ill.) .... 68 
irccsta. Libcllula f ill.) . . . . 18, 107 
Irttrrvci*. T ibclht'n fill.) ..13. 10=? 

iitlia. LSbcllula fill.) 68 

Larval instars, Tracheation of 

wincrs of 257, 299 

L'J'cUula. Afornholo.sry of the 

penis in fill.) 33 

Libcllula, Phylogeny and 

geographical distribution 

fill.) 65, 105 

(see semifasciata, 



foliata, anudina. saturata, 
croceipennis, jufia, c.rusta, 
il, -pianola, siibornata, lydia, 
nodislictti. forcnsis, pul- 
chclla, composita, jcsscana, 
flarida. auripennis, luctuosa, 
a.rillcna, cyanca, co>nanchc, 
z'ibraus, dcprcssa, quadri- 
maculaia, fnhm, incest a.) 
Libellulas collected in Florida 13 

Libellulidae 200 

luctuosa, Libcllula (ill.) 106 

lydia. Libellula (ill.) 69 

M( rphology of the penis in 

Lihcllnla (ill.) 33 

iiuilistif/ii, Libcllula (ill.).... 70 
Nymph of the Thorinae (ill.) 264 
Phylogeny of the genus Li- 
bcllula (ill.) 65, 105 

//cliiiii, Ilnallainna 139 

pollutum, Bnallagma 140 

pulchcUa, Libcllula (ill.) 70 

quadrimaculata, Libcllula 

(ill.) 108 

Radius, Development of the, 

257, 299 

saturata, Libcllula (ill.) 68 

xanifasciata, Libcllula (ill.) 66 

sii/inihun, /'.ii'.illai/iiM 139 

Somatochlora in Indiana .... 200 
siibuniatii, Libcllula (ill.)... 69 
sitlccthnii*, Lnallanma (ill.), 

114, 139 

Thorinae, Peculiar nymph of 
the 264 

Tracheation of larval wings in 
the genus Uropctala (ill.).l, 45 

Tracheation of the wings of 
larval instars of Odonata 
(ill.) 257, 299 

Uropetala, Tracheation of lar- 
val wings in 1, 45 

rcspcnim, Enallagina 139 

inbrans, Libel! u!a (ill.) ...19. 107 

Wing venation in Odonata (ill. ) 1 


Blattidae 168 

californicum, Tiinctna 282 

cubcnsis, Dibclona 169 

cubcnsis, Panchlora 169 

Dibclona cubensis. Observa- 
tions on 169 

Panchlora (see cubcnsis). 

Phasinidac 282 

Tettigoniidae 169 

Timcma calif ornicum. Note on 282 


Collembola, Occurrence and 
distribution of Antarctic . . 7R 

crassus, Cryptop\f/us 77 

Cryptopygus (see crassus). 

Cryptothrips (see laurcli). 
litiircli*, Cryptothrips (ill.).. 193 


This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 
advertisements of goods for sale. Notices not exceed- 
ing three lines free to subscribers. 

These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new 
ones are added at the end of the column, and only when necessary those at the 
top (being longest in) are discontinued. 

Wanted Species of Homoptera, Hemiptera and Orthoptera not 
represented in my collection in exchange for duplicate material of 
these orders from South Dakota. List of duplicates on application. 
H. C. Severin, South Dakota State College, Brookings, South 

Buprestidae, Cleridae, and Carabinae wanted from U. S. or 
Buprestidae of the world. Will collect insects of any group (except 
Lepidoptera) in exchange or pay cash. Alan S. Nicolay, 416a Grand 
Ave., Brooklyn, New York. 

For Exchange A large number of live cocoons of .Callosamia 
promethea, C. cynthia and P. cecropia for other pupf^e or Lepi- 
doptera. D. C. Heim, Sunbury, Pa. *j 

Wanted to Exchange N. A. Coleoptera for same not m my col- 
lection. Carl Selinger, 4419 Dover St., Chicago, 111. 

Wanted for Cash or Exchange Catocala eggs, also brilliant 
colored butterflies and moths for trays. Mrs. Robert Milde, Lewis- 
ton, Minn. 

Syrphidae from all parts of North America wanted. Mono- 
graphing the family. C. H. Curran, Department of Entomology, 
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Will collect in all orders except Lepidoptera, in exchange for 
Cerambycidae (longicorn beetles) and Pentatomidae (stink-bugs). 
G. Chagnon, P. O. Box 521, Montreal, Canada. 

I will collect Coleoptera and Lepidoptera in southwest Arkansas 
for those so interested.- Miss Loyise Knobel, 417 West 2nd Avenue-, 
Hope, Arkansas. 

Correspondence solicited from anyone desiring general collections 
of insects, to be made in Costa Rica. Austin Smith, Apartado 412, 
San Jose, Costa Rica. 

Wanted For cash, during winter of 1922 and 1923. pupae of 
Saturniid moths. Please state species, quantity and price. P. Rau, 
2819 S. Kingshighway, St. Louis. 

Wanted Am working on a Revision of the Buprestidae of the 
\Yest Indies and would like to examine any material in this family 
from that region. W. S. Fisher. U. S. National Museum, Washing- 
ton. D. C. 

For Exchange A large number of Papilio Turnus, P. Cresphontes 
and P. Ajax pupae, or the same specimens in papers, for other 
pupae or Lepidoptera. Carl Selineer, 4!l ( .> Dover St., Chicago, 111. 

Wanted Dytiscidae not in my collection, in exchange for local 
specimens. Offer Coelumbus seHatus, Oregonus, etc. F. S. Carr, 
li <).)<) I2:;rd St., Edmonton, Alberta. 

Coleoptera for exchange Cicin. generosa, hirticollis, modesta, 
sexguttata, 12-pnnctata. Saperda popnlnea, Uro. fasciata, Donacia 
Mihtilis, palnnta. texana-minor, biimpressa, refuscen>. Krncst Bay- 
l ; s. :.OI 1 Saul St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



A little before Christmas, you will be offered some Christmas Seals. 
Keep them and use them on envelopes and packages. Send a check 
or money order to cover the small sum they cost. 
When you do this, you help in the fight against tuberculosis. You 
help save human lives. Your help goes where help is most needed 
to the house that is clouded with the threat of death. When the 
seals come, buy them. 

Stamp Out Tuberculosis 
with Christmas Seals 





SEITZ The Macrolepidoptera of the World 

DIVISION I PALAEARCTICS. Complete in 130 parts. 
DIVISION II EXOTICS. To consist of about 500 parts, appear- 
ing quickly, part 265 just published. 

Price for each part, 50 Cents 

Allowing every entomologist, college or 
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Should the subscribers of the firm G. E. Stechert & Co., New York, 
experience any difficulties in receiving the work regularly, please apply direct 
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Published quarterly. Containing original articles on Kconomic Kntomology (illustrated). Ann- 
ual Subscription iti advance for Vol. xiii ( 1922), 155. post free ; separate parts 55. each, post 
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Published monthly. Containing reviews ol current work* on Economic Entomology throughout 
the world. Published in two series, "A" dealing with insect pests of cultivated plants, and 
"B" dealing with insects conveying disease or otherwise injurious to man and animals 
Annual Subscription in advance for Vol. x ( 1922), Series "A" 125.; Series "B" 6s. post free. 
Prices of back parts on application. 

Publication Office : 41 Queen's Gate, London, S. W. 7. 

Wish to Purchase Phanaeus from North and South 

America; also Moneilema from United 

States and Mexico. 

3854 West 26th Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Rhopalocera and Heterocera of the North Argentine. 

Good species and first-class specimens, write to 


Tucuman, Argentine, calle 24 de Setiembre 1372c. 

References by Mr. B. Preston Clark, Boston, Massachusetts, Kilby Street 55. 


Have a large stock of specimens always on hand 
from Colombia, Peru, Brazil and other parts of 
South America. 

Some of the most brilliant species taken. Second 
quality at half price. Send for list. Apply to 


81 Robert Street, Toronto, Canada 



From Colombia, South America: 

Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 

Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

" devilliersi 

From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes Hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 

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philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) : 
Arrnandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list 
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